A Comparative Study on the Performance of Viscous and Friction Dampers under Seismic Excitation
Earthquakes over the years have been known to cause devastating damage on buildings and induced huge loss on human life and properties. It is for this reason that engineers have devised means of protecting buildings and thus protecting human life. Since the invention of devices such as the viscous and friction dampers, scientists/researchers have been able to incorporate these devices into buildings and other engineering structures. The viscous damper is a hydraulic device which dissipates the seismic forces by pushing fluid through an orifice, producing a damping pressure which creates a force. In the friction damper, the force is mainly resisted by converting the kinetic energy into heat by friction. Devices such as viscous and friction dampers are able to absorb almost all the earthquake energy, allowing the structure to remain undamaged (or with some amount of damage) and ready for immediate reuse (with some repair works). Comparing these two devices presents the engineer with adequate information on the merits and demerits of these devices and in which circumstances their use would be highly favorable. This paper examines the performance of both viscous and friction dampers under different ground motions. A two-storey frame installed with both devices under investigation are modeled in commercial computer software and analyzed under different ground motions. The results of the performance of the structure are then tabulated and compared. Also included in this study is the ease of installation and maintenance of these devices.
 Y. Ribakov, “Using viscous and variable friction dampers for improving structural seismic response,” Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, vol. 20, no. 5. pp. 579–593, 2011.
 S. M. Zahraei, A. Moradi, and M. Moradi, “Using pall friction dampers for seismic retrofit of a 4-story steel building in Iran,” Topics in Dynamics of Civil Structures - Proceedings of the 31st IMAC, A Conference on Structural Dynamics, 2013. pp. 101–107, 2013.
 D. Lee and D. P. Taylor, “Viscous damper development and future trends,” Struct. Des. Tall Build., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 311–320, 2001.
 R. J. McNamara and D. P. Taylor, “Fluid viscous dampers for high-rise buildings,” Struct. Des. Tall Spec. Build., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 145–154, 2003.
 M. C. Constantinou, M. D. Symans, and P. Tsopelas, “Fluid viscous dampers in applications of seismic energy dissipation and seismic isolation,” ATC 17-1 on Seismic Isolation, Energy Dissipation and Active Control, vol. 2. pp. 581–591, 1993.
 A. S. Pall and C. Marsh, “Response of friction damped braced frames,” Journal of Structural, Divison, ASCE, vol. 108, no. 6. pp. 1313–1323, 1982.
 M. D. Symans et al., “Energy Dissipation Systems for Seismic Applications: Current Practice and Recent Developments,” Journal of Structural Engineering, vol. 134, no. 1. pp. 3–21, 2008.
 L. F. F. Miguel, L. F. F. Miguel, and R. H. Lopez, “Simultaneous optimization of force and placement of friction dampers under seismic loading,” Eng. Optim., vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 582–602, 2016.
 N. Mostaghel and T. Davis, “Representations of Coulomb friction for dynamic analysis,” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, vol. 26, no. 5. pp. 541–548, 1997.