Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 30234

Select areas to restrict search in scientific publication database:
A Qualitative Evidence of the Markedness of Code Switching during Commercial Bank Service Encounters in Ìbàdàn Metropolis
In a multilingual setting like Nigeria, the success of service encounters is enhanced by the use of a language that ensures the linguistic and persuasive demands of the interlocutors. This study examined motivations for code switching as a negotiation strategy in bank-hall desk service encounters in Ìbàdàn metropolis using Myers-Scotton’s exploration on markedness in language use. The data consisted of transcribed audio recording of bank-hall service encounters, and direct observation of bank interactions in two purposively sampled commercial banks in Ìbàdàn metropolis. The data was subjected to descriptive linguistic analysis using Myers Scotton’s Markedness Model.  Findings reveal that code switching is frequently employed during different stages of service encounter: greeting, transaction and closing to fulfil relational, bargaining and referential functions. Bank staff and customers code switch to make unmarked, marked and explanatory choices. A strategy used to identify with customer’s cultural affiliation, close status gap, and appeal to begrudged customer; or as an explanatory choice with non-literate customers for ease of communication. Bankers select English to maintain customers’ perceptions of prestige which is retained or diverged from depending on their linguistic preference or ability.  Yoruba is seen as an efficient negotiation strategy with both bankers and their customers, making choices within conversation to achieve desired conversational and functional aims.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):


[1] Aboderin, Y 1986. Integrating reading and writing. English teaching forum 24:43-60.
[2] Auer, P. 1995. Bilingual Conversation. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
[3] Auer, P. 1995b. The pragmatics of code-switching: a sequential approach. One speaker, two languages: cross disciplinary perspectives on code-switching. Ed. L. Milroy and P. Muysken Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 115-135.
[4] Blom, J.-P. & Gumperz, J. J. 1972. Social Mixing in Linguistic Structures: Code-Switching in Norway. In J. J. Gumperz & D. Hymes (eds.), Directions in Sociolinguistics. New York: Holt Rinehart & Winston.
[5] Brett, J. 2000. Culture and negotiation. International journal of psychology. 35(2) 97-104.
[6] Callahan, L. 2005. Talking both languages: 20 perspectives on the use of Spanish and English inside and outside the workplace. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 26.4:275-95.
[7] Callahan, L. 2007. Spanish/English code switching in service encounters: Accommodation to the customer’s language choice and perceived linguistic affiliation. Southwest journal of linguistics, June, 2007. Retrieved Oct. 19, 2012 from
[8] Donohue, W A. 2004. ‘Read my lips: code switching in negotiation.’ Ivey business journal reprints. Expanded Academic ASAP database. Retrieved Sept. 7, 2012
[9] Firth, A. 1995. The discourse of negotiation: studies of language in the workplace. Oxford: Pergamon.
[10] Fishman, J. 1967. Bilingualism with and without diglossia; diglossia with and without bilingualism. Journal of social issues 23.2:29-38.
[11] McConvell, P. 1988. “MIX-IN-UP: Aboriginal code-switching, old and new”, in M. Heller (ed.), Code switching: Anthropological and sociolinguistic perspectives, Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter, 97-151.
[12] Myers Scotton, and Ury, W. 1977. Bilingual Strategies: The Social Functions of Code-switching. Journal of Linguistics 193: 5-20.
[13] Myer-Scotton, C. 1993. Social motivations for code-switching: Evidence from Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[14] Myer-Scotton, C. 1998. Codes and consequences: Choosing linguistic varieties. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[15] Myer-Scotton, C. 2000.Code-Switching as indexical of social negotiations. The Bilingualism reader. Ed. L. Wei. London: Routledge. 137-165.
[16] Myer-Scotton, C.2006. Multiple voices: An introduction to bilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
[17] Ogunsiji,Y. 2001.Utilitarian dimensions of English in Ìbàdàn. Language Attitude and Language Conflict in West Africa. Ìbàdàn: Enicrownfit Publishers. 153-164.
[18] Parkin, D. 1974. Language switching in Nairobi. Language in Kenya. Ed. IW. H. Whiteley. Nairobi: Oxford University Press. 189-216.
[19] Robbin, A. 2012. Language and Negotiation: An Empirical Evidence of the Motivations for Code Switching Among Bilingual Bankers and their Customers in Selected Banks in Oyo State Electronic International Interdisciplinary Research Journal (EIIRJ) {Bi-Monthly}, ISSN 2277-2456, Volume-I, Issue-III. 56-96.
[20] Rubin, Z. and Bert, R. 1975. The social psychology of bargaining and negotiation. New York, NY: Academic Press.
[21] Sayahi, L. 2004. Bargaining in two languages: conversational functions of transactional code-switching. Chicago Linguistic Society Conference Proceedings 335-347.
[22] Victor, D. 2008. What is the language of business? Affecting business outcome before you say a word. ABC Asia-Pacific conference: professional communication: globalizing the local and localizing the global, City University of Hong Kong.
Vol:14 No:01 2020
Vol:13 No:12 2019Vol:13 No:11 2019Vol:13 No:10 2019Vol:13 No:09 2019Vol:13 No:08 2019Vol:13 No:07 2019Vol:13 No:06 2019Vol:13 No:05 2019Vol:13 No:04 2019Vol:13 No:03 2019Vol:13 No:02 2019Vol:13 No:01 2019
Vol:12 No:12 2018Vol:12 No:11 2018Vol:12 No:10 2018Vol:12 No:09 2018Vol:12 No:08 2018Vol:12 No:07 2018Vol:12 No:06 2018Vol:12 No:05 2018Vol:12 No:04 2018Vol:12 No:03 2018Vol:12 No:02 2018Vol:12 No:01 2018
Vol:11 No:12 2017Vol:11 No:11 2017Vol:11 No:10 2017Vol:11 No:09 2017Vol:11 No:08 2017Vol:11 No:07 2017Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007