Attenuation of Pancreatic Histology, Hematology and Biochemical Parameters in Type 2 Diabetic Rats Treated with Azadirachta excelsa
Azadirachta excelsa or locally known as sentang are
frequently used as a traditional medicine by diabetes patients in
Malaysia. However, less attention has been given to their toxicity
effect. Thus, the study is an attempt to examine the protective effect
of A. excelsa on the pancreas and to determine possible toxicity
mediated by the extract. Diabetes was induced experimentally in rats
by high-fat-diet for 16 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injection of
streptozotocin at dosage of 35 mg/kg of body weight. Declination of
the fasting blood glucose level was observed after continuous
administration of A. excelsa for 14 days twice daily. This is due to the
refining structure of the pancreas. However, surprisingly, the plant
extract reduced the leukocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, MCHC and
lymphocytes. In addition, the rat treated with the plant extract
exhibited increment in AST and eosinocytes level. Overall, the
finding shows that A. excelsa possesses antidiabetic activity by
improving the structure of pancreatic islet of Langerhans but
involved in ameliorating of hematology and biochemical parameters.
 World Health Organization (2013). Key facts. In Diabetes. Retrieved
March 20, 2013 from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/
 Diabetes Malaysia Association (2011). Profile of the diagnosed. In What
is diabetes. Retrieved March 20, 2013 from http://www.diabetes.org.my/
 S. Nurdiana, K. Mohamad Shukri, J. Elizabeth Jega and S. Nurul ‘Izzati,
"Lowering blood glucose effect of Azadirachta excelsa leaves extract”
Natural Products: An Indian Journal, vol, 9, pp. 363-366, 2013.
 A. Zainah, I. Amin, K. Shafii, M. M. Muhammad Hanaffi and H.
Muhajir, "Antihyperglycemic activity of F. deltoidea ethanolic extract in
normal rats” Sains Malaysiana, vol, 40, pp. 489-495, 2011.
 J. Klemens, "Herbs that lower blood sugar” The Journal for the
American Association of Integrative Medicine, vol, 3, pp. 1-5, 2006.
 M. Mahsa, E. Mahdi, Y. M. Goh, H. O. Hemn, B. Mohd Hair and M.
Suhaila, "Effects of brown seaweed (Sargassum polycystum) ectracts on
kidney, liver, and pancreas of type II diabetic rat models (Periodical
style—Accepted for publication),” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat.,
submitted for publication.
 O. Erejuwa, S. Siti Amrah, A. W. Mohd Suhaimi, N. S. Kuttulebbai, M.
S. Salzihan and G. Sunil, "Antioxidant protective effect of
glibenclamide and metformin in combination with honey in pancreas of
streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats” Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol,
11, pp. 2056-2066, 2010.
 D. Gomathi, G. Ravikumar, M. Kalaiselvi, K. Devaki and C. Uma,
"Efficacy of Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) L. on insulin and antioxidants
activity in pancreas of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats” Journal of
Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, vol, 3, pp.1-6, 2013.
 M. Abdullohi, A. B. Zuki, Y. M. Goh, A. Rezaeizadeh and M. M.
Noordin, "The effects of Momordica charantia on the liver in
streprozotocin-induced diabetes in neonatal rats” African Journal of
Biotechnology, vol, 9, pp.5004-5012, 2010.
 O. P. Ajagbonna, K. I. Onifade and U. Suleiman, "Haematological and
biochemical changes in rats given extract of calathopis procera” Sokoto J
Vet Sci., vol, 1, pp. 36-42, 1999.
 M. T. Yakubu, M. A. Akanji and A. T. Oladiji, "Haematological
evaluation in male albino rats following chronic administration of
aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem” Pharmacog Meg., vol, 3, pp.
 S. Sen, M. Kar, A. Roy and A. S. Chakraborti, "Effect of nonenzymatic
glycation on function and structural properties of hemoglobin” Biophys
Chem. vol. 113, pp. 289-298, 2005.
 A. A. Abolfathi, D. Mohajeri, A. Rezaie and M. Nazeri "Protective
Effects of Green Tea Extract against Hepatic Tissue Injury in
Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats” Evidence-Based Complementary
and Alternative Medicine, vol, 2012, pp.1-10, 2011
 K.R. Senthil., M. Ponmozhi, P. Viswanathan and N. Nalini, "Activity of
Cassia auriculata leaf extract in rats with alcoholic liver injury” J. Nutr.
Biochem. vol. 14, pp. 452–458, 2003.