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Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 30375


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10011036
Countering Radicalization to Violent Extremism: A Comparative Study of Canada, the UK and South East Asia
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Abstract:
Recent high-profile terrorist events in Canada, the United Kingdom and Europe – the London Bridge attacks, the terrorist attacks in Nice, France and Barcelona, Spain, the 2014 Ottawa Parliament attacks and the 2017 attacks in Edmonton – have all raised levels of public and academic concern with so-called “lone-wolf” and “radicalized” terrorism. Similarly, several countries outside of the “Western” world have been dealing with radicalization to violent extremism for several years. Many South East Asian countries, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and the Philippines have all had experience with what might be described as ISIS or extremist-inspired acts of terrorism. Indeed, it appears the greatest strength of groups such as ISIS has been their ability to spread a global message of violent extremism that has led to radicalization in markedly different jurisdictions throughout the world. These markedly different jurisdictions have responded with counter-radicalization strategies that warrant further comparative analysis. This paper utilizes an inter-disciplinary legal methodology. In doing so, it compares legal, political, cultural and historical aspects of the counter-radicalization strategies employed by Canada, the United Kingdom and several South East Asian countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and the Philippines). Whilst acknowledging significant legal and political differences between these jurisdictions, the paper engages in these analyses with an eye towards understanding which best practices might be shared between the jurisdictions. In doing so, it presents valuable findings of a comparative nature that are useful to both academic and practitioner audiences in several jurisdictions.
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[1] Public Safety Canada “2017 Public Report on the Terrorist Threat to Canada” Ottawa: Government of Canada, 2017, p. 3.
[2] K. Roach and C. Forcese, “False Security: The Radicalization of Canadian Anti-Terrorism” Toronto: Irwin Law, 2015, pp. 471-475.
[3] Public Safety Canada, supra note 1, p. 11.
[4] D. Alati, “Domestic Counter-Terrorism in a Global World: Post-9/11 Institutional Structures and Cultures in Canada and the United Kingdom” New York: Routledge, 2017.
[5] D. Nelken, “Comparative Criminal Justice and Globalization” London: Ashgate, 2011.
[6] L. Lazarus, “Contrasting Prisoner’s Rights: A Comparative Examination of Germany and England” Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
[7] P. Legrand, “Comparative Legal Studies and the Matter of Authenticity” Journal of Comparative Legal Studies, vol. 1, 2006.
[8] C. Graham, “What is the anti-terror Prevent program and why is it controversial?”, The Telegraph, 26 May 2017 available at: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/0/anti-terror-prevent-programme-controversial/
[9] United Kingdom Government, “2010 to 2015 government policy: counter-terrorism” available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/2010-to-2015-government-policy-counter-terrorism/2010-to-2015-government-policy-counter-terrorism#appendix-2-prevent
[10] J. Liow, “ISIS in the Pacific: Assessing terrorism in Southeast Asia and the threat to the homeland” Brookings, 27 April 2016, available at: https://www.brookings.edu/testimonies/isis-in-the-pacific-assessing-terrorism-in-southeast-asia-and-the-threat-to-the-homeland/
[11] E. Tan, “From Clampdown to Limited Empowerment: Soft Law in the Calibration and Regulation of Religious Conduct in Singapore” Law and Policy, vol. 31, 2009, p. 351
[12] Z. Abuza, “The Rehabilitation of Jemaah Islamiyah Detainees in South East Asia” in Leaving Terrorism Behind, ed. T. Bjorgo and J. Horgan, London: Routledge, 2009, p. 203.
[13] A. Rabasa et al, “Deradicalizing Islamic Extremists” Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2010, pp. 100-102.
[14] K. Roach, “The 9/11 Effect: Comparative Counter-Terrorism” Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, p. 143.
[15] H. Beech, “What Indonesia Can Teach the Wolrd about Counterterrorism” Time Magazine, 7 June 2010
[16] Centre of Excellent for National Security (Singapore), “Countering Violent Extremism and Radicalization: Report on the Workshop Organized by the Centre of Excellence for National Security”, 22 October 2012, available at https://www.rsis.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/ER121022_Countering_Violent_Extremism_and_Radicalisation.pdf
[17] U.S. Department of State, “Country Reports: East Asia and Pacific Overview” available at: https://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2014/239405.htm
[18] The Counter-Extremism Project, “The Philippines: Extremism and Counter-Extremism” n.d., available at https://www.counterextremism.com/countries/philippines
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