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Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 30308

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Crowdsourcing as an Open Innovation Tool for Entrepreneurship
As traditional innovation has already taken its place in managers’ to do lists; managers and companies have started to look for new ways to go beyond the traditional innovation. Because of its cost, traditional innovation became a burden for companies since they only use inner sources. Companies have intended to use outer innovation sources to decrease the innovation costs and Open Innovation has become a new solution for companies at this point. Crowdsourcing is a tool of Open Innovation and it consists of two words: Outsourcing and crowd. Crowdsourcing aims to benefit from the efforts and ideas of a virtual crowd via Internet technologies. In addition to that, crowdsourcing can help entrepreneurs to innovate and grow their businesses. They can crowd source anything they can use to grow their businesses: Ideas, investment, new business, new partners, new solutions, new policies, data, insight, marketing or talent. Therefore, the aim of the study is to be able to show some possible ways for entrepreneurs to benefit from crowdsourcing to expand or foster their businesses. In the study, the term crowdsourcing has been given in details and these possible ways have been searched and given.
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[1] Howe, J. (2006). “The Rise of Crowdsourcing”. Wired, 14(6), 1-4.
[2] Prahalad, C. K., & Mashelkar, R. A. (2011). “Holy Grail of Innovation”. Harvard Business Review, Mess Publications, Istanbul.
[3] Chesbrough, H. W. (2004). “Managing Open Innovation”. Research Technology Management, 47(1).
[4] Chesbrough, H. W. (2006). “Open Business Models: How to Thrive in the New Innovation Landscape”. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
[5] Brabham, D. C. (2008). “Crowdsourcing as a model for problem solving: an introduction and cases.” Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 14, 75–90. doi:10.1177/1354856507084420.
[6] Brabham D.C. (2013). “Crowdsourcing: A model for leveraging online communities.” In: A. Delwiche & J. Henderson (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Participatory Culture (in press).
[7] Grier, D.A. (2013). “Crowdsourcing for Dummies.” John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Great Britain.
[8] Howe, J. (2008). “Crowdsourcing: Why the power of the crowd is driving the future of business.” New York: Crown Business.
[9] Kleemann, F., Voß, G. G., & Rieder, K. (2008). “Un(der)paid innovators: The commercial utilization of consumer work through crowdsourcing.” Science, Technology & Innovation Studies, 4(1), 5–26.
[10] Liu, E., & Porter, T. (2010). “Culture and KM in China.” VINE, 40(3/4), 326-333.
[11] Oliveira F., Ramos I., Santos L. (2009). “Definition of a crowdsourcing Innovation Service for the European SMEs”. In: Daniel F. et al. (eds.) Current Trends in Web Engineering (Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010) 412-416.
[12] Poetz M.K. and Schreier M. (2009). “The Value of crowdsourcing: Can Users Really Compete with Professionals in Generating New Product Ideas?.” Journal of Product Innovation Management Forthcoming. Available at SSRN: Accessed on 08/12/2016
[13] Ribiere, V. M., & Tuggle, F. D. (Doug). (2010). “Fostering innovation with KM 2.0.” VINE, 40(1)
[14] Saxton, G. D., Onook, O., & Rajiv, K. (2013). “Rules of Crowdsourcing: Models, Issues and Systems of Control”. Information Systems Management, 30, 2-20.
[15] Sloane, P. (2011). “The brave new world of open innovation.” Strategic Direction, 27(5), 3-4.
[16] Vukovic, M. (2009). “Crowdsourcing for enterprises.” In: Proceedings of the 2009 Congress on Services—I (pp. 686–692). Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.
[17] Whitla, P. (2010). “Crowdsourcing and its application in marketing activities.” Contemporary Management Research, 5(1), 15–28.
[18] Estellés-Arolas, E., & González-Ladrón-de-Guevara, F. (2012a). “Towards An İntegrated Crowdsourcing Definition.” Journal of Information science, 38(2), 189–200.
[19] Reichwald, R., & Piller, F. T. (2006). “Interaktive wertschöpfung. Open innovation, individualisierung und neue formen der arbeitsteilung. Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag.”
[20] Geerts, S. (2009). “Discovering crowdsourcing: theory, classification and directions for use.” Master’s Thesis, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Netherlands. extra2/afstversl/tm/Geerts%202009.pdf. Accessed October 2, 2014.
[21] Burger-Helmchen, T., Pénin, J. (2010). “The limits of crowdsourcing inventive activities: What do transaction cost theory and the evolutionary theories of the firm teach us?” In Working Papers of BETA (Bureau d’Economie Théorique et Appliquée), Strasbourg, France.
[22] Estellés-Arolas, E., Navarro-Giner, R. ve González-Ladrón-de-Guevara, F. (2015) “Crowdsourcing Fundamentals: Definition and Typology.” In Advances in Crowdsourcing. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland.
[23] Sanchez, D.A., Gimilio, D.P., Altamirano, J.I. (2015) “Crowdsourcing: A New Way to Citizen Empowerment.” In Advances in Crowdsourcing. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland.
[24] Chesbrough, H.W. (2003) “The Era of Open Innovation.” MIT Sloan Management Review, Spring.
[25] Thawrani, V. (2014, May-Jun). “Crowdsourcing of Medical Data.” Iete Technical Review, Vol 31, No 3.
[26] Smith, D., Manesh, M.M.G., Alshaikh, A. (2013). “How Can Entrepreneurs Motivate Crowdsourcing Participants?”. Technology Innovation Management Review. (last access: 30.11.2016)
[27] Saphiro, S. (2011). “How Your Small Business Can Leverage Open Innovation and Crowdsourcing.” Americanexpress Open Forum. (29.11.2016)
[28] Howe, J. (2009). “The Wisdom of Crowds.Why the Many Are Smarter Than the Few.” Abacus Publications, London, UK.
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