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Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 30248

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Cultural Diversity and Challenges for Female Entrepreneurs: Empirical Study of an Emerging Economy
Women entrepreneurship witnessed a healthy rise in the last decade or so, and the scenario in Pakistan is not different. However female leaders are facing various, cultural, career oriented, and professional challenges. The study investigates the impact of social and industry-specific challenges on female entrepreneurship; social challenges was evaluated in terms of culture, and industry-specific challenges was measured in terms of team management and career growth. Purposive sampling was employed to collect data from 75 multicultural organizations operating in the culturally diverse and historic city of Lahore, Pakistan. Cronbach’s alpha was conducted to endorse the reliability of survey questionnaire, while correlation and regression analysis were used to test hypotheses. Industry-specific challenges were found to be more significant as compared to cultural factors. The paper also highlights the importance of female entrepreneurship for emerging economies, and suggests that bringing women to mainstream professions can lead to economic success.
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[1] B. Shah, “Women’s Leadership,” Retrieved from:, 2016.
[2] S. R. Madsen, "Women as Global Leaders: Challenges & Strategies for Getting to the Top," 2015.
[3] HRCP, “Human Rights Commission of Pakistan,” Retrieved from:
[4] M. H. Arab Naz, U. Daraz, W. Khan, T. Khan, M. Salman, and D. Muhammad, "A paradigm shift in women’s movement and gender reforms in Pakistan (a historical overview)," Global Journal of Human-Social Science Research, vol. 13, 2013.
[5] A. Ikram, Q. Su, and M. A. Sadiq, "Technical Efficiency and Its Determinants: An Empirical Study of Surgical Instruments Cluster of Pakistan," Journal of Applied Business Research, vol. 32, p. 647, 2016.
[6] M. Aslam and G. Kingdon, "Can education be a path to gender equality in the labour market? An update on Pakistan," Comparative Education, vol. 48, pp. 211-229, 2012.
[7] B. Mahmood, M. M. Sohail, S. Khalid, and I. Babak, "Gender Specific Barriers to Female Entrepreneurs in Pakistan: A Study in Urban Areas of Pakistan," British Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, vol. 2, pp. 339-352, 2012.
[8] L. Girdauskiene and F. Eyvazzade, "The Profile of an Effective Female Leadership in Multicultural Context," Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 210, pp. 11-20, 2015.
[9] D. P. Evans, "Aspiring to Leadership… A Woman's World?," Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 148, pp. 543-550, 2014.
[10] H. G. L. C. P. Women, "Cultural Constraints on the Emergence of Women Leaders," Organizational Dynamics, vol. 42, pp. 191-197, 2013.
[11] S. Shahtalebi and M. H. Yarmohammadian, "Barriers to women managers climb the peaks of success," Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 46, pp. 3088-3092, 2012.
[12] S. N. Taylor, R. E. Sturm, L. E. Atwater, and P. W. Braddy, "Underestimating one's leadership impact: Are women leaders more susceptible?," Organizational Dynamics, vol. 45, pp. 132-138, 2016.
[13] A. Périlleux and A. Szafarz, "Women leaders and social performance: evidence from financial cooperatives in Senegal," World Development, vol. 74, pp. 437-452, 2015.
[14] C. Glass and A. Cook, "Leading at the top: Understanding women's challenges above the glass ceiling," The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 27, pp. 51-63, 2016.
[15] I. M. Latu, M. S. Mast, J. Lammers, and D. Bombari, "Successful female leaders empower women's behavior in leadership tasks," Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 49, pp. 444-448, 2013.
[16] J. L. Chin, "Diversity leadership: Influence of ethnicity, gender, and minority status," Open Journal of Leadership, vol. 2, p. 1, 2013.
[17] H. Giritle, "Effective Leadership in Challenges," Science Direct, Istanbul 2015.
[18] BBC (2015). “Are Pakistan’s female medical students to be doctors or wives?,” Retrieved from:
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