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Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 31100

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Design and Fabrication of a Scaffold with Appropriate Features for Cartilage Tissue Engineering
Poor ability of cartilage tissue when experiencing a damage leads scientists to use tissue engineering as a reliable and effective method for regenerating or replacing damaged tissues. An artificial tissue should have some features such as biocompatibility, biodegradation and, enough mechanical properties like the original tissue. In this work, a composite hydrogel is prepared by using natural and synthetic materials that has high porosity. Mechanical properties of different combinations of polymers such as modulus of elasticity were tested, and a hydrogel with good mechanical properties was selected. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells were also seeded into the pores of the sponge, and the results showed the adhesion and proliferation of cells within the hydrogel after one month. In comparison with previous works, this study offers a new and efficient procedure for the fabrication of cartilage like tissue and further cartilage repair.
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[1] S.-M. Lien, L.-Y. Ko, and T.-J. Huang, "Effect of pore size on ECM secretion and cell growth in gelatin scaffold for articular cartilage tissue engineering," Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 5, pp. 670-679, 2009.
[2] M. E. Hoque, T. Nuge, T. K. Yeow, N. Nordin, and R. Prasad, "Gelatin Based Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering-A Review," Polymers Research Journal, vol. 9, p. 15, 2015.
[3] E. Mirzaei B, A. Ramazani SA, M. Shafiee, and M. Danaei, "Studies on glutaraldehyde crosslinked chitosan hydrogel properties for drug delivery systems," International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials, vol. 62, pp. 605-611, 2013.
[4] B. Balakrishnan and R. Banerjee, "Biopolymer-based hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering," Chemical reviews, vol. 111, pp. 4453-4474, 2011.
[5] M. I. Baker, S. P. Walsh, Z. Schwartz, and B. D. Boyan, "A review of polyvinyl alcohol and its uses in cartilage and orthopedic applications," Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, vol. 100, pp. 1451-1457, 2012.
[6] A. Karimi and M. Navidbakhsh, "Mechanical properties of PVA material for tissue engineering applications," Materials Technology, vol. 29, pp. 90-100, 2014.
[7] W. Zhao, X. Jin, Y. Cong, Y. Liu, and J. Fu, "Degradable natural polymer hydrogels for articular cartilage tissue engineering," Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 88, pp. 327-339, 2013.
[8] T. Yuan, L. Zhang, K. Li, H. Fan, Y. Fan, J. Liang, et al., "Collagen hydrogel as an immunomodulatory scaffold in cartilage tissue engineering," Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, vol. 102, pp. 337-344, 2014.
[9] Y. Otani, M. Komura, H. Komura, T. Ishimaru, K. Konishi, H. Komuro, et al., "Optimal amount of basic fibroblast growth factor in gelatin sponges incorporating β-tricalcium phosphate with chondrocytes," Tissue Engineering Part A, vol. 21, pp. 627-636, 2015.
[10] M. Wang, Y. Li, J. Wu, F. Xu, Y. Zuo, and J. Jansen, "In vitro and invivo study to the biocompatibility and biodegradation of hydroxyapatite/poly(vinyl alcohol)/gelatin composite," Journal of Biomedical Materials ResearchPart A, vol. 85, pp. 418-426, 2008.
[11] M. A. Shokrgozar, S. Bonakdar, M. M. Dehghan, S. H. Emami, L. Montazeri, S. Azari, et al., "Biological evaluation of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel crosslinked by polyurethane chain for cartilage tissue engineering in rabbit model," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, vol. 24, pp. 2449-2460, 2013.
[12] S.-M. Lien, W.-T. Li, and T.-J. Huang, "Genipin-crosslinked gelatin scaffolds for articular cartilage tissue engineering with a novel crosslinking method," Materials Science and Engineering: C, vol. 28, pp. 36-43, 2008.
[13] T. Miao, E. J. Miller, C. McKenzie, and R. A. Oldinski, "Physically crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol and gelatin interpenetrating polymer network theta-gels for cartilage regeneration," Journal of Materials Chemistry B, vol. 3, pp. 9242-9249, 2015.
[14] X. Li, J. Xie, X. Yuan, and Y. Xia, "Coating electrospun poly (ε-caprolactone) fibers with gelatin and calcium phosphate and their use as biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering," Langmuir, vol. 24, pp. 14145-14150, 2008.
[15] R. Zheng, H. Duan, J. Xue, Y. Liu, B. Feng, S. Zhao, et al., "The influence of Gelatin/PCL ratio and 3-D construct shape of electrospun membranes on cartilage regeneration," Biomaterials, vol. 35, pp. 152-164, 2014.
[16] Z.-S. Shen, X. Cui, R.-X. Hou, Q. Li, H.-X. Deng, and J. Fu, "Tough biodegradable chitosan-gelatin hydrogels via in situ precipitation for potential cartilage tissue engineering," RSC Advances, vol. 5, pp. 55640-55647, 2015.
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