Biosensors play a significant role in the healthcare
sectors, scientific and technological progress. Developing electrodes
that are easy to manufacture and deliver better electrochemical
performance is advantageous for diagnostics and biosensing. They
can be implemented extensively in various analytical tasks such as
drug discovery, food safety, medical diagnostics, process controls,
security and defence, in addition to environmental monitoring.
Development of biosensors aims to create high-performance
electrochemical electrodes for diagnostics and biosensing. A
biosensor is a device that inspects the biological and chemical
reactions generated by the biological sample. A biosensor carries
out biological detection via a linked transducer and transmits the
biological response into an electrical signal; stability, selectivity,
and sensitivity are the dynamic and static characteristics that affect
and dictate the quality and performance of biosensors. In this
research, a developed experimental study for laser scribing technique
for graphene oxide inside a vacuum chamber for processing of
graphene oxide is presented. The processing of graphene oxide (GO)
was achieved using the laser scribing technique. The effect of the
laser scribing on the reduction of GO was investigated under two
conditions: atmosphere and vacuum. GO solvent was coated onto a
LightScribe DVD. The laser scribing technique was applied to reduce
GO layers to generate rGO. The micro-details for the morphological
structures of rGO and GO were visualised using scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy so that they could
be examined. The first electrode was a traditional graphene-based
electrode model, made under normal atmospheric conditions, whereas
the second model was a developed graphene electrode fabricated
under a vacuum state using a vacuum chamber. The purpose was
to control the vacuum conditions, such as the air pressure and the
temperature during the fabrication process. The parameters to be
assessed include the layer thickness and the continuous environment.
Results presented show high accuracy and repeatability achieving low
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