Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 31176


Select areas to restrict search in scientific publication database:
10011753
Experimental Demonstration of an Ultra-Low Power Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser for Optical Power Generation
Abstract:
This paper reports on an experimental investigation into the influence of current modulation on the properties of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a direct square wave modulation. The optical output power response, as a function of the pumping current, modulation frequency, and amplitude, is measured for an 850 nm VCSEL. We demonstrate that modulation frequency and amplitude play important roles in reducing the VCSEL’s power consumption for optical generation. Indeed, even when the biasing current is below the static threshold, the VCSEL emits optical power under the square wave modulation. The power consumed by the device to generate light is significantly reduced to > 50%, which is below the threshold current, in response to both the modulation frequency and amplitude. An operating VCSEL device at low power is very desirable for less thermal effects, which are essential for a high-speed modulation bandwidth.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

References:

[1] J. W. Shi, W. C. Weng, F. M. Kuo, Y.-J. Yang, S. Pinches, M. Geen, et al., "High-Performance Zn-Diffusion 850-nm Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers With Strained InAlGaAs Multiple Quantum Wells," Photonics Journal, IEEE, vol. 2, pp. 960-966, 2010.
[2] J.-W. Shi, Z.-R. Wei, K.-L. Chi, J.-W. Jiang, J.-M. Wun, I. Lu, et al., "Single-Mode, High-Speed, and High-Power Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers at 850 nm for Short to Medium Reach (2 km) Optical Interconnects," Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 31, pp. 4037-4044, 2013.
[3] I. Kenichi, "Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser: its conception and evolution," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys, vol. 47, pp. 1-10, 2008.
[4] P. Westbergh, R. Safaisini, E. Haglund, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, M. Geen, et al., "High-Speed Oxide Confined 850-nm VCSELs Operating Error-Free at 40 Gb/s up to 85 ºC," Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE, vol. 25, pp. 768-771, 2013.
[5] P. Westbergh, E. P. Haglund, E. Haglund, R. Safaisini, J. S. Gustavsson, and A. Larsson, "High-speed 850 nm VCSELs operating error free up to 57 Gbit/s," Electronics Letters, vol. 49, pp. 1021-1023, 2013.
[6] P. Wolf, P. Moser, G. Larisch, H. Li, J. Lott, and D. Bimberg, "Energy efficient 40 Gbit/s transmission with 850 nm VCSELs at 108 fJ/bit dissipated heat," Electronics Letters, vol. 49, pp. 666-667, 2013.
[7] N. Li, K. Han, W. Spratt, S. Bedell, J. Ott, M. Hopstaken, et al., "Ultra-low-power sub-photon-voltage high-efficiency light-emitting diodes," Nature Photonics, vol. 13, pp. 588-592, 2019/09/01 2019.
[8] R. Michalzik, VCSELs : Fundamentals, Technology and Applications of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013.
[9] J.-W. Shi, W.-C. Weng, F.-M. Kuo, J.-I. Chyi, S. Pinches, M. Geen, et al., "Oxide-relief vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with extremely high data-rate/power-dissipation ratios," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2011.
[10] P. Dapkus and M. MacDougal, "Ultralow threshold vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," IEEE LEOS Newsletter, vol. 9, pp. 3-5, 1995.
[11] K. Iga, "Surface-emitting laser-its birth and generation of new optoelectronics field," Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of, vol. 6, pp. 1201-1215, 2000.
[12] J. Rudolph, D. Hägele, H. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and M. Oestreich, "Laser threshold reduction in a spintronic device," Applied physics letters, vol. 82, pp. 4516-4518, 2003.
[13] K. Choquette, H. Hou, K. Lear, H. Chui, K. Geib, A. Mar, et al., "Self-pulsing oxide-confined vertical-cavity lasers with ultralow operating current," Electronics Letters, vol. 32, pp. 459-460, 1996.
[14] S. Iezekiel, Microwave photonics: devices and applications vol. 3: John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
[15] S.-Y. Lin, Y.-C. Su, Y.-C. Li, H.-L. Wang, G.-C. Lin, S.-M. Chen, et al., "10-Gbit/s direct modulation of a TO-56-can packed 600-μm long laser diode with 2% front-facet reflectance," Optics express, vol. 21, pp. 25197-25209, 2013.
[16] H.-F. Liu and W. F. Ngai, "Nonlinear dynamics of a directly modulated 1.55 μm InGaAsP distributed feedback semiconductor laser," Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of, vol. 29, pp. 1668-1675, 1993.
[17] K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, I. Gatare, M. Arteaga, and H. Thienpont, "Nonlinear dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Advances in Optical Technologies, vol. 2011, pp. 1-16, 2011.
[18] A. Valle, M. Sciamanna, and K. Panajotov, "Irregular pulsating polarization dynamics in gain-switched vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 44, pp. 136-143, 2008.
[19] S. Li, "UWB Radio-over-Fiber System Using Direct Modulated VCSEL," 2007.
[20] J. Piprek, K. Takiguchi, A. Black, P. Abraham, A. Keating, V. Kaman, et al., "Analog modulation of 1.55 m vertical cavity lasers," in SPIE Proc, 1999, pp. 119-129.
[21] G. Shtengel, H. Temkin, P. Brusenbach, T. Uchida, M. Kim, C. Parsons, et al., "High-speed vertical-cavity surface emitting laser," Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE, vol. 5, pp. 1359-1362, 1993.
[22] J. T. Mbé, K. Takougang, and P. Woafo, "Chaos and pulse packages in current-modulated VCSELs," Physica Scripta, vol. 81, p. 035002, 2010.
Vol:15 No:04 2021Vol:15 No:03 2021Vol:15 No:02 2021Vol:15 No:01 2021
Vol:14 No:12 2020Vol:14 No:11 2020Vol:14 No:10 2020Vol:14 No:09 2020Vol:14 No:08 2020Vol:14 No:07 2020Vol:14 No:06 2020Vol:14 No:05 2020Vol:14 No:04 2020Vol:14 No:03 2020Vol:14 No:02 2020Vol:14 No:01 2020
Vol:13 No:12 2019Vol:13 No:11 2019Vol:13 No:10 2019Vol:13 No:09 2019Vol:13 No:08 2019Vol:13 No:07 2019Vol:13 No:06 2019Vol:13 No:05 2019Vol:13 No:04 2019Vol:13 No:03 2019Vol:13 No:02 2019Vol:13 No:01 2019
Vol:12 No:12 2018Vol:12 No:11 2018Vol:12 No:10 2018Vol:12 No:09 2018Vol:12 No:08 2018Vol:12 No:07 2018Vol:12 No:06 2018Vol:12 No:05 2018Vol:12 No:04 2018Vol:12 No:03 2018Vol:12 No:02 2018Vol:12 No:01 2018
Vol:11 No:12 2017Vol:11 No:11 2017Vol:11 No:10 2017Vol:11 No:09 2017Vol:11 No:08 2017Vol:11 No:07 2017Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007