T. Strothotte et al., "Development of dialog systems for a mobility aid
for blind people: Initial design and usability testing," Proceedings of the
2nd International ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies (Assets
96), Vancouver, Canada, April 1996, pp. 139-144.
 W. Heuten, N. Henze, S. Boll, and M. Pielot, "Tactile wayfinder: A nonvisual
support system for wayfinding," Proceedings of the 5th Nordic
Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (NordiCHI 2008), Lund,
Sweden, October 2008, pp. 172-181.
 S. Holland, D. R. Morse, and H. Gedenryd, "AudioGPS: Spatial audio
navigation with a minimal attention interface," Personal and Ubiquitous
Computing, 6(4): 253-259, Springer-Verlag London Limited, 2002.
 J. R. Marston, J. M. Loomis, R. L. Klatzky, R. G. Golledge, and E. L.
Smith, "Evaluation of spatial displays for navigation without sight,"
ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, 3(2): 110-124, April 2006.
 D. A. Ross and B. B. Blasch, "Wearable interface for orientation and
wayfinding," Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Assistive
Technologies (ASSETS 2000), Arlington, VA, November 2000, pp. 193-
 R. Kowalik and S. Kwasniewski, "Navigator - A talking GPS receiver
for the blind," in K. Miesenberger et al. (eds.), ICCHP 2004, LNCS
3118, pp. 446-449, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2004.
 B. Pressl and M. Wieser, "A computer-based navigation system tailored
to the needs of blind people," in K. Miesenberger et al. (eds.), ICCHP
2006, LNCS 4061, pp. 1280-1286, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg,
 J. H. Sanchez, F. A. Aguayo, and T. M. Hassler, "Independent outdoor
mobility for the blind," Virtual Rehabilitation, Venice, Italy, September
2007, pp. 114-120.
 S. Willis and S. Helal, "RFID information grid for blind navigation and
wayfinding," Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Symposium on
Wearable Computers (ISWC 2005), Osaka, Japan, October 2005, pp. 34-
 S. Chumkamon, P. Tuvaphanthaphiphat, and P. Keeratiwintakorn, "A
blind navigation system using RFID for indoor environments,"
Proceedings of the International Conference on Electrical Enginering/
Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology
(ECTI-CON 2008), Krabi, Thailand, May 2008, pp. 765-768.
 M. Kiers and T. Sovec, "Ways4all: Indoor navigation for visually
impaired and blind people," Proceedings of the 15th International
Conference on Urban Planning and Regional Development in the
Information Society (REAL CORP 2010), Vienna, Austria, May 2010,
 M. Bousbia-Salah and M. Fezari, "A navigation tool for blind people,"
in T. Sobh (ed), Innovation and Advanced Techniques in Computer and
Information Sciences and Engineering, pp. 333-337, Springer, 2007.
 C.-G. Kim and B.-S. Song, "Design of a wearable walking-guide
system for the blind," Proceedings of the 1st International Convention on
Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology, Singapore, April
2007, pp. 118-122.
 Y. Bellik and R. Farcy, "Comparison of various interface modalities for
a locomotion assistance device," in K. Miesenberger et al. (eds), ICCHP
2002, LNCS 2398, pp. 421-428, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg,
 K. Jundee, "A study of best practice in orientation and mobility skills
among the blind: A case study of the blind community in Dao-Kanong,
Bangkok," Master Thesis, Rehabilitation Service for Persons with
Disabilities, Mahidol University, Thailand, 2007.
 N. A. Bradley and M. D. Dunlop, "An experimental investigation into
wayfinding directions for visually impaired people," Personal and
Ubiquitous Computing, 9(6): 395-403, Springer-Verlag London
 J. Andre and S. Rogers, "Using verbal and blind-walking distance
estimates to investigate the two visual systems hypothesis," Perception
& Psychophysics, 68, pp. 353-361, 2006.
 S. J. Mason, G. E. Legge, and C. S. Kallie, "Variability in the length and
frequency of steps of sighted and visually impaired walkers," Journal of
Visual Impairment & Blindness, 99(12): 741-754, 2005.
 C. Wada, "Basic study on presenting distance information to the blind
for navigation," presented at Fourth International Conference on
Innovative Computing, Information and Control (ICICIC), Kaohsiung,
Taiwan, December 2009, pp. 405-408.
 C. S. Kallie, P. R. Schrater, and G. E. Legge, "Variability in stepping
direction explain the veering behavior of blind walkers," Journal of
Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 33(1):