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Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 31100

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Growth of Multi-Layered Graphene Using Organic Solvent-PMMA Film as the Carbon Source under Low Temperature Conditions
Multi-layered graphene has been produced under low temperature chemical vapour deposition (CVD) growth conditions by utilizing an organic solvent and polymer film source. Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) was dissolved in chlorobenzene solvent and used as a drop-cast film carbon source on a quartz slide. A source temperature (Tsource) of 180 °C provided sufficient carbon to grow graphene, as identified by Raman spectroscopy, on clean copper foil catalytic surfaces.  Systematic variation of hydrogen gas (H2) flow rate from 25 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm) to 100 sccm and CVD temperature (Tgrowth) from 400 to 800 °C, yielded graphene films of varying quality as characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The optimal graphene growth parameters were found to occur with a hydrogen flow rate of 75 sccm sweeping the 180 °C source carbon past the Cu foil at 600 °C for 1 min. The deposition at 600 °C with a H2 flow rate of 75 sccm yielded a 2D band peak with ~53.4 cm-1 FWHM and a relative intensity ratio of the G to 2D bands (IG/I2D) of 0.21. This recipe fabricated a few layers of good quality graphene.
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[1] Yao, Y., et al., Controlled Growth of Multilayer, Few-Layer, and Single-Layer Graphene on Metal Substrates. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2011. 115(13): p. 5232-5238.
[2] Campos-Delgado, J., et al., CVD synthesis of mono- and few-layer graphene using alcohols at low hydrogen concentration and atmospheric pressure. Chemical Physics Letters, 2013. 584(Supplement C): p. 142-146.
[3] Muñoz, R. and C. Gómez-Aleixandre, Review of CVD Synthesis of Graphene. Chemical Vapor Deposition, 2013. 19(10-11-12): p. 297-322.
[4] Li, Z., et al., Low-Temperature Growth of Graphene by Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Solid and Liquid Carbon Sources. ACS Nano, 2011. 5(4): p. 3385-3390.
[5] Sun, Z., et al., Growth of graphene from solid carbon sources. Nature, 2010. 468(7323): p. 549-552.
[6] Sulaiman, K., et al., Matrix assisted low temperature growth of graphene. Carbon, 2016. 107(Supplement C): p. 325-331.
[7] Zhang, B., et al., Low-Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Graphene from Toluene on Electropolished Copper Foils. ACS Nano, 2012. 6(3): p. 2471-2476.
[8] Pavel, P., et al., Ultrasmooth metallic foils for growth of high quality graphene by chemical vapor deposition. Nanotechnology, 2014. 25(18): p. 185601.
[9] Hu, J., et al., Roles of Oxygen and Hydrogen in Crystal Orientation Transition of Copper Foils for High-Quality Graphene Growth. Scientific Reports, 2017. 7: p. 45358.
[10] Wei, W., et al., Control of thickness uniformity and grain size in graphene films for transparent conductive electrodes. Nanotechnology, 2012. 23(3): p. 035603.
[11] Zeng, W.R., S.F. Li, and W.K. Chow, Review on Chemical Reactions of Burning Poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA. Journal of Fire Sciences, 2002. 20(5): p. 401-433.
[12] Grassie, N. and H.W. Melville, C.-Degradation. The mechanism of the thermal degradation of polymethyl methacrylate. Discussions of the Faraday Society, 1947. 2(0): p. 378-383.
[13] Ouano, A.C. and R. Pecora, Rontational Relaxation of Chorobenzene in Poly(methyl methacrylate). 1. Temperature and Concentration Effects. Macromolecules, 1980. 13(5): p. 1167-1173.
[14] Reina, A., et al., Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition. Nano Lett, 2009. 9(1): p. 30-5.
[15] An, W., X.C. Zeng, and C.H. Turner, First-principles study of methane dehydrogenation on a bimetallic Cu/Ni(111) surface. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 2009. 131(17): p. 174702.
[16] Levendorf, M.P., et al., Transfer-Free Batch Fabrication of Single Layer Graphene Transistors. Nano Letters, 2009. 9(12): p. 4479-4483.
[17] Nguyen, V.T., et al., Synthesis of multi-layer graphene films on copper tape by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition method. Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 2013. 4(3): p. 035012.
[18] Park, H., et al., Graphene As Transparent Conducting Electrodes in Organic Photovoltaics: Studies in Graphene Morphology, Hole Transporting Layers, and Counter Electrodes. Nano Letters, 2012. 12(1): p. 133-140.
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