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Horizontal Dimension of Constitutional Social Rights
The main purpose of this paper is to determine the applicability of the constitutional social rights in the so-called horizontal relations, i.e. the relations between private entities. Nowadays the constitutional rights are more and more often violated by private entities and not only by the state. The private entities interfere with the privacy of individuals, limit their freedom of expression or disturb their peaceful gatherings. International corporations subordinate individuals in a way which may limit their constitutional rights. These new realities determine the new role of the constitution in protecting human rights. The paper will aim at answering two important questions. Firstly, are the private entities obliged to respect the constitutional social rights of other private entities and can they be liable for violation of these rights? Secondly, how the constitutional social rights can receive horizontal effect? Answers to these questions will have a significant meaning for the popularisation of the practice of applying the Constitution among the citizens as well as for the courts which settle disputes between them.
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[1] The Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 2nd April, 1997, as published in Journal of Laws (Dziennik Ustaw) No. 79, item 483, with amendments.
[2] M. Florczak-Wątor, „Horyzontalny wymiar praw konstytucyjnych“ (Horizontal dimension of constitutional rights), Cracow 2014, p. 63-208
[3] A. S. Butler, “Constitutional Rights in Private Litigation: a Critique and Comparative Analysis”, Anglo-American Law Review vol. 22/1993, p. 20; C. O’Cinneide, “Irish Constitutional Law and Direct Horizontal Effect – A Successful Experiment?” (in:) D. Oliver, J. Fedtke (ed.), Human Rights and the Private Sphere. A Comparative Study, New York 2007, p. 213 n.; A. Clapham, “Human Rights Obligations of Non-State Actors”, New York 2006, p. 441
[4] Judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court of 15. 01.1958, 1 BvR 400/51, BVerfGE 7,198.
[5] J. Fedtke, “South Africa. From Indirect to Direct Effect in South Africa: A System in Transition” (in:) D. Oliver, J. Fedtke (ed.), Human Rights and the Private Sphere. A Comparative Study, New York 2007, p. 352 n.
[6] E. Klein, “Grundrechtliche Schutzpflicht des Staates”, Neue Juristische Wochenschrift No. 27/1989
[7] U. Preuß, „The German Drittwirkung Doctrine and its Socio-Political Background” (in:) A. Sajo, R. Uitz (ed.) The Constitution in Private Relations: Expanding Constitutionalism, Utrecht 2005, p. 24; M. Avbelj, “Is there Drittwirkung in EU law?” (in:) A. Sajo, R.Uitz (ed.), The constitution in private relation: expanding constitutionalism, Utrecht 2005, p. 154.
[8] H. C. Nipperdey, „Gleicher Lohn der Frau für gleiche Leistung. Ein Beitrag zur Auslegung der Grundrechte“, Recht der Arbeit 1950, p. 121 n.
[9] See judgments of the Federal Labour Court: of 3.12.1954, 1 AZR 150/54, BAGE 1, 185 (Kündigung eines Betriebsratsmitglieds); of 10.05.1957, 1 AZR 249/57, BAGE 4, 274 (Zölibatsklausel).
[10] G. Dürig, „Grundrechte und Zivilrechtsprechung“ (in:) T. Maunz (ed.), Von Bonner Grundgesetz zur gesamtdeutschen Verfassung. Festschrift zum 75. Geburtstag von Hans Nawiasky, München 1956; G. Dürig (in:) T. Maunz, G. Dürig, R. Herzog, R. Scholz, P. Lerche, H.-J. Papier, A. Randelzhofer, E. Schmidt-Assmann, „Grundgesetz. Kommentar“, Band I, Munchen 1990.
[11] M. Florczak-Wątor, „Horyzontalny wymiar praw konstytucyjnych“ (Horizontal dimension of constitutional rights), Cracow 2014, p. 100- 115.
[12] E. Łętowska, M. Jagielska, K. Lis., P. Mikłaszewicz, A. Wiewiórowska- Domagalska, “Implementation of Consumer Law in Poland”, European Review of Private Law No. 6/2007, p. 885 n.
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