Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 30464

Select areas to restrict search in scientific publication database:
Investigating the Process Kinetics and Nitrogen Gas Production in Anammox Hybrid Reactor with Special Emphasis on the Role of Filter Media
Anammox is a novel and promising technology that has changed the traditional concept of biological nitrogen removal. The process facilitates direct oxidation of ammonical nitrogen under anaerobic conditions with nitrite as an electron acceptor without addition of external carbon sources. The present study investigated the feasibility of Anammox Hybrid Reactor (AHR) combining the dual advantages of suspended and attached growth media for biodegradation of ammonical nitrogen in wastewater. Experimental unit consisted of 4 nos. of 5L capacity AHR inoculated with mixed seed culture containing anoxic and activated sludge (1:1). The process was established by feeding the reactors with synthetic wastewater containing NH4-H and NO2-N in the ratio 1:1 at HRT (hydraulic retention time) of 1 day. The reactors were gradually acclimated to higher ammonium concentration till it attained pseudo steady state removal at a total nitrogen concentration of 1200 mg/l. During this period, the performance of the AHR was monitored at twelve different HRTs varying from 0.25-3.0 d with increasing NLR from 0.4 to 4.8 kg N/m3d. AHR demonstrated significantly higher nitrogen removal (95.1%) at optimal HRT of 1 day. Filter media in AHR contributed an additional 27.2% ammonium removal in addition to 72% reduction in the sludge washout rate. This may be attributed to the functional mechanism of filter media which acts as a mechanical sieve and reduces the sludge washout rate many folds. This enhances the biomass retention capacity of the reactor by 25%, which is the key parameter for successful operation of high rate bioreactors. The effluent nitrate concentration, which is one of the bottlenecks of anammox process was also minimised significantly (42.3-52.3 mg/L). Process kinetics was evaluated using first order and Grau-second order models. The first-order substrate removal rate constant was found as 13.0 d-1. Model validation revealed that Grau second order model was more precise and predicted effluent nitrogen concentration with least error (1.84±10%). A new mathematical model based on mass balance was developed to predict N2 gas in AHR. The mass balance model derived from total nitrogen dictated significantly higher correlation (R2=0.986) and predicted N2 gas with least error of precision (0.12±8.49%). SEM study of biomass indicated the presence of heterogeneous population of cocci and rod shaped bacteria of average diameter varying from 1.2-1.5 mm. Owing to enhanced NRE coupled with meagre production of effluent nitrate and its ability to retain high biomass, AHR proved to be the most competitive reactor configuration for dealing with nitrogen laden wastewater.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):


[1] D.I. Claudio, P. Michele, R. Roberto, L. Antonio, (2010) Nitrogen recovery from a stabilized municipal landfill leachate. Bioresour Technol 101: 1732-1736.
[2] R. Saran, G. Singh, S.K. Gupta, (2009) Adsorption of phenol from aqueous Solution onto Fly Ash from a Thermal Power Plant. Adsorpt Sci Technol 27 (3): 267-279.
[3] R. Keluskar, A. Nerurkar, A. Desai, (2013) Development of a simultaneous partial nitrification, anaerobic ammonia oxidation and denitrification (SNAD) bench scale process for removal of ammonia from effluent of a fertilizer industry. Bioresour Technol 130: 390–397.
[4] S. Murat, G. Insel, N. Artan, D. Orhon, (2006) Performance evaluation of SBR treatment for nitrogen removal from tannery wastewater. Water Sci Technol 53 (12): 275-284.
[5] A. Magrí, F. Béline, P. Dabert, (2013) Feasibility and interest of the anammox process as treatment alternative for anaerobic digester supernatants in manure processing-An overview. J Environ Manage 131: 170-184.
[6] S.K. Gupta, R. Sharma, (1996) Biological oxidation of high strength nitrogenous wastewater. Water Res 30(3): 593-600.
[7] United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2006 Global anthropogenic non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions: 1990 to 2020. Washington, DC: US-EPA.
[8] W.R.L. Van der Star, W.R. Abma, D. Blommers, J.W. Mulder, T. Tokutomi, M. Strous, C. Picioreanu, M.C.M. van Loosdrecht, (2007) Startup of reactors for anoxic ammonium oxidation. Experiences from the first full-scale anammox reactor in Rotterdam. Water Res 41: 4149– 4163.
[9] B. Wett, (2006) Solved upscaling problems for implementing deammonification of rejection water. Water Sci Technol 53(12): 121– 128.
[10] M. Strous, J.J. Heijnen, J.G. Kuenen, M.S.M. Jetten, (1998) The sequencing batch reactor as a powerful tool for the study of slowly growing anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing microorganisms. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 50: 589–596.
[11] A. Bertino, (2010) Study on one-stage partial nitritation-Anammox process in moving bed biofilm reactors: a sustainable nitrogen removal. Trail-LWR Degree Project. ISSN 1651-064X.
[12] N. Chamchoi, S. Nitisoravut, (2007) Anammox enrichment from different conventional sludges. Chemosphere 66: 2225-2232.
[13] C. Trigo, J.L. Campos, J.M. Garrido, R. M´endez, (2006) Start-up of the Anammox process in a membrane bioreactor. Journal of Biotechnology 126 (4): 475–487.
[14] K.A. Third, J. Paxman, M. Schmid, M. Strous, M.S.M. Jetten, R. Cord- Ruwisch, (2005) Enrichment of ANAMMOX from activated sludge and its application in the CANON process. Microbial Ecology 459: 236–244.
[15] M. Oshiki, M. Shimokawa, N. Fujii, H. Satoh, S. Okabe, (2011) Physiological characteristics of the anaerobic ammoniumoxidizing bacterium Candidatus ‘Brocadia sinica’. Microbiology 157: 1706–1713.
[16] B. Kartal, N.M. de Almeida, W.J. Maalcke, H.J. Op den Camp, M.S.M. Jetten, J.T. Keltjens, (2013) How to make a living from anaerobic ammonium oxidation. FEMS Microbiology Rev 37: 428-461.
[17] A.A. Van de Graaf, P. De Bruijn, L.A. Robertson, M.S.M. Jetten, J.G. Kuenen, (1996) Autotrophic growth of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing micro-organisms in a fluidized bed reactor. Microbiology 142 (8): 2187– 2196.
[18] A.O. Sliekers, K.A. Third, W. Abma, J.G. Kuenen, M.S.M. Jetten, (2003) CANON and Anammox in a gas-lift reactor. FEMS Microbiol Lett 218:339–344.
[19] X. Duan, J. Zhou, S. Qiao, X. Yin, T. Tian, F. Xu, (2012) Start-up of the anammox process from the conventional activated sludge in a hybrid bioreactor. J Environ Sci 24: 1083-1090.
[20] S.C. Grandhi, L.M.S. Pandey, S.K. Gupta, G. Singh, (2011) Comparative evaluation of high rate anaerobic processes for treatment of distillery spent wash. J Indus Res Technol 1(1): 17-23.
[21] S.K. Gupta, S.K. Gupta, (2007) Bio-degradation of distillery spent wash in anaerobic hybrid reactor. Water Res 41: 721-730.
[22] F.C. Escobar, J. Pereda-Marin, P. Alvarez-Mateos, F. Romero-Guzman, M.M.D. Barrantes, (2005) Aerobic purification of dairy wastewater in continuous regime part II: kinetic study of the organic matter removal in two reactor configurations. Biochem Eng J 22: 117–124.
[23] E.L. Stover, D.F. Kincannon, (1982) Rotating biological contactor scaleup and design, in: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Fixed Film Biological Processes, Kings Island, Ohio .
[24] P. Grau, M. Dohanyas, J. Chudoba, (1975) Kinetics of multicomponent substrate removal by activated sludge. Water Res 9:337–342.
[25] J. Monod, (1949) The growth of bacterial cultures. Ann Rev Microbiol 3: 371–376.
[26] G. Abbas, L. Wang, W. Li, M. Zhang, P. Zheng, (2015) Kinetics of nitrogen removal in pilot-scale internal-loop airlift-bioparticle reactor for simultaneous partial nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Ecol Eng 74: 356-363.
[27] S.Q. Ni, S. Sung, Q.Y. Yue, B.Y. Gao, (2012) Substrate removal evaluation of granular anammox process in a pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Ecol Eng 38: 30-36.
[28] S.Q. Ni, P.H. Lee, S. Sung, (2010) The kinetics of nitrogen removal and biogas production in an anammox non-woven membrane reactor. Bioresour Technol 101: 5767–5773.
[29] X.W. Huang, Q.Y. Wei, K. Urata, Y. Tomoshige, X.H. Zhang, Y. Kawagoshi, (2014) Kinetic study on nitrogen removal performance in marine anammox bacterial culture. J Biosci Bioeng 117(3): 285-291.
[30] R.C. Jin, P. Zheng, (2009) Kinetics of nitrogen removal in high rate anammox upflow filter. J Hazard Mater 170: 652–656.
[31] W.R.L. Van der Star, A.I. Miclea, U.G.J.M. Van Dongen, G. Muyzer, C. Picioreanu, M.C.M. Van Loosdrecht, (2008) The membrane bioreactor: a novel tool to grow anammox bacteria as free cells. Biotechnol Bioeng 101: 286–294.
[32] APHA, AWWA, WEF (2012) Standard Methods for Water and Wastewater Examination, 22nd edn. American Public Health Association, Washington.
[33] S. Suneethi, K. Joseph, (2011) ANAMMOX process start up and stabilization with an anaerobic seed in Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR). Bioresour Technol 102: 8860-8867.
[34] R.C. Jin, B.S. Xing, J.J. Yu, T.Y. Qin, S.X. Chen, (2013)The importance of the substrate ratio in the operation of the Anammox process in upflow biofilter. Ecol Engg 53:130–137.
[35] M. Strous, J.G. Kuenen, M.S.M. Jetten, (1999) Key physiology of anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Appl Environ Micorbiol 65:3248–3250.
[36] C.J. Tang, P. Zheng, C.H. Wang, Q. Mahmood, J.Q. Zhang, X.G. Chen et al. (2011) Performance of high-loaded ANAMMOX UASB reactors containing granular sludge. Water Res 45(1):135–144.
[37] J.V. Padin, I. Fernádez, M. Figueroa, A. Mosquera-Corral, J.L. Campos, R. Méndez, (2009) Applications of Anammox based processes to treat anaerobic digester supernatant at room temperature. Bioresour Technol 100:2988–2994.
[38] S. Bagchi, R. Biswas, T. Nandy, (2010) Startup and stabilization of an Anammox process from a non-acclimatized sludge in CSTR. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 37:943–952.
Vol:14 No:06 2020Vol:14 No:05 2020Vol:14 No:04 2020Vol:14 No:03 2020Vol:14 No:02 2020Vol:14 No:01 2020
Vol:13 No:12 2019Vol:13 No:11 2019Vol:13 No:10 2019Vol:13 No:09 2019Vol:13 No:08 2019Vol:13 No:07 2019Vol:13 No:06 2019Vol:13 No:05 2019Vol:13 No:04 2019Vol:13 No:03 2019Vol:13 No:02 2019Vol:13 No:01 2019
Vol:12 No:12 2018Vol:12 No:11 2018Vol:12 No:10 2018Vol:12 No:09 2018Vol:12 No:08 2018Vol:12 No:07 2018Vol:12 No:06 2018Vol:12 No:05 2018Vol:12 No:04 2018Vol:12 No:03 2018Vol:12 No:02 2018Vol:12 No:01 2018
Vol:11 No:12 2017Vol:11 No:11 2017Vol:11 No:10 2017Vol:11 No:09 2017Vol:11 No:08 2017Vol:11 No:07 2017Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007