Laser Welding of Titanium Alloy Ti64 to Polyamide 6.6: Effects of Welding Parameters on Temperature Profile Evolution
Composite metal–polymer materials, in particular titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) to polyamide (PA6.6), fabricated by laser joining, have gained cogent interest among industries and researchers concerned with aerospace and biomedical applications. This work adopts infrared (IR) thermography technique to investigate effects of laser parameters used in the welding process on the three-dimensional temperature profile at the rear-side of titanium, at the region to be welded with polyamide. Cross sectional analysis of welded joints showed correlations between the morphology of titanium and polyamide at the weld zone with the corresponding temperature profile. In particular, spatial temperature profile was found to be correlated with the laser beam energy density, titanium molten pool width and depth, and polyamide heat affected zone depth.
 G. Renganathan, N. Tanneru, and S. L. Madurai, “Orthopedical and biomedical applications of titanium and zirconium metals,” in Fundamental Biomaterials: Metals, P. Balakrishnan, S. M. S, and S. Thomas, Eds. Woodhead Publishing, 2018, pp. 211–241.
 C. N. Elias, J. H. C. Lima, R. Valiev, and M. a Meyers, “Biomedical Applications of Titanium and its Alloys,” J. Miner. Met. Mater. Soc., no. March, pp. 46–49, 2008.
 M. Vojdani and R. Giti, “Polyamide as a Denture Base Material: A Literature Review,” J. Dent. (Shiraz, Iran), vol. 16, no. 1 Suppl, pp. 1–9, 2015.
 J. R. Davis, “Handbook of Materials for Medical Devices,” 2003.
 A. Al-sayyad, P. Lama, J. Bardon, P. Hirchenhahn, P. Houssiau, and P. Plapper, “Laser Joining of Titanium Alloy to Polyamide : Influence of Process Parameters on the Joint Strength and Quality,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., vol. In-press, pp. 1–9, 2019.
 D. Y. You, X. D. Gao, and S. Katayama, “Review of laser welding monitoring,” Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 181–201, 2014.
 K. Schricker, M. Stambke, J. P. Bergmann, and K. Brautigam, “Laser-Based Joining of Thermoplastics to Metals: Influence of Varied Ambient Conditions on Joint Performance and Microstructure,” Int. J. Polym. Sci., vol. 2016, pp. 0–9, 2016.
 K. Schricker, M. Stambke, and J. Pierre, “Adjustment and Impact of the Thermoplastic Microstructure of the Melting Layer in Laser-based Joining of Polymers to Metals,” 2015.
 C. Lamberti, T. Solchenbach, P. Plapper, and W. Possart, “Laser Assisted Joining of Hybrid Polyamide-Aluminum Structures,” Phys. Procedia, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 845–853, 2014.