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Narrating Irish Identity: Retrieving ‘Irishness’ in the Works of William Butler Yeats and Seamus Heaney
Irish identity continues to be discussed in various fields including social science, culture, literary humanities as well as political debates. In this context, Irishness had been usurped for a long time by the hegemonic power of the British Empire. That is why, Irish writers, in general, and Seamus Heaney along with William Butler Yeats, in particular, endeavored to retrieve this lost identity by shedding light on Irish history, folklore, communal traditions, landscape, indigenous people, language as well as culture. In this context, we may speak of a decolonizing attempt that allowed these writers to represent the autonomous Irish subjectivity by establishing an ethical relationship based on an extraordinary approach to the represented alterity. This article, indeed, places itself within the arena of postmodern, postcolonial discussions of the issue of identity and, particularly, of Irishness.
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[1] S. William. Henry V. Publishing: Stilwell, 2005.
[2] E. O`Brien. “The Anxiety of Influence: Heaney and Yeats and the Place of Writing”, Nordic Journal of Irish Studies. M. Boss, Ed. Vol. 4 (2004) pp. 30-50.
[3] K. M. Noonan. “The Cruel Pressure of an Enraged Barbarous People”. Irish and English Identity in the17th Century Policy and Propaganda. The Historical.
[4] L. Rogers. Feminine Nation: Performance, Gender and Resistance in the Works of John Mc Gahern and Neil Jordan. University Press of America: Maryland, 1998.
[5] H. K. Bhabha., ED. Nation and Narration. London; New York: Routledge, 1990.
[6] B. Mc Cormak. “Postcolonialism in an Age of Globalization: Opening International Relations Theory to Identities in Movement”. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 2002), pp. 99-115
[7] K.V. Mc Guirk. Lyric Trials. Lyric and Rhetoric in Contemporary Poetry: Seamus Heaney, Adrienne Rich, A.R. Ammons, John Ashberry. Diss. The University of Western Ontario (Canada), 1993. Dissertations & Theses: Full Text, ProQuest. Web. 14 Feb. 2010.
[8] G. Deleuze. Difference and repetition. Trans. Paul Patton. Continuumbooks: London, 1994.
[9] S. Heaney. Preoccupations: Selected Prose 1969-1978. Faber: London, 1980.
[10] S. Deane. Ed., Nationalism, Colonialism, and Literature. Minnesota University Press: Minneapolis, 1990.
[11] S. Stuart, Ed. The Routledge Companion to Postmodernism. London: Routledge, 1998.
[12] M. R. Molino. “Flying by the Nets of Language and Nationality: Seamus Heaney, the `English` Language, and Ulster`s Troublles”. Modern Philology, Vol. 91, No.2 (Nov. 1993) pp.180-201. The University of Chicago Press, 1993.
[13] A. R. J. Mohamed. “Humanism and Minority Literature: Toward a Definition of Counter-Hegemonic Discourse. Boundary 2, Vol. 12/13, Vol. 12, no. 3- Vol. 13, no. 1, On Humanism and the University I: The Discourse of Humanism (Spring – Autumn, 1984), pp. 281-299. Duke University Press.
[14] Gaelscoileanna.: http//: Accessed on 22 Sep. 2015.
[15] R. Khalifa. Emblems of Adversity: Essays on the Aesthetics of Politics in W.B. Yeats and Others. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. New Castle, 2009.
[16] F. Chesterfield. “A terriblebeautyisborn: W.B. Yeats for OCR as English Literature”: http//: www. September 1913. Accessed on 28 May 2015.
[17] E. O`Brien. “The Question of Irish Identity in the Writing of W. B. Yeats and James Joyce”: http//: Accessed on 25 May 2015.
[18] J. Plug. “The Specular Nation: Yeats`s Myth of the Irish”. Centennial Review 43: 1 (1999).
[19] W. B. Yeats. The Celtic Twilight. Dover Publications: New York, 2011.
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