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Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 31107

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Performance Analysis of Three Absorption Heat Pump Cycles, Full and Partial Loads Operations
The environmental concerns related to global warming and ozone layer depletion along with the growing worldwide demand for heating and cooling have brought an increasing attention toward ecological and efficient Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems. Furthermore, since space heating accounts for a considerable part of the European primary/final energy use, it has been identified as one of the sectors with the most challenging targets in energy use reduction. Heat pumps are commonly considered as a technology able to contribute to the achievement of the targets. Current research focuses on the full load operation and seasonal performance assessment of three gas-driven absorption heat pump cycles. To do this, investigations of the gas-driven air-source ammonia-water absorption heat pump systems for small-scale space heating applications are presented. For each of the presented cycles, both full-load under various temperature conditions and seasonal performances are predicted by means of numerical simulations. It has been considered that small capacity appliances are usually equipped with fixed geometry restrictors, meaning that the solution mass flow rate is driven by the pressure difference across the associated restrictor valve. Results show that gas utilization efficiency (GUE) of the cycles varies between 1.2 and 1.7 for both full and partial loads and vapor exchange (VX) cycle is found to achieve the highest efficiency. It is noticed that, for typical space heating applications, heat pumps operate over a wide range of capacities and thermal lifts. Thus, partially, the novelty introduced in the paper is the investigation based on a seasonal performance approach, following the method prescribed in a recent European standard (EN 12309). The overall result is a modest variation in the seasonal performance for analyzed cycles, from 1.427 (single-effect) to 1.493 (vapor-exchange).
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[1] M. Toub, C.R. Reddy, M. Razmara, M. Shahbakhti, R.D. Robinett, G. Aniba. Model-based predictive control for optimal MicroCSP operation integrated with building HVAC systems. Energy Conversion and Management. 199 (2019) 111924.
[2] B. Dehghan B, L. Wang, M. Motta, N. Karimi. Modelling of waste heat recovery of a biomass combustion plant through ground source heat pumps- development of an efficient numerical framework. Applied Thermal Engineering. (2019) 114625.
[3] G. Kosmadakis. Estimating the potential of industrial (high-temperature) heat pumps for exploiting waste heat in EU industries. Applied Thermal Engineering. 156 (2019) 287-98.
[4] R. Scoccia, T. Toppi, M. Aprile, M. Motta. Absorption and compression heat pump systems for space heating and DHW in European buildings: Energy, environmental and economic analysis. Journal of Building Engineering. 16 (2018) 94-105.
[5] T. Jia, E. Dai, Y. Dai. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of a balanced-type single-stage NH3-H2O absorption-resorption heat pump cycle for residential heating application. Energy. 171 (2019) 120-34.
[6] B.A. Phillips. Development of a High-Efficiency. Gas-fired. Absorption Heat Pump for Residential and small-commercial applications. Phase I Final Report Analysis of Advanced Cycles and Selection of the Preferred Cycle 1990.
[7] T.B. Altenkirch E. Absorptionskaeltemaschine zur kontinuierlichen erzeugung von kaelte und waerme oder auch von arbiet. German Patent 278076. (1914).
[8] Donald C. Erickson, S. Harbor, M. Annapolis. Branched GAX Absorption Vapor Compressor. In: U.S. Patent, (Ed.). United States, 1991.
[9] K. Herold, H. Xiaoyn, D. Erickson, M. Rane. The branched GAX absorption heat pump cycle. Jpn Assoc Refrig Abs Heat Pump Conf. (1991) 27-33.
[10] M. Engler, G. Grossman, H.M. Hellmann. Comparative simulation and investigation of ammonia-water: absorption cycles for heat pump applications. International Journal of Refrigeration. 20 (1997) 504-16.
[11] Donald C. Erickson, G. Anand, A. Riyaz. Branched GAX Cycle Gas Fired Heat Pump. Energy Concepts Co. (1996).
[12] D.C. Erickson. Vapor Exchange Duplex GAX Absorption Cycle. United States Patent 5 097 676. (1992).
[13] E. Dai, M. Lin, J. Xia, Y. Dai. Experimental investigation on a GAX based absorption heat pump driven by hybrid liquefied petroleum gas and solar energy. Solar Energy. 169 (2018) 167-78.
[14] M.A. Tommaso TOPPI, Marco GUERRA, Mario MOTTA. Incorporating the VX concept in a commercial GAX heat pump: a numerical study. ISHPC2017. (2017).
[15] M. Aprile, T. Toppi, S. Garone, M. Motta. STACY–A mathematical modelling framework for steady-state simulation of absorption cycles. International Journal of Refrigeration. 88 (2018) 129-40.
[16] M. Aminyavari, M. Aprile, L. Pistocchini, M. Motta. Modelling and experimental validation of an in-tube vertical falling film absorber with counter flow arrangement of solution and gas. International Journal of Refrigeration. 100 (2019) 72-82.
[17] M. Aprile, R. Scoccia, T. Toppi, M. Guerra, M. Motta. Modelling and experimental analysis of a GAX NH3–H2O gas-driven absorption heat pump. International Journal of Refrigeration. 66 (2016) 145-55.
[18] EN12309-6. Gas-fired sorption appliances for heating and/or cooling with a net heat input not exceeding 70 kW – Part 6: Calculation of Seasonal Performances. (2014).
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