Performance Evaluation of Clustered Routing Protocols for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks
Optimal routing allows minimizing energy consumption
in wireless sensor networks (WSN). Clustering has proven its
effectiveness in organizing WSN by reducing channel contention
and packet collision and enhancing network throughput under heavy
load. Therefore, nowadays, with the emergence of the Internet of
Things, heterogeneity is essential. Stable election protocol (SEP) that
has increased the network stability period and lifetime is the first
clustering protocol for heterogeneous WSN. SEP and its descendants,
namely SEP, Threshold Sensitive SEP (TSEP), Enhanced TSEP
(ETSSEP) and Current Energy Allotted TSEP (CEATSEP), were
studied. These algorithms’ performance was evaluated based on
different metrics, especially first node death (FND), to compare
their stability. Simulations were conducted on the MATLAB tool
considering two scenarios: The first one demonstrates the fraction
variation of advanced nodes by setting the number of total nodes.
The second considers the interpretation of the number of nodes
while keeping the number of advanced nodes permanent. CEATSEP
outperforms its antecedents by increasing stability and, at the same
time, keeping a low throughput. It also operates very well in a
large-scale network. Consequently, CEATSEP has a useful lifespan
and energy efficiency compared to the other routing protocol for
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