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Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 31108

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Simplified Mobile AR Platform Design for Augmented Tourism
This study outlines iterations of designing mobile augmented reality (MAR) applications for tourism specific contexts. Using a design based research model, several cycles of development to implementation were analyzed and refined upon with the goal of building a MAR platform that would facilitate the creation of augmented tours and environments by non-technical users. The project took on several stages, and through the process, a simple framework was begun to be established that can inform the design and use of MAR applications for tourism contexts. As a result of these iterations of development, a platform was developed that can allow novice computer users to create augmented tourism environments. This system was able to connect existing tools in widespread use such as Google Forms and connect them to computer vision algorithms needed for more advanced augmented tourism environments. The study concludes with a discussion of this MAR platform and reveals design elements that have implications for tourism contexts. The study also points to future case uses and design approaches for augmented tourism.
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[1] E. Hawkinson, “Informal learning environments in tourism: augmented reality,” in International Academic Conference, 2014.
[2] D. Wagner, T. Pintaric, F. Ledermann, and D. Schmalstieg, “Towards Massively Multi-user Augmented Reality on Handheld Devices,” Pervasive Mob. Comput., 2005.
[3] A. Hassan and T. Jung, “Augmented Reality as an Emerging Application in Tourism Marketing Education,” in Emerging Tools and Applications of Virtual Reality in Education, IGI Global, 2016, pp. 168–185.
[4] A. Aluri, “Mobile augmented reality (MAR) game as a travel guide: insights from Pokémon GO,” Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 55–72, 2017.
[5] R. A. Battista, S. T. West, S. H. Mackenzie, and J. Son, “Is This Exercise? No, It’s Geocaching! Exploring Factors Related to Aspects of Geocaching Participation,” Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, vol. 34, no. 2, 2016.
[6] T. C. Wijesinghe and J. Zhang, “Location Based Marketing: A Promising Marketing in Sri Lanka,” International Journal of Marketing Studies, vol. 7, no. 5, p. 88, Oct. 2015.
[7] A. Hassan and T. Jung, “Augmented Reality as an Emerging Application in Tourism Marketing Education,” in Emerging Tools and Applications of Virtual Reality in Education, 2016, pp. 168–185.
[8] E. Hawkinson, “Informal Learning Environments in Tourism: Augmented Reality,” in The Academy of Korea Hospitality & Tourism 31st International Academic Conference, Busan, South Korea, 2014.
[9] T. Miyashita et al., “An Augmented Reality museum guide,” in 2008 7th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, 2008.
[10] D.-H. Lee and J. Park, “Augmented Reality Based Museum Guidance System for Selective Viewings,” in Second Workshop on Digital Media and its Application in Museum & Heritages (DMAMH 2007), 2007.
[11] A. Fornasari, “when the museum turns into a mixed reality lab. Augmented reality and learning processes,” in INTED2017 Proceedings, 2017.
[12] E. Malespina, Augmented Reality in Education: Bringing Interactivity to Libraries and Classrooms. Libraries Unlimited, 2016.
[13] S. Bielli and C. G. Harris, “A mobile augmented reality system to enhance live sporting events,” in Proceedings of the 6th Augmented Human International Conference on - AH ’15, 2015.
[14] E. Hawkinson, M. Stack, and E. Noxon, “TEDx and Augmented Reality - Designing Digitally Enhanced Print for International Conferences and Tourism,” in Asian Conference on Technology in the Classroom 2015 Official Conference Proceedings, Kobe, Japan, 2015.
[15] R. A. Battista, S. T. West, S. H. Mackenzie, and J. Son, “Is This Exercise? No, It’s Geocaching! Exploring Factors Related to Aspects of Geocaching Participation,” J. Park Recreat. Adm., vol. 34, no. 2, 2016.
[16] S. Williams and E. Currid-Halkett, “Industry in motion: using smart phones to explore the spatial network of the garment industry in New York City,” PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 2, p. e86165, Feb. 2014.
[17] S. Hudson and L. Hudson, Marketing for Tourism, Hospitality & Events: A Global & Digital Approach. SAGE, 2017.
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[19] E. Stark, “Playful places: Uncovering hidden heritage with Ingress,” in Social, Casual and Mobile Games: The changing gaming landscape, Bloomsbury Academic, 2015.
[20] S. Barbieri et al., “Pedestrian Inattention Blindness While Playing Pokémon Go as an Emerging Health-Risk Behavior: A Case Report,” J. Med. Internet Res., vol. 19, no. 4, p. e86, Apr. 2017.
[21] M. Dunleavy, “Design Principles for Augmented Reality Learning,” Techtrends Tech Trends, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 28–34, Jan. 2014.
[22] M. Billinghurst, R. Grasset, and J. Looser, “Designing Augmented Reality Interfaces,” SIGGRAPH Comput. Graph., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 17–22, Feb. 2005.
[23] E. Hawkinson, P. Mehran, and M. Alizadeh, “Using MAVR to Bring New Dimensions to the Classroom,” Language Teacher, vol. 41, p. 31, 2017.
[24] T. Olsson, E. Lagerstam, T. Kärkkäinen, and K. Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, “Expected user experience of mobile augmented reality services: a user study in the context of shopping centres,” Pers. Ubiquit. Comput., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 287–304, Feb. 2013.
[25] E. Hawkinson, M. Stack, and E. Noxon, “TEDx and augmented reality: Informal learning and international exchange with mobile technology,” in The Asian Conference on Technology in the Classroom 2015 Official Conference Proceedings 2015, 2015, pp. 423–430.
[26] E. Hawkinson, M. Stack, J. Klaphake, and S. Jacoby, “Tutorial 4: AR Implementations in Informal Learning,” in 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, 2015, pp. xxxiii–xxxiii.
[27] T. Anderson and J. Shattuck, “Design-based research: A decade of progress in education research?,” Educ. Res., vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 16–25, 2012.
[28] C. Dede, “Why design-based research is both important and difficult,” Educ. Technol. Res. Dev., vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 5–8, 2005.
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