Cotton dyeing using reactive dyes is one of the major water polluter; this is due to large amount of dye and salt remaining in effluent. Recent adverse climate change and its associated effect to human life have lead to search for more sustainable industrial production. Cationization of cotton to improve its affinity for reactive dye has been earmarked as a major solution for dyeing of cotton with no or less salt. Synthetic cationizing agents of ammonium salt have already been commercialized. However, in nature there are proteinous products which are rich in amino and ammonium salts which can be carefully harnessed to be used as cationizing agent for cotton. The hoofs and horns have successfully been used to cationize cotton so as to improve cotton affinity to the dye. The cationization action of the hoof and horn extract on cotton was confirmed by dyeing the pretreated fabric without salt and comparing it with conventionally dyed and untreated salt free dyed fabric. UV-VIS absorption results showed better dye absorption (62.5% and 50% dye bath exhaustion percentage for cationized and untreated respectively) while K/S values of treated samples were similar to conventional sample.
 Chaiyapat PA, Nantaya YA & Edgar AO (2002). Surface modification to improve dyeing of cotton fabric with a cationic dye. Coloration Technology, 118(1): 35-39.
 Omole D & Ogbiye A (2013). An Evaluation of Slaughterhouse Wastes in South-West Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 2(3): 85-89.
 Chattopadhyay DP, Chavan RB & Sharma JK (2007). Salt-free reactive dyeing of cotton. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 19(2): 99-108.
 Cook L (1994). Increase of cotton’s apparel market share has caused salinity in textile effluent streams to become a major issue. Textile World, 66(9): 1530-1534.
 Matthew JF (2012). Sustainable Cotton Dyeing. Fiber and Polymer Science, 1(1-234).
 FDRE CSA (2013). Agricultural Sample Survey. Report on Livestock and Livestock Characteristics, Statistical Bulletin 505(3): 116.
 Knudsen H & Wenzel H (1996). Environmentally friendly method in reactive dyeing of cotton. Science Technology, 33(6): 17-27.
 Hua G et.el (2012). An Updated Nomenclature for Keratin-Associated Proteins (KAPs). International Journal of Biological Sciences, 8(2): 159-170.
 Hyde K, Dong H & Hinestroza P (2007). Effect of surface cationization on the conformal deposition of poly-electrolytes over cotton fibers. Cellulose, 14(6): 615-623.
 Montazer M, Malek R & Rahimi A (2007). Salt Free Reactive Dyeing of Cationized Cotton. Fibers and Polymers, 8(6): 608-612.
 Sabramarian M (2006). Influence of cationization of cotton on reactive dyeing. Journal of Textile and Apparel Technology and Management, 5(2):8
 Wei MA, Shu-fen Z & Jin-zong Y (The proceedings of 3rd international conference on functional molecules). Development of functional polymers in modification of cotton for improving dyeability of reactive dyes. StateKey Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, DUT, Dalian, China, 11(6012): 69-75
 Ristic N & Ristic I (2012). Cationic Modification of Cotton Fabrics and Reactive Dyeing Characteristics. Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, 7(4):113-121.
 Mokrejs P, Krejci O & Svoboda P (2011). Producing Keratin Hydrolysates from Sheep Wool. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 27(4): 1303-1309.
 Hauser PJ & Tabba AH (2001). Improving the environmental and economic aspects of cotton dyeing using cationized cotton. Coloration Technology, 117(5): 282–288.
 Karthikeyan R, Balaji S & Sehgal K (2007). Industrial applications of keratin. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 66(1): 710-715.
 Blackburn RS & Burkinshaw SM (2002). A greener approach to cotton dyeing with excellent wash fastness. School of Textiles and Design, University of Leeds, 4(1): 47-52.
 Rajvenkatesh S et.al (2013). Reduction of Salt in Reactive Dyeing of Cotton Fabric by Using Bio-Product. SSM College of Engineering, Unpublished Document.
 Saleh S & El-Badry H (2013). Dyeing of Cationized Cotton Fabrics with Natural Dye Extracted from Acacia. International Journal of Textile Science, 2(2): 21-25.
 Ali S & Hussain T (2009). Cationizing Efficiency and performance of Antimicrobial Agent on Cotton Fabric Dyed with Vinyl Silphon Based Reactive Blue Dye. Indian Journal of Fiber Textile Research, 34(1):274-278.
 Shahidi S, Wiener J & Ghoranneviss M (2013). Surface Modification Methods for Improving the Dyeability of Textile Fabrics. Licensee In. Tech, 24(2000): 275-285.
 Biswas S, Huang X & Nantz M (2010). Nucleophiliccationization reagents. Tetrahedron Letters, 5(13):1727-1729.
 Swedish Chemicals Agency (2013). Hazardous chemicals in textiles. Report of a government assignment, 3(13): 1-114.
 Wang X & Liu Y (2013). The dyeing dynamics and structure of modified cotton fabric with cationic chicken feather keratin agent. Textile Research Journal: 0(00).1-12
 WFAO (2001). Animal Feed Resource Information System. Retrieved November 05, 2014, from www.fao.org/Animal Feed Resources Information System.htm.