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Synthesis of Sterile and Pyrogen Free Biogenic Magnetic Nanoparticles: Biotechnological Potential of Magnetotactic Bacteria for Production of Nanomaterials
Today, biogenic magnetite nanoparticles among magnetic nanoparticles have unique attracted attention because of their magnetic characteristics and potential applications in various fields such as therapeutic and diagnostic. A well known example of these biogenic nanoparticles is magnetosomes of magnetotactic bacteria. In this research, we used two different types of technique for the isolation and purification of magnetosome nanoparticles from the isolated magnetotactic bacterial cells, heat-alkaline treatment and sonication. Also we evaluated pyrogen content and sterility of synthesized the isolated individual magnetosome by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test and direct impedimetric method respectively.
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[1] T. Matsunaga, T. Suzuki, M. Tanaka, and A. Arakaki, "Molecular analysis of magnetotactic bacteria and development of functional bacterial magnetic particles for nano-biotechnology," Trends. Biotechnol., vol. 25, pp. 182-188, 2007.
[2] L. Xiang, J. Wei, S. Jianbo, W. Guili, G. Feng, and L. Ying, "Purified and sterilized magnetosomes from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 were not toxic to mouse fibroblasts in vitro," Lett. Appl. Microbiol., vol. 45, pp. 75-81, 2007.
[3] D. Sch├╝ler, and R. B. Frankel, "Bacterial magnetosomes: microbiology, biomineralization and biotechnological applications," Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., vol, 52, pp. 464- 473, 1999.
[4] D. A. Bazylinski, and R. B. Frankel, "Magnetosome Formation in Prokaryotes," Nat. Rev. Microbiol., vol. 2, pp. 217-230, 2004.
[5] T. Matsunaga, Y. Okamura, and T. Tanaka, "Biotechnological application of nano-scale engineered bacterial magnetic particles," J. Mater. Chem., vol. 14, pp. 2099-2105, 2004.
[6] C. Lang, and D. Sch├╝ler. "Biogenic nanoparticles: production, characterization, and application of bacterial magnetosomes," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter., vol. 18, pp. 2815-2828, 2006.
[7] H. Lei, S.Y. Li, Y. Yang, F-M. Zhao, J. Huang, and J. Chang, "Research on the structure and performance of bacterial magnetic nanoparticles," J. Biomater. Appl., vol. 22, pp. 433-448, 2008.
[8] M. Timko, A. Dzarova, J. Kovac, A. Skumiel, A. Jozefczak, T. Hornowski, H. Gojzewski, V. Zavisova, M. Koneracka, A. Sprincova, O. Strbak, P. Kopcansky, and N. Tomasovicova, "Magnetic properties and heating effect in bacterial magnetic nanoparticles," J. Magn. Magn. Mater., vol. 321, pp. 1521-1524, 2009.
[9] T. Matsunaga, and S. Kamiya, "Use of magnetic particles isolated from magnetotactic bacteria for enzyme immobilization," Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., vol. 26, pp. 328-332, 1987.
[10] T. Matsunaga, M. Kawasaki, X. Yu, N. Tsujimura, and N. Nakamura, "Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay using bacterial magnetic particles," Anal. Chem., vol. 68, pp. 3551-3554, 1996.
[11] T. Matsunaga, R. Sato, S. Kamiya, T. Tanaka, and H. Takeyama, "Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay using protein A-bacterial magnetite complex," J. Magnet. Magnet. Mater., vol. 194, pp. 126-134, 1999.
[12] J. Wei, Z. Dehua, L. Ying, T. Jiesheng, W. Zhenfang, and L. Jilun, "Submerged culture of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense under N2- fixing condition and regulation of activity of nitrogenase fixation," Chin. Sci. Bull., vol. 47, pp. 2095-2099, 2002.
[13] P. Tajer-Mohammad-Ghazvini, R. Kasra-Kermanshahi, A. Nozad- Golikand, and M. Sadeghizadeh, "A green chemical technique for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles by magnetotactic bacteria," in press.
[14] C. Yang, H. Takeyama, T. Tanaka, and T. Matsunaga " Effects of growth medium composition, iron sources and atmospheric oxygen concentrations on production of luciferase-bacterial magnetic particle complex by a recombinant Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1," Enzyme. Microb. Technol., vol. 29, pp. 13-19, 2001.
[15] E. Alphandéry, S. Faure, O. Seksek, F. Guyot, and I. Chebbi "Chains of magnetosomes extracted from AMB-1 magnetotactic bacteria for application in alternative magnetic field cancer therapy," ACS Nano., vol. 5, pp. 6279-6296, 2011.
[16] X. Zhijie, L. Bin, C. Jun, and H. H. Teng, "Design and application of the method for isolating magnetotactic bacteria," Chin. J. Geochem., vol. 26, pp. 252-258, 2007.
[17] Charles R. M. Glaus, "Development and analysis of radiolabeled magnetic nanoparticles for positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging", Georgia Institute of Technology, Dissertation, December 2008.
[18] Http:// lysate.
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