The Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oil and Aqueous, Methanol, Ethanol, Ethyl Acetate and Acetone Extract of Hypericum scabrum
Herbal essential oil and extracts are a good source of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds. Hypericum is one of the potential sources of these compounds. In this study, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oil and aqueous, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extract of Hypericum scabrum was assessed. Flowers of Hypericum scabrum were collected from the surrounding mountains of Hamadan province and after drying in the shade, the essential oil of the plant was extracted by Clevenger and water, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extract was obtained by maceration method. Essential oil compounds were identified using the GC-Mass. The Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) colorimetric method was used to measure the amount of phenolic acid and flavonoids, respectively. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH and FRAP. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bacterial/fungicide concentration (MBC/MFC) of essential oil and extracts were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans. The essential oil yield of was 0.35%, the lowest and highest extract yield was related to ethyl acetate and water extract. The most component of essential oil was α-Pinene (46.35%). The methanol extracts had the highest phenolic acid (95.65 ± 4.72 µg galic acid equivalent/g dry plant) and flavonoids (25.39 ± 2.73 µg quercetin equivalent/g dry plant). The percentage of DPPH radical inhibition showed positive correlation with concentrations of essential oil or extract. The methanol and ethanol extract had the highest DDPH radical inhibitory. Essential oil and extracts of Hypericum had antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms studied in this research. The MIC and MBC values for essential oils were in the range of 25-25.6 and 25-50 μg/mL, respectively. For the extracts, these values were 1.5625-100 and 3.125-100 μg/mL, respectively. Methanol extracts had the highest antimicrobial activity. Essential oil and extract of Hypericum scabrum, especially methanol extract, have proper antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, and it can be used to control the oxidation and inhibit the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. In addition, it can be used as a substitute for synthetic antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.
 N. J. Temple, “Antioxidants and disease: more questions than answers”, Nutri. Res., vol. 20 no. 3, 20000, pp. 449-59.
 J. Pokorný, “Are natural antioxidants better–and safer–than synthetic antioxidants?, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., vol. 109 no 6, 2007, pp. 642-642.
 B. Dimitrios, “Sources of natural phenolic antioxidants,” Trends in Food Sci. Technol., vol 17, no. 9, 2006, pp. 505-512.
 F. Bakkali, S. Averbeck, D. Averbeck and M. Idaomar, “Biological effects of essential oils – A review,” Food and Chem. Toxicol., vol. 46 no. 2, 2008, pp. 446-475.
 M. Morshedloo, A. Ebadi, M. Fatahi Moghaddam and D. Yazdani, “Essential oil composition, total phenol compounds and antioxidant activity of hypericum perforatum l. Extract collected from north of Iran,” J. Medi. Plants, vol 1 no. 41. 2012, pp 218-226.
 N. Radulović, V. Stankov-Jovanović, G. Stojanović, A. Šmelcerović, M. Spiteller and Y. Asakawa, “Screening of in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of nine Hypericum species from the Balkans,” Food chem., vol 103, no. 1, 2007, pp. 15-21.
 Z. Saddiqe, I. Naee and A. Maimoona, “A review of the antibacterial activity of Hypericum perforatum L. j. ethnopharmacol., vol 131, no. 3. 2010, pp. 511-521.
 A. Ghasemi Pirbalouti, M. Fatahi-Vanani, L. Craker and H. Shirmardi, “Chemical composition and bioactivity of essential oils of Hypericum helianthemoides, Hypericum perforatum and Hypericum scabrum. Pharm. Biol., vol. 52, no. 2, 2014, pp. 175-181.
 Javidnia K, Miri R, Soltani M, Gholami M, Khosravi A. Essential oil composition of four Hypericum species from Iran. Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 2008;44(3):374-377.
 L. Süntar, O. Oyard, E. K. Akkol and B. Ozçelik, “Antimicrobial effect of the extracts from Hypericum perforatum against oral bacteria and biofilm formation. Pharm. Biolo., vol. 54, no. 6, 2016, pp. 1065-1070.
 S. L. Crockett, “Essential oil and volatile components of the genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae),” Nat. Prod. Commun., vol 5, no. 9, 2010, pp. 1493- 1506.
 A. Dadkhah, K. Roshanaei, F. Fatemi, M. Kazemi and M. Alipour, “Abdolmohammadi MH. Biological Properties of Iranian Hypericum Scabrum Essential oil and Hydroalcoholic Extract from Alamut Mountain. J. Essential Oil Bearing Plants, vol 177, no. 2, 2014, pp.186-95.
 H. Fathi and M. A. Ebrahimzadeh, “Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of Hypericum perforatum L. (st. John’s wort)” Int. J. Forest, Soil and Erosion, vol. 3 no. 2, 2013, pp 68-72.