Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 31107

Select areas to restrict search in scientific publication database:
Trade Policy and Economic Growth of Turkey in Global Economy: New Empirical Evidences
This paper tries to answer to the questions whether or not trade openness causes economic growth and trade policy changes are good for Turkey as a developing country in global economy before and after 1980. We employ Johansen co-integration and Granger causality tests with error correction modeling based on vector autoregressive. Using WDI data from the pre-1980 and the post-1980, we find that trade openness and economic growth are cointegrated in the second term only. Also the results suggest a lack of long-run causality between our two variables. These findings may imply that trade policy of Turkey should concentrate more on extra complementary economic reforms.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):


[1] J.S.Jr. Nye and D.A. Welch, Küresel Çatışmayı ve İşbirliğini Anlamak, Çev. Renan Akman, Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, 3. Baskı, İstanbul, 2013, ss.364-367.
[2] J.E. Stiglitz, Eşitsizliğin Bedeli, Bugünün Bölünmüş Toplumu Geleceğimizi Nasıl Tehlikeye Atıyor?, Çev.Ozan İşler, İletişim Yayınları, 3. Baskı, İstanbul, 2015, ss.118-121.
[3] D. Rodrik, Akıllı Küreselleşme, Çev. Burcu Aksu, Efil Yayınevi, Ankara, 2011, s.59.
[4] D. Rodrik, “The Limits of Trade Policy Reform in Developing Countries”, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 6(1), Winter, 1992, pp.87-105.
[5] W. Jr. Darity and L.S. Davis, “Growth, Trade and Uneven Development”, Cambridge Journal of Economics”, 29, 2005, pp.141- 170.
[6] S. Dowrick and J. Golley, “Trade Opennes and Growth: Who Benefits?”, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 20(1), 2004, pp.38-56.
[7] A.U. Santos-Paulino, “Trade Liberalisation and Economic Performance: Theory and Evidence for Developing Countries”, The World Economy, 28(6), 2005, pp.783-821.
[8] S. Edwards, “Trade Liberalization and Growth in Developing Countries”, Journal of Economic Literature, 31(3), 1993, pp.1358-1393.
[9] S.Y. Saçık, “Büyümenin Bir Kaynağı Olarak Ticari Dışa Açıklık”, SÜ İİBF Sosyal ve Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 11(17), 2009, ss.525- 548.
[10] S. Girma, M. Henry, and R. Kneller, “Threshold and Interaction Effects in the Openness-Productivity Growth Relationship: The Role of Institutions and Natural Barriers”, University of Nottingham GEP Research Paper Series, 32, 2003.
[11] N. Foster, “Exports, Growth and Threshold Effects in Africa”, Journal of Development Studies, 42(6), 2005, pp.1056-1074.
[12] D.-H. Kim and S.-C. Lin, “Trade and Growth at Different Stages of Economic Development”, Journal of Development Studies, 45(8), 2008, pp.1211-1224.
[13] R. Chang, L. Kaltani and N.V. Loayza, “Openness Can Be Good for Growth: The Role of Policy Complementarities”, Journal of Development Economics, 90, 2009, pp.33-49.
[14] P.M. Romer, “Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth”, Journal of Political Economy, 94(5), 1986, pp.1002-1037.
[15] R.E. Lucas, “On The Mechanics of Economic Development'', Journal of Monetary Economics, 22, 1988, pp.25-50.
[16] S. Rebelo, “Long Run Policy Analysis and Long Run Growth”, Journal of Political Economy, 99(3), 1991, pp.500-521.
[17] R.J. Barro, “Goverment Spending in a Simple Model of Endogenous Growth”, Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), Part 2, 1990, pp.103-125.
[18] P.M. Romer, “Endogenous Technical Change”, Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), Part 2, 1990, pp.71-102.
[19] G.M. Grossman and E. Helpman, “Quality Ladders in the Growth Theory”, NBER Working Paper, No.3099, 1989.
[20] P. Aghion and P. Howitt, “A Model of Through Creative Destruction”, Econometrica, 60(2), 1992, pp.323-351.
[21] G.M. Grossman and E. Helpman, “Trade, Knowledge Spillovers, and Growth”, European Economic Review, 35, 1991, pp.517-526.
[22] T. Ghirmay, R. Grabowski and S.C. Sharma, “Exports, Investment, Efficiency and Economic Growth in LDC: An Empirical Investigation”, Applied Economics, 33(6), 2001, pp.689-700.
[23] G. Cameron, J. Proudman and S. Redding, “Technological Convergence, R&D and Productivity Growth”, European Economic Review, 49, 2005, pp.775-807.
[24] J. Balaguer and M. Cantavella-Jordá, “Structural Change in Exports and Economic Growth: Cointegration and Causality Analysis for Spain”, Applied Economics, 36(5), 2004, pp.473-477.
[25] A. Dar and S. Amirkhalkhali, “On the İmpact of Trade Openness on Growth: Further Evidence from OECD Countries”, Applied Economics, 35(16), 2003, pp.1761-1766.
[26] Y.-C. Chuang, “The trade-induced learning effect on growth: crosscountry evidence”, Journal of Development Studıes, 39(2), 2002, pp.137-154.
[27] J.A. Cotsomitis, et al., “Are There Technological Gains from the Liberalization of Exchange?”, Applied Economics, 34(8), 2002, pp.1033- 1040.
[28] J.-W. Lee, “Capital Goods Imports and Long-Run Growth”, Journal of Development Economics, 48(1), 1995, pp.91-110.
[29] N. Ahmed, “Trade Liberalization and Endogenous Growth of Manufacturing İndustries in Bangladesh: An Empirical investigation”, Applied Economics, 35(3), 2003, pp.305-314.
[30] J. Crespo, C. Martin and F.J. Velázquez, “The Role of International Technology Spillovers in the Economic Growth of the OECD Countries”, Global Economy Journal, 4(2), Article.3, 2004, pp.1-18.
[31] R. Karluk, Türkiye Ekonomisi, Beta Basım Yayım, Yedinci Baskı, Kasım, Istanbul, 2002, s.241.
[32] E. Yeldan, Küreselleşme Sürecinde Türkiye Ekonomisi Bölüşüm, Birikim ve Büyüme, 6. Baskı, İletişim Yayınları, İstanbul, 2002, s.45.
[33] A.S. Söylemez, “Küreselleşme, Yapısal Dönüşüm ve Büyüme: Bilgi Göstergeleri Işığında Türkiye Açısından bir Değerlendirme”, Ekonomik Yaklaşım, 15(51), 2004, ss.32-64.
[34] E. Türkcan, “Teknolojik Düzeyi Etkileyen Politikalar ve Türkiye”, Ekonomik Yaklaşım, 2(6), 1991, ss.41-71.
[35] S. Johansen, “Statistical analysis of cointegrated vectors” Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 12, 1988, pp.131–154.
[36] S. Johansen and K. Juselius, “Maximum likelihood estimation and inference on cointegration: With an application to demand for Money”, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 52, 1990, pp.169–210.
[37] R. Harris and R. Sollis, Applied Time Series Modelling and Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, 2003, pp.109-115.
[38] C.A. Sims, “Macroeconomics and Reality”, Econometrica, 48(1), 1980, pp.1-48.
[39] C.A. Sims, J.H. Stock and M.W. Watson, “Inference in Linear Time Series Models with Some Unit Roots”, Econometrica, 58(1), 1990, pp.113-144.
[40] C.W.J. Granger, “Some Recent Developments in a Concept of Causality”, Journal of Econometrics, 39, 1988, pp.199-211.
[41] H.Y. Bleikh and W.L. Young, Time Series Analysis and Adjustment, Measuring, Modelling and Forecasting for Business and Economics, Ashgate Publishing, 2014.
[42] P.T. Brandt and J.T. Williams, “Multiple Time Series Models”, Sage, University Papers Series: Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, 148, 2007.
[43] A. Şengönül and İ. Tuncer, “Dış Ticaret Politikaları ve Uzun Dönem Büyüme”, Ekonomik Yaklaşım, 52-53(15), 2004, ss.161-184.
Vol:15 No:03 2021Vol:15 No:02 2021Vol:15 No:01 2021
Vol:14 No:12 2020Vol:14 No:11 2020Vol:14 No:10 2020Vol:14 No:09 2020Vol:14 No:08 2020Vol:14 No:07 2020Vol:14 No:06 2020Vol:14 No:05 2020Vol:14 No:04 2020Vol:14 No:03 2020Vol:14 No:02 2020Vol:14 No:01 2020
Vol:13 No:12 2019Vol:13 No:11 2019Vol:13 No:10 2019Vol:13 No:09 2019Vol:13 No:08 2019Vol:13 No:07 2019Vol:13 No:06 2019Vol:13 No:05 2019Vol:13 No:04 2019Vol:13 No:03 2019Vol:13 No:02 2019Vol:13 No:01 2019
Vol:12 No:12 2018Vol:12 No:11 2018Vol:12 No:10 2018Vol:12 No:09 2018Vol:12 No:08 2018Vol:12 No:07 2018Vol:12 No:06 2018Vol:12 No:05 2018Vol:12 No:04 2018Vol:12 No:03 2018Vol:12 No:02 2018Vol:12 No:01 2018
Vol:11 No:12 2017Vol:11 No:11 2017Vol:11 No:10 2017Vol:11 No:09 2017Vol:11 No:08 2017Vol:11 No:07 2017Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007