Treatment of Simulated Textile Wastewater Containing Reactive Azo Dyes Using Laboratory Scale Trickling Filter
 T.M. Uddin, A.M. Islam, S. Mahmud and M. Rukanuzzaman, “Adsorptive removal of methylene blue by tea waste,” J. Hazard. Mater. vol. 164, pp. 53-60, 2009.
 T. Robinson, B. Chandran and P. Nigam, “Studies on the decolorization of an artificial textile-effluent by white-rot fungi in N-rich and N-limited media,” Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. vol. 57, pp.810, 2001.
 S. A. Khehra, S. H. Saini, K. D. Sharma, S. A. Chadha and S. S. Chimni, “Decolorization of various azo dyes by bacterial consortium,” Dyes Pigm. vol. 67, pp. 55, 2005.
 S. Moosvi, X. Kher and D. Madamwar, “Isolation, characterization and decolorization of textile dyes by a mixed bacterial consortium JW-2,” Dyes. Pigm. vol. 74, pp. 723-729, 2007.
 R. M. Saeed, J. M. Mughal, S. S. Naeem, Nizami, H. Tanzile and Usmani, “Decolorisation of Remazol vinyl sulphone reactive dyes by potassium permanganate,” Colouration Technol. vol. 125, pp. 277-283, 2009.
 N. Ali, A. Hameed and S. Ahmed, “Physicochemical characterization and bioremediation perspective of textile effluent, dyes and metals by indigenous Bacteria,” J. Hazard. Mater. vol. 164, pp. 322-328, 2009.
 G. R. Saratale, G. D. Saratale, S. J. Chang and S. P. Govindwar, “Bacterial decolorization and degradation of azo dyes: A review,” J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng. vol. 42, pp. 138-157, 2011.
 Ö. Tunc, H. Tanaci and Z. Aksu, “Potential use of cotton plant wastes for the removal of Remazol Black B reactive dye,” J. Hazard. Mater.vol, 163, pp.187-198, 2009.
 K. Sarayu, and S. Sandhya, “Current technologies for biological treatment of textile wastewater: a review,” Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. vol. 167, no. 3, 645-661, 2012.
 A. Pandey, P. Singh and L. Iyengar, “Bacterial decolorization and degradation of azo dyes,” Int. Biodeter. Biodegr. vol. 59, pp. 73-84, 2007.R. Khan, P. Bhawana and M. H. Fulekar, “Microbial decolorization and degradation of synthetic dyes: a review,” Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol. vol. 12, pp. 75-97, 2012.
 R. G. Saratale, G. D. Saratale,D. C. Kalyani, J. S. Chang and S. P. Govindwar, “Enhanced decolorization and biodegradation of textile azo dye Scarlet R by using developed microbial consortium-GR,” Bioresour. Technol. vol. 100, pp. 2493-2500, 2009.
 A. Khalid, M. Arshad and D. E. Crowley, “Decolorization of azo dyes by Shewanellasp. under saline conditions,” Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. vol. 79, pp. 1053-1059, 2008.
 I. O. Ola, A. K. Akintokun, I. Akpan, I. O. Omomowo, V. O. Areo, “Aerobic decolorization of two reactive azo dyes under varying carbon and nitrogen source by Bacillus cereus,” Afr. J. Biotechnol. vol. 9, pp. 672-677, 2010.
 D. C. Kalyani, A. A. Telkedhanve and J. P. Jadhav, “Ecofriendly biodegradation and detoxification of Reactive Red 2 textile dye by newly isolated Pseudomonas sp. SUK1,” J.Hazard. Mater. vol. 163, no. 2-3, pp.735-742, 2009.
 U.U. Jadhav, V. V. Dawkar, G. S. Ghodake and S. P. Govindwar, “Biodegradation of Direct Red 5B, a textile dye by newly isolated Comamonassp. UVS,” J. Hazard. Mater. vol. 158, no, 2-3 pp. 507-516, 2008.
 M. Sudha, A. Saranya, G. Selvakumar and N. Sivakumar, “Microbial degradation of Azo Dyes: A review, Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 670-690, 2014.
 F. J. Szogi, J. M. Humenik, and R. Hunt, “Swine wastewater treatment by Media Filtration,” J. Environ. Sci. Health. Vol. 832, no. 5, pp. 831–843, 1997.
 M. R. Evangelho, M. M. Goncalves, M. S. Anna, G. L. Jr. and R. C. Villas Bo, “A trickling filter application for the treatment of a gold milling effluent. Int. J.Miner. Proc. vol. 62, pp. 279–292, 2000.
 Y. Tanaka, “A dual purpose packed-bed reactor for biogas scrubbing and methane-dependent water quality improvement applying to a wastewater treatment system consisting of UASB reactor and trickling filter,” Bioresource Technol. vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 21-28, 2002.
 C. Wang, J. Li, B. Wang and G. Zhang, “Development of an empirical model for domestic wastewater treatment by biological aerated filter,” Process Biochem. vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 778-782, 2006.
 E. Dermou, A. Velissariou, D. Xenos, and D. V. Vayenas, “Biological chromium (VI) reduction using a trickling filter,” J. hazard. Mater. vol.126, no. 1, pp.78-85, 2005.
 E. Dermou, and D. V. Vayenas, “A kinetic study of biological Cr (VI) reduction in trickling filters with different filter media types” J. hazard. Mater. vol. 145 no. 1, pp. 256-262, 2007.
 M. Mahmoud, A. Tawfik and F. El-Gohary, “Simultaneous organic and nutrient removal in a naturally ventilated bio tower treating presettled municipal wastewater,” J. Environ Eng. vol. 136, pp. 301–307, 2010.
 Z. Shareefdeen and A. Singh, “Biotechnology for odor and air pollution control,” Berlin, Springer, 2005.
 W, Guo, H. H, Ngo, F. Dharmawan and C. G. Palmer, “Roles of polyurethane foam in aerobic moving and fixed bed bioreactors,” Bioresource Technol. vol. 101, pp. 1435–1439, 2010.
 M. Kornaros and G. Lyberatos., “Biological treatment of wastewaters from a dye manufacturing company using a trickling filter,” J. Hazard. Mater. vol. 136, pp. 95–102, 2006.
 C. Novotny, K. Svobodova, O. Benada, O. Kofronova and A. H. W. Fuchs, “Potential of combined fungal and bacterial treatment for color removal in textile wastewater,” Bioresource Technol. vol. 102, pp. 879–888, 2011.
 A. U. Turker and N. D. Camper, “Biological activity of common mullein, a medicinal plant,” J. Ethnopharmacol. vol.82, pp. 117-125, 2002.
 B. N. Meyer, N. R. Ferrigni, J. E. Putnam, L. B. Jacobsen, D. J. Nichols and J. L. Mclaughlin, “ Brine shrimp: a convenient general bioassay for active plant constituents,” PlantaMedica. vol. 45, pp. 31-34, 1982.
 C. Cripps, J. A. Bumpus and S. D. Aust, “Biodegradation of azo and heterocyclic dyes by Phanerochaetechrysosporium,” Appl. Envir. Microbiol. vol. 56, no. 4, pp.1114-1118, 1990.
 K. Chung and C. E. Cerniglia, “Mutagenicity of azo dyes: Structure-activity relationships,” Mutat Res-Rev Genet, vol. 277, no. 3, pp.201–220, 1992.
 F. P. van der Zee and S. Villaverde, “Combined anaerobic–aerobic treatment of azo dyes—A short review of bioreactor studies, Water Res. Vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 1425–1440, 2005.
 S. Mohanty, N. Dafale and N.N. Rao, “Microbial decolorization of reactive black-5 in a two-stage anearobic–aerobic reactor using acclimatized activated textile sludge,” Biodegr. vol. 17, pp. 403–413, 2006.
 K. T. Chung and S. E. Stevens Jr., “Degradation of azo dye by environmental microorganisms and helminthes,” Environ. Toxicol. Chem. vol. 12, pp. 2121–2132, 1993.
 M. F. Coughlin, B. K. Kinkle, A. Tepper and P. L. Bishop, “Characterization of aerobicazo dye-degrading bacteria and their activity in biofilms,” Water Sci. Technol. vol. 36, pp. 215–220, 1997.
 L. S. Clesceri. A. E. Greenberg, M. P. eaton, “APHA, AWWA, WEF, Standard method for examination of water and wastewater,” 20th ed. 1998.
 J. Swamy and J. A. Ramsay, “The evaluation of white rot fungi in the decoloration of textile dyes,” Enzyme Microbiol. Tech. vol. 24, no.3, pp. 130-137, 1999.
 I. M. Banat, P. Nigam, D. Singh and R. Marchant, “Microbial decolorization of textile-dye containing effluents: a review, “Biores. Technol. vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 217-227, 1996.
 J. Deng, G. Guo and G. Zeng, “Decolorization of anthraquinone, triphenylmethane and azo dyes by a new isolated Bacillus Cereus strain DC11. Int. Biodeter. Biodegr. vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 263-269, 2008.
 S. S. Phugare, D. C. Kalyani, S. N. Surwase and J. P. Jadhav, “Ecofriendly degradation, decolorization and detoxiﬁcation of textile efﬂuent by a developed bacterial consortium,” Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safe. vol. 74, pp. 1288–1296, 2011.
 W. Haug, A. Schmidt, B. Nortemann, D. C. Hempel, A. Stoiz and H. J. Knackmuss, Mineralization of the sulfonatedazo dye mordant yellow 3 by 6-aminonaphthalene-2-sulfonate-degrading bacterial consortium,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57, pp. 3144–3149, 1991.
 H. A. Alhassani, M. A. Rauf and S. S. Ashraf, “Efficient microbial degradation of Toluidine Blue dye by Brevibacillus sp.,” Dyes Pigments. vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 395–400, 2007.
 S. U. Jadhav,M. U. Jadhav, A. N. Kagalkar and S. P. Govindwar, “Decolorization of Brilliant Blue G dye mediated by degradation of the microbial consortium of Galactomycesgeotrichum and Bacillus sp.,” Journal of the Chinese Institute of Chemical Engineers, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 563–570, 2008.
 S. S. Gomare and, S. P. Govindwar, “Brevibacilluslaterosporus MTCC 2298: a potential azo dye degrader,” J. Appl. Microbiol.vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 993–1004, 2009.
 S. V. Mohan, P. Suresh and S. Srikanth, “Azo dye remediation in periodic discontinuous batch mode operation: evaluation of metabolic shifts of the biocatalyst under aerobic, anaerobic and anoxic conditions,” Sep. Purf. Technol. vol. 118, pp. 196-208, 2013a.
 A. N. Kumar, C. N. Reddy, R. H. Prasad and S. V. Mohan, “Azo dye load-shock on relative behavior of bioﬁlm and suspended growth conﬁgured periodic discontinuous batch mode operations: Critical evaluation with enzymatic and bio-electro catalytic analysis,” Water Res. vol. 60, pp. 182-196, 2014.
 S. V. Mohan, C. N. Reddy, A. N. Kumar, J. A. Modestra, “Relative performance of bioﬁlm conﬁguration over suspended growth operation on azo dye based wastewater treatment in periodic discontinuous batch mode operation,” Bioresour. Technol. vol. 147, pp. 424-433, 2013b.
 APHA, “Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater,” American public health association (APHA). Washington D. C., 21st ed., 2005.
 R. Mass and S. Chaudhari, “Adsortion and biological decolorization of azo Reactive Red 2 in semi continuous anaerobic reactors,” Process Biochem, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 699-705, 2005.
 P. Lens, A. Massone, A. Rozzi and W. Verstraete, “Effect of sulfate concentration and scraping on aerobic fixed biofilm reactors,” Water Res. vol. 29, pp. 857-70,1995.
 P. A. Alphenaar, R. Sleyster, P. D. Reuver, G. J. Ligthart and G. Lettinga, “Phosphorous requirement in high rate anaerobic wastewater treatment,” Water Res. vol. 27, pp.749-756, 1993.
 S. Soo and K. Chang-Jin, “Decolorisation of artificial dyes by peroxidase,” Biotech. Letters. vol. 20, no.6, pp. 569-572, 2003.
 M. R. Atlas, “Bacterial growth and reproduction in principles of microbiology,” edited by james M Smith (Hoffmann Press Inc, Missouri) pp. 327-349, 1995.
 K. Balapure, N. Bhatt and D. Madamwar, “Mineralization of reactive azo dyes present in simulated textile waste water using down flow microaerophilic fixed film bioreactor, Bioresource Technol. vol. 175, pp. 1–7, 2015.
 B. Saba, A. Khalid, A. Nazir, H. Kanwal, T. Mahmood, “Reactive black-5 azo dye treatment in suspended and attach growth sequencing batch bioreactor using different co-substrates. Int. Biodet. Biodegr. vol. 85, pp. 556-562, 2013.
 P. K. Gupta, Methods in Environmental Analysis Water, Soil and Air, 1st ed., UpdeshPurohit for Agrobios, India Jodhpur Agro House, 2004, pp. 47–48.
 M. A. Belmont, E. Cantellano, S. Thompson, M. Williamson, A. Sanchez, C. D. Metcalfe, “Treatment of domestic wastewater in a pilot-scale natural treatment system in central Mexico,” J. Ecol. Eng. vol. 23, 299-08, 2004.
 H. Wu, S. Wang, H. Kong, T. Liu and M. Xia, “Performance of combined process of anoxic baffled reactor-biological contact oxidation treating printing and dyeing wastewater,” Bioresource Technol. vol. 98, no. 7, pp. 1501-1504, 2007.
 S. D. Kalme, G. K. Parshetti, S. U. Jadhav and S. P. Govindwar, “Biodegradation of benzidine based dye Direct Blue-6 by Pseudomonas desmolyticum NCIM 2112,” Bioresource Technol. vol. 98, no. 7, 1405-1410, 2007.
 F. Elisangela, Z. Andrea, D. G. Fabio, R. M. Cristiano, D. L. Regina and C. P. Artur, “Biodegradation of textile azo dyes by a facultative Staphylococcus arlettae strain VN-11 using a sequential microaerophilic/aerobic process,”Int. Biodeter. Biodegr. vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 280-288, 2009.
 M. B. Kurade, T. R. Waghmode, A. N. Kagalkar and S. P. Govindwar, “Decolorization of textile industry effluent containing disperse dye Scarlet RR by a newly developed bacterial-yeast consortium BL-GG,” Chem. Eng. J.vol. 184, pp. 33-41, 2012.