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Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 30564

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Ultrasound Mechanical Index as a Parameter Affecting of the Ability of Proliferation of Cells
Mechanical index (MI) is used for quantifying acoustic cavitation and the relationship between acoustic pressure and the frequency. In this study, modeling of the MI was applied to provide treatment protocol and to understand the effective physical processes on reproducibility of stem cells. The acoustic pressure and MI equations are modeled and solved to estimate optimal MI for 28, 40, 150 kHz and 1 MHz frequencies. Radial and axial acoustic pressure distribution was extracted. To validate the results of the modeling, the acoustic pressure in the water and near field depth was measured by a piston hydrophone. Results of modeling and experiments show that the model is consistent well to experimental results with 0.91 and 0.90 correlation of coefficient (p<0.05) for 1 MHz and 40 kHz. Low intensity ultrasound with 0.40 MI is more effective on the proliferation rate of the spermatogonial stem cells during the seven days of culture, in contrast, high MI has a harmful effect on the spermatogonial stem cells. This model provides proper treatment planning in vitro and in vivo by estimating the cavitation phenomenon.
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[1] H. Wu, K. Ren, W. Zhao, GE Baojian, S. Peng, "Effect of electromagnetic fields on proliferation and differentiation of cultured mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells," J. Huazhong. Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci., vol. 25, pp. 185-187, 2005
[2] J. L. Ruan, Y. N. Wang, A. C. Lawrence, B. M. Stuart, "Ultrasound generated mechanical induction of mesenchymal stem cells," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol. 127, pp. 1763- 1766, 2010.
[3] A. H. Barati, M. Mokhtari-Dizaji, H. Mozdarani, S. Z. Bathaie, Z. M. Hassan, "Treatment of murine tumors using dual-frequency ultrasound in an experimental in vivo model," Ultrasound Med. Boil., vol. 35, pp. 756-763, 2009.
[4] S. H. Zhou, A. Schmelz, T. H. Seufferlein, Y. Li, J. Zhao, "Molecular mechanisms of low intensity pulsed ultrasound in human skin fibroblasts," J. Biol. Chem., vol. 279, pp. 54463- 54469, 2004.
[5] K. Keyhani, H. R. Guzman, A. Parsons, T. N. Lewis, M. R. Prausnitz, "Intracellular drug delivery using low-frequency ultrasound: quantification of molecular uptake and cell viability," Pharm. Res. vol. 18, pp. 1514-1520, 2001.
[6] C. Church, C. Labuda, K. Nightingale, "A theoretical study of inertial cavitation from acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging and implications for the mechanical index," Ultrasound Med. Biol. vol. 41, pp. 472-485, 2015.
[7] M. F. Hamilton, D. T. Blackstock, "Nonlinear acoustics, "Academic Press, Boston, 1998; Chap 1-3, pp. 1-62.
[8] P. Hariharan, M. R. Myers, R. K. Banerjee, "HIFU procedures at moderate intensities: Effect of large blood vessels," Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 52, pp. 3493-3513, 2007.
[9] A. P. Sarvazyan, M. W. Urban, J. F. Greenleaf, "Acoustic waves in medical imaging and diagnostics," Ultrasound Med. Biol., vol. 39, pp. 1133-1146, 2013.
[10] M. E. Ravari, M. Mokhtari-Dizaji, S. H. Momeni-Masuleh, S. Motiee, "Estimation of ultrasound pressure distribution due to 1 MHz ultrasonic transducer for ultrasonic treatment planning in hyperthermia methods," J. Acoust. Eng. Soc. Iran, vol. 3, pp. 46-57, 2015.
[11] M. Mohaqiq, M. Movahedin, M. Mokhtari Dizaji, Z. Mazaheri, "The effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation on neonate mouse spermatogonial stem cells," MJMS: Pathobiology. vol. 16, 85-94, 2013.
[12] A. A. Ketkar, K. V. R. Reddy, "Expression pattern of OCT-4 and PLZF transcription factors during the early events of spermatogenesis in mice," J. Cell Sci. Ther., vol. 3, pp. 1-6, 2012.
[13] S. Kotopulis, "Biomedical ultrasounic, caviatation and sonoporation", Thesis for the degree of doctor philosophy; Hull University, Yorkshire, England; 2011: Chap 1, pp. 11-84.
[14] Z. Hlinomazova, I. Hrazdira, "Alara: Principle and safety problems of diagnostic ultrasound," SCRIPTA Medica (BRNO), vol. 78, pp. 341-346, 2005.
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