The Characteristics of a Fair and Efficient Tax Auditing Information System as a Tool against Tax Evasion: A Theoretical Framework
Economic growth and social evolution are connected to trust relationships in a society. The quality of the accounting information, the tax information system and the tax audit mechanism evolve multiple benefits in an economy. Tax evasion, the illegal practice where people and companies do not pay taxes, is a crime because of the negative effect in economy and society. In this paper, we describe a theoretical framework on the characteristics of a fair and efficient tax auditing information system which could be a tool against tax evasion, a tool for an economy to grow, especially in countries that face fluctuations in economic activity. We conclude that a fair and efficient tax auditing information system increases the reliability of tax administration, improves taxpayers’ tax compliance and causes a developmental trajectory for the economy.
Conventional and Islamic Perspective in Accounting: Potential for Alternative Reporting Framework
This paper provides an overview of fundamental philosophical and functional differences in conventional and Islamic accounting. The aim of this research is to undertake a detailed analysis focus on specific illustrations drawn from both these systems and highlight how these differences implicate in recording financial transactions and preparation of financial reports for a range of stakeholders. Accounting as being universally considered as a platform for providing a ‘true and fair’ view of corporate entities can be challenged in the current world view, as the business environment has evolved and transformed significantly. Growth of the non-traditional corporate entity such as Islamic financial institutions, fundamentally questions the applicability of conventional accounting standards in preparation of Shariah-compliant financial reporting. Coupled with this, there are significant concerns about the wider applicability of Islamic accounting standards and framework in order to achieve reporting practices satisfying the information needs generally. Against the backdrop of such a context, this paper raises fundamental question as to how potential convergence could be achieved between these two systems in order to provide users’ a transparent and comparable state of financial information resulting in an alternative framework of financial reporting.
Effect of Political and Social Context in Libya on Accounting Information System to Meet Development Needs
The aim of this paper is to show how Libya’s legal, economic, political, social, and cultural systems have shaped Libyan development. This will provide a background to develop an understanding of the current role of the accounting information system in Libya and the challenges facing the design of the aeronautical information system to meet the development needs of Libya. Our knowledge of the unified economic operating systems of the world paves the way for the economic development of every developing country. In order to achieve this understanding, every developing country should be provided with a high-efficiency communications system in order to be able to interact globally. From the point of view of the theory of globalization, Libya's understanding of its socio-economic and political systems is vital in order to be able to adopt and apply accounting techniques that will assist in the economic development of Libya.
UK GAAP and IFRS Standards: Similarities and Differences
This paper aimed to help researchers and international companies to the differences and similarities between IFRS (International financial reporting standards) and UK GAAP or UK accounting principles, and to the accounting changes between standard setting of the International Accounting Standards Board and the Accounting Standards Board in United Kingdom. We will use in this study statistical methods to calculate similarities and difference frequencies between the UK standards and IFRS standards, according to the PricewaterhouseCoopers report in 2005. We will use the one simple test to confirm or refuse our hypothesis. In conclusion, we found that the gap between UK GAAP and IFRS is small.
Qualitative and Quantitative Case Study Research Method on Social Science: Accounting Perspective
The main aim of this paper is to set the parameters within which the study is to be conducted, specifically justifying the use of qualitative research, informed by theory. This paper argues that the social world is subjective in nature and may be accessed through the interpretive approach provided by the people involved in the context of the study. The paper defines and distinguishes between qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, explores Burrell and Morgan's framework for social research, and presents the study's adopted methodology and methods, with the rationale for these choices.
Environmental Accounting: A Conceptual Study of Indian Context
As the entire world continues its rapid move towards industrialization, it has seriously threatened mankind’s ability to maintain an ecological balance. Geographical and natural forces have a significant influence on the location of industries. Industrialization is the foundation stone of the development of any country, while the unplanned industrialization and discharge of waste by industries is the cause of environmental pollution. There is growing degree of awareness and concern globally among nations about environmental degradation or pollution. Environmental resources endowed by the gift of nature and not manmade are invaluable natural resources of a country like India. Any developmental activity is directly related to natural and environmental resources. Economic development without environmental considerations brings about environmental crises and damages the quality of life of present, as well as future generation. As corporate sectors in the global market, especially in India, are becoming anxious about environmental degradation, naturally more and more emphasis will be ascribed to how environment-friendly the outcomes are. Maintaining accounts of such environmental and natural resources in the country has become more urgent. Moreover, international awareness and acceptance of the importance of environmental issues has motivated the development of a branch of accounting called “Environmental Accounting”. Environmental accounting attempts to detect and focus the resources consumed and the costs rendered by an industrial unit to the environment. For the sustainable development of mankind, a healthy environment is indispensable. Gradually, therefore, in many countries including India, environment matters are being given top most priority. Accounting and disclosure of environmental matters have been increasingly manifesting as an important dimension of corporate accounting and reporting practices. But, as conventional accounting deals with mainly non-living things, the formulation of valuation, and measurement and accounting techniques for incorporating environment-related matters in the corporate financial statement sometimes creates problems for the accountant. In the light of this situation, the conceptual analysis of the study is concerned with the rationale of environmental accounting on the economy and society as a whole, and focuses the failures of the traditional accounting system. A modest attempt has been made to throw light on the environmental awareness in developing nations like India and discuss the problems associated with the implementation of environmental accounting. The conceptual study also reflects that despite different anomalies, environmental accounting is becoming an increasing important aspect of the accounting agenda within the corporate sector in India. Lastly, a conclusion, along with recommendations, has been given to overcome the situation.
Environmental Accounting Practice: Analyzing the Extent and Qualification of Environmental Disclosures of Turkish Companies Located in BIST-XKURY Index
Environmental pollution has detrimental effects on the quality of our life and its scope has reached such an extent that measures are being taken both at the national and international levels to reduce, prevent and mitigate its impact on social, economic and political spheres. Therefore, awareness of environmental problems has been increasing among stakeholders and accordingly among companies. It is seen that corporate reporting is expanding beyond environmental performance. Primary purpose of publishing an environmental report is to provide specific audiences with useful, meaningful information. This paper is intended to analyze the extent and qualification of environmental disclosures of Turkish publicly quoted firms and see how it varies from one sector to another. The data for the study were collected from annual activity reports of companies, listed on the corporate governance index (BIST-XKURY) of Istanbul Stock Exchange. Content analysis was the research methodology used to measure the extent of environmental disclosure. Accordingly, 2015 annual activity reports of companies that carry out business in some particular fields were acquired from Capital Market Board, websites of Public Disclosure Platform and companies’ own websites. These reports were categorized into five main aspects: Environmental policies, environmental management systems, environmental protection and conservation activities, environmental awareness and information on environmental lawsuits. Subsequently, each component was divided into several variables related to what each firm is supposed to disclose about environmental information. In this context, the nature and scope of the information disclosed on each item were assessed according to five different ways (N.I: No Information; G.E.: General Explanations; Q.E.: Qualitative Detailed Explanations; N.E.: Quantitative (numerical) Detailed Explanations; Q.&N.E.: Both Qualitative and Quantitative Explanations).
Accounting Information Systems of Kuwaiti Companies: Obstacles and Barriers
The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the obstacles to the ability of the accounting information systems of Kuwaiti companies to deal with electronic commerce, and then to propose appropriate solutions to overcome the barriers. The study revealed a remarkable decrease in external auditors who have professional certification. The results also showed an agreement regarding the accounting systems and the ability to deal with e-commerce, with a different degree of importance, despite the presence of obstacles to the ability of accounting systems in dealing with different companies.
Financial Statement Fraud: The Need for a Paradigm Shift to Forensic Accounting
The unrelenting series of embarrassing audit failures should stimulate a paradigm shift in accounting. And in this age of information revolution, there is need for a constant improvement on the products or services one offers to the market in order to be relevant. This study explores the perceptions of external auditors, forensic accountants and accounting academics on whether a paradigm shift to forensic accounting can reduce financial statement frauds. Through Neo-empiricism/inductive analytical approach, findings reveal that a paradigm shift to forensic accounting might be the right step in the right direction in order to increase the chances of fraud prevention and detection in the financial statement. This research has implication on accounting education on the need to incorporate forensic accounting into present day accounting curriculum. Accounting professional bodies, accounting standard setters and accounting firms all have roles to play in incorporating forensic accounting education into accounting curriculum. Particularly, there is need to alter the ISA 240 to make the prevention and detection of frauds the responsibilities of bot those charged with the management and governance of companies and statutory auditors.
Financial Deepening and Economic Growth Dynamics: Empirical Evidence from the West African Monetary Zone
This paper empirically examines the dynamic relationship between financial deepening and economic growth in a monetary union. We find positive but weak evidence of impacts of financial deepening on growth for Gambia, Gabon and Sierra Leone. There is no evidence of any positive significant impact for Ghana and Nigeria. We argue that, the weak evidence between financial deepening and economic growth can be a consequence of the inability of assessing credit (long-term loans), credit worthiness, lack of information and low level of bank deposits by the private sector despite the improvement in the financial sector.
Qualitative Case Study Research in Accounting: Challenges and Prospects the Libyan Case Study
Much of the literature on research design has focused
on research conducted in developed, uni-cultural or primarily English
speaking countries. Studies of qualitative case study research, the
challenges, and prospects have been embedded in Western/Eurocentric
society and social theories. Although there have been some
theoretical studies, few empirical studies have been conducted to
explore the nature of the challenges of qualitative case study in
developing countries. These challenges include accessibility to
organizations, conducting interviews in developing countries,
accessing documents and observing official meetings, language and
cultural challenges, the use of consent forms, issues affecting access
to companies, respondent issues, and data analysis. The author, while
conducting qualitative case study research in Libya, faced all these
issues. The discussion in this paper examines these issues in order to
make a contribution toward the literature in this area.
MFCA: An Environmental Management Accounting Technique for Optimal Resource Efficiency in Production Processes
Revenue leakages are one of the major challenges
manufacturers face in production processes, as most of the input
materials that should emanate as products from the lines are lost as
waste. Rather than generating income from material input which is
meant to end-up as products, losses are further incurred as costs in
order to manage waste generated. In addition, due to the lack of a
clear view of the flow of resources on the lines from input to output
stage, acquiring information on the true cost of waste generated have
become a challenge. This has therefore given birth to the
conceptualization and implementation of waste minimization
strategies by several manufacturing industries. This paper reviews the
principles and applications of three environmental management
accounting tools namely Activity-based Costing (ABC), Life-Cycle
Assessment (LCA) and Material Flow Cost Accounting (MFCA) in
the manufacturing industry and their effectiveness in curbing revenue
leakages. The paper unveils the strengths and limitations of each of
the tools; beaming a searchlight on the tool that could allow for
optimal resource utilization, transparency in production process as
well as improved cost efficiency. Findings from this review reveal
that MFCA may offer superior advantages with regards to the
provision of more detailed information (both in physical and
monetary terms) on the flow of material inputs throughout the
production process compared to the other environmental accounting
tools. This paper therefore makes a case for the adoption of MFCA as
a viable technique for the identification and reduction of waste in
production processes, and also for effective decision making by
production managers, financial advisors and other relevant
An Institutional Analysis of IFRS Adoption in Poor Jurisdictions
The last two decades witnessed a movement towards
harmonization of international financial reporting standards (IFRS)
throughout the global economy. This investigation seeks to identify
the factors that could explain the adoption of IFRS by poor
jurisdictions. While there has been a considerable amount of
literature published on the effects and key drivers of IFRS adoption
in both developed and developing countries, little attention has been
paid to jurisdictions with less developed capital markets and low
income levels exclusively. Drawing upon the Institutional Isomorphism theory and analyzing
a sample of 45 poor jurisdictions between 2008 and 2013, the study
empirically shows that poor jurisdictions are driven by legitimacy
concerns rather than by economic reasoning to adopt an international
accounting perspective. This in turn has implications for the IASB, as
it should seek to influence institutional pressures within a particular
jurisdiction in order to promote IFRS adoption.
The Change in Management Accounting from an Institutional and Contingency Perspective: A Case Study for a Romanian Company
The objective of this paper is to present the process of
change in management accounting in Romania, a former communist
country from Eastern Europe. In order to explain this process, we used
the contingency and institutional theories. We focused on the
following directions: the presentation of the scientific context and
motivation of this research and the case study. We presented the state
of the art in the process of change in the management accounting from
the international and national perspective. We also described the
evolution of management accounting in Romania in the context of
economic and political changes. An important moment was the fall of
communism in 1989. This represents a starting point for a new
economic environment and for new management accounting.
Accordingly, we developed a case study which presented this
evolution. The conclusion of our research was that the changes in the
management accounting system of the company analysed occurred in
the same time with the institutionalisation of some elements (e.g.
degree of competition, training and competencies in management
accounting). The management accounting system was modelled by the
contingencies specific to this company (e.g. environment, industry,
Accounting Performance of the Leading Companies in the Construction Sector in Brazil during the Period 2009-2012
The construction industry has been demonstrating
increased growth and importance in Brazil’s national economic
development. This study aims to evaluate the financial performance
of the leading companies in the construction sector in Brazil in the
period from 2009 to 2012. An analysis is made of the capital
structure, liquidity, and profitability of the six largest companies in
the construction sector in Brazil: Brookfield, Cyrela, Gafisa, MRV,
PDG and Rossi. The results are then compared with standard industry
ratios. It was found that among the companies analyzed, MRV and
Cyrela showed the best relative performance in the period under
The Adoption of Process Management for Accounting Information Systems in Thailand
Information Quality (IQ) has become a critical,
strategic issue in Accounting Information Systems (AIS) adoption. In
order to implement AIS adoption successfully, it is important to
consider the quality of information use throughout the adoption
process, which seriously impacts the effectiveness of AIS adoption
practice and the optimisation of AIS adoption decisions. There is a
growing need for research to provide insights into issues and
solutions related to IQ in AIS adoption. The need for an integrated
approach to improve IQ in AIS adoption, as well as the unique
characteristics of accounting data, demands an AIS adoption specific
IQ framework. This research aims to explore ways of managing
information quality and AIS adoption to investigate the relationship
between the IQ issues and AIS adoption process. This study has led
to the development of a framework for understanding IQ
management in AIS adoption. This research was done on 44
respondents as ten organisations from manufacturing firms in
Thailand. The findings of the research’s empirical evidence suggest
that IQ dimensions in AIS adoption to provide assistance in all
process of decision making. This research provides empirical
evidence that information quality of AIS adoption affect decision
making and suggests that these variables should be considered in
adopting AIS in order to improve the effectiveness of AIS.
Accounting Policies in Polish and International Legal Regulations
Accounting policies are a set of solutions compliant
with legal regulations that an entity selects and adopts, and which
guarantee a proper quality of financial statements. Those solutions
may differ depending on whether the entity adopts national or
international accounting standards.
The aim of this article is to present accounting principles (policies)
in Polish and international legal regulations and their adoption in
selected Polish companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The
research method adopted in this work is the analysis and evaluation
of legal conditions in Polish companies.
Application of Costing System in the Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME) in Turkey
Standard processes, similar and limited production
lines, the production of high direct costs will be more accurate than
the use of parts of the traditional cost systems in the literature.
However, direct costs, overhead expenses, in turn, decrease the
burden of increasingly sophisticated production facilities, a situation
that led the researchers to look for the cost of traditional systems of
alternative techniques. Variety cost management approaches for
example Total quality management (TQM), just-in-time (JIT),
benchmarking, kaizen costing, targeting cost, life cycle costs (LLC),
activity-based costing (ABC) value engineering have been
introduced. Management and cost applications have changed over the
past decade and will continue to change. Modern cost systems can
provide relevant and accurate cost information. These methods
provide the decisions about customer, product and process
improvement. The aim of study is to describe and explain the
adoption and application of costing systems in SME. This purpose
reports on a survey conducted during 2014 small and medium sized
enterprises (SME) in Ankara. The survey results were evaluated
using SPSS18 package program.
The Libyan Accounting Profession
The aim of this paper is to trace the historical
development of the accounting profession in Libya, in order to
identify challenges facing the profession as the country moves from a
closed to emerging economy. The study is based on a literature
review and archival research. Accounting information has a vital role
to play in the achievement of economic goals in developing and
emerging economies, but a well qualified accounting profession is
required. In the context of institutional instability and unique cultural
factors, the accounting profession in Libya faces educational and
legal challenges if it is to achieve its potential in assisting the country
to reach its economic goals. This study focuses on one country,
which does limit its generalisability. However, it also suggests
fruitful research areas in considering the impact and challenge of
historic factors on the accounting profession in emerging economies.
Centrally planned economies require a body of well trained
professional accountants if they are to emerge onto the global
economic arena. Studies on the accounting profession have focused
primarily on those in developed economies, where the need for
meaningful accounting information for decision making is taken for
granted and there is a well trained, professional workforce. This study
of the profession in an emerging economy highlights the efforts that
will be needed to ensure the contribution of the profession to the
economic wellbeing of other emerging economies.
Pre and Post IFRS Loss Avoidance in France and the United Kingdom
This paper analyzes the effect of a single uniform accounting rule on reporting quality by investigating the influence of IFRS on earnings management. This paper examines whether earnings management is reduced after IFRS adoption through the use of “loss avoidance thresholds”, a method that has been verified in earlier studies. This paper concentrates on two European countries: one that represents the continental code law tradition with weak protection of investors (France) and one that represents the Anglo-American common law tradition, which typically implies a strong enforcement system (the United Kingdom).
The research investigates a sample of 526 companies (6822 firm-year observations) during the years 2000 – 2013. The results are different for the two jurisdictions. This study demonstrates that a single set of accounting standards contributes to better reporting quality and reduces the pervasiveness of earnings management in France. In contrast, there is no evidence that a reduction in earnings management followed the implementation of IFRS in the United Kingdom. Due to the fact that IFRS benefit France but not the United Kingdom, other political and economic factors, such legal system or capital market strength, must play a significant role in influencing the comparability and transparency cross-border companies’ financial statements. Overall, the result suggests that IFRS moderately contribute to the accounting quality of reported financial statements and bring benefit for stakeholders, though the role played by other economic factors cannot be discounted.
The Quality of Accounting Information of Private Companies in the Czech Republic
The paper gives the evidence of quality of accounting information of Czech private companies. In general the private companies in the Czech Republic do not see the benefits of providing accounting information of high quality. Based on the research of financial statements of entrepreneurs and companies in Zlin region it was confirmed that the quality of accounting information differs among the private entities and that the major impact on the accounting information quality has the fact if the financial statements are audited as well as the size of the entity. Also the foreign shareholders and lenders have some impact on the accounting information quality.
Deposit Guarantee Fund: One Perspective
The Deposit Guarantee Fund (DGF) and its communication with the Society, in general, and with the deposit client of Financial Institutions, in particular, is discussed through the challenges of the accounting and financial report. The Bank of Portugal promotes the Portuguese Deposit Guarantee Fund (PDGF) as a financial institution that enhanced the market confidence and stability on the deposit-insurance system. Due to the nature of their functions, it must be subject to regulation and supervision that provides a first line of defense against adversely affect confidence on the Portuguese financial market. First, this research provides evidence of the effectiveness of the protection mechanisms on the deposit insurance system, which provides high and equal protection to all stakeholders. Second, it emphasizes the need of requirements of rigorous accounting process and effective financial report to reduce the moral hazard implications. Third, this research focuses on the need of total disclosure of the financial information which gives higher transparency and protection to deposit client of financial institutions.
Momentum Accounting in Public Management: A Case Study in a Brazilian Navy-s Services Provider Military Organization
This study examines the possibility to apply the theory of multidimensional accounting (momentum accounting) in a Brazilian Navy-s Services Provider Military Organization (Organização Militar Prestadora de Serviços - OMPS). In general, the core of the said theory is the fact that Accounting does not recognize the inertia of transactions occurring in an entity, and that occur repeatedly in some cases, regardless of the implementation of new actions by its managers. The study evaluates the possibility of greater use of information recorded in the financial statements of the unit of analysis, within the strategic decisions of the organization. As a research strategy, we adopted the case study. The results infer that it is possible to use the theory in the context of a multidimensional OMPS, promoting useful information for decision-making and thereby contributing to the strengthening of the necessary alignment of its administration with the current desires of the Brazilian society.
Accounting for SMEs – How Important is Size in Choosing between Global and Local Standards?
There is limited evidence from various countries
about the possible impact of various criteria to be used to determine
the scope of the IFRS for SMEs issued in 2009 and, research is
needed in this area. We provide evidence from Romania, an
emerging economy member of the European Union. The aim of this
paper is to analyze in a local setting if size is a relevant factor for
deciding between local and global standards for SMEs. Our results
indicate that size is a moderate indicator of the existence of possible
users interested in financial statements and that there is a difference
between the scopes of the standard determined on various criteria..
Also, we suggest that the international exposure is quite reduced in
the case of SMEs, but is sufficient to suggest that at least some SMEs
would benefit from international comparability of financial
Determinants and Perspectives of an Accounting Career. Empirical Evidence on Students' Perceptions
This study realizes an empirical investigation of main factors to develop an accounting career, stereotypes on accountants and accounting and perceptions on future career path for a sample of master students in accounting. The research provides some insight into what master students consider when choosing their future career paths. The most important two reasons chosen by students were “career opportunities" and “future earnings. They see accounting as structured, governed by conformity, requiring skills in working with numbers, monotonous, accurate, more efficient than effective but also absorbing, interesting and involving a certain degree of novelty. Although these students plan to start their careers in a multinational or accounting/audit firm, most of those plan to leave after five years. It resulted that women value more flexibility and time requiring special attention in retention policies practiced by firms.
Moving from Rule-based to Principle-based in Public Sector: Preparers' Perspective
The move from cash accounting to accrual accounting, or rule-based to principle-based accounting, by many governments is part of an ongoing efforts in promoting a more business-like and performance-focused public sector. Using questionnaire responses from preparers of financial statements of public universities in Malaysia, this study examines the implementation challenges and benefits of principle-based accounting. Results from these responses suggest that most respondents perceived significant costs would be incurred in relation to staff training and recruitment of staffs with relevant technical knowledge. In addition, most respondents also perceived that there will be significant changes in the current accounting system and structure in order to comply with the principle-based accounting requirements. However, most respondents perceived that these changes might not result in significant benefits for management purposes, for example, financial management, budgeting and allocation of resources. Nevertheless, most respondents perceived that principle-based accounting information would facilitate the monitoring function of the board. The general perception is that adoption of principle-based accounting information is not significantly useful than rule-based accounting information is expected to change over time as preparers of the financial statements gradually understand and appreciate the benefits of principle-based accounting information. This infers that the perceived usefulness of different accounting system is a function of familiarity by the preparers.
Perceptions on Accounting Career: A Study among the Secondary School Students in a Regional Kelantan State
This study analyses the perceptions of secondary
school students about the accounting profession in Malaysia. Fifty
five form three and form four students who are taking
accounting/commerce subjects were met. Individual-s perception
data were collected through questionnaires. The results at the
secondary school level suggest that the stereotypical negative image
of the accountant ends, with students expressing the positive view of
the work of an accountant. There were also gender differences in
perceiving the accounting profession. Overall, the results of the study
suggest that we are now in line in projecting positive and accurate
perceptions of the accounting profession to secondary school
Convergence of National Regulations with IFRS for SMEs: Empirical Evidences in the Case of Romania
The IFRS for Small and Medium-sized Entities
(SMEs) was issued in July 2009 and currently regulators are
considering various implementation strategies of this standard.
Romania is a member of the European Union since 2007, thus
accounting regulations were issued in order to ensure compliance
with the European Accounting Directives. As the European
Commission rejected recently the mandatory use of IFRS for SMEs,
regulatory bodies from the Member States have to decide if the
standard will affect or not the accounting practices of SMEs from
their countries. Recently IASB invited stakeholders to discuss the
revision of IFRS for SMEs. Empirical studies on the differences and
similarities between national standards and IFRS for SMEs could
inform decision makers on the actual level of convergence in
different countries. The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical
evidences on the convergence of the Romanian regulations with IFRS
for SMEs analyzing the results in the context of the last revisions
proposed to the EU Accounting Directives.
The Interaction between Accounting Students- Preference, Teaching Methodology and Performance
This paper examined the influence of matching
students- learning preferences with the teaching methodology
adopted, on their academic performance in an accounting course in
two types of learning environment in one university in Lebanon:
classes with PowerPoint (PPT) vs. conventional classes. Learning
preferences were either for PPT or for Conventional methodology. A
statistically significant increase in academic achievement is found in
the conventionally instructed group as compared to the group taught
with PPT. This low effectiveness of PPT might be attributed to the
learning preferences of Lebanese students. In the PPT group, better
academic performance was found among students with
learning/teaching match as compared with students with
learning/teaching mismatch. Since the majority of students display a
preference for the conventional methodology, the result might
suggest that Lebanese students- performance is not optimized by PPT
in the accounting classrooms, not because of PPT itself, but because
it is not matching the Lebanese students- learning preferences in such
a quantitative course.
IAS 41 Implementation Challenges – The Case of Romania
Although agriculture is an important part of the world
economy, accounting in agriculture still has many shortcomings. The
adoption of IAS 41 “Agriculture” has tried to improve this situation
and increase the comparability of financial statements of entities in
the agricultural sector. Although controversial, IAS 41 is the first
step of a consistent transition to fair value assessment in the
agricultural sector. The objective of our work is the analysis of IAS
41 and current accounting agricultural situation in Romania.
Accounting regulations in Romania are in accordance with European
directives and, in many respects, converged with IFRS referential.
Provisions of IAS 41, however, are not reflected directly in
Romanian regulations. With the increase of forest land transactions,
it is expected that recognition and measurement of biological assets
under IAS 41 to become a necessity.