Spatial Distribution of Ambient BTEX Concentrations at an International Airport in South Africa
Air travel, and the use of airports, has experienced proliferative growth in the past few decades, resulting in the concomitant release of air pollutants. Air pollution needs to be monitored because of the known relationship between exposure to air pollutants and increased adverse effects on human health. This study monitored a group of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); specifically BTEX (viz. benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes), as many are detrimental to human health. Through the use of passive sampling methods, the spatial variability of BTEX within an international airport was investigated, in order to determine ‘hotspots’ where occupational exposure to BTEX may be intensified. The passive sampling campaign revealed BTEXtotal concentrations ranged between 12.95–124.04 µg m-3. Furthermore, BTEX concentrations were dispersed heterogeneously within the airport. Due to the slow wind speeds recorded (1.13 m.s-1); the hotspots were located close to their main BTEX sources. The main hotspot was located over the main apron of the airport. Employees working in this area may be chronically exposed to these emissions, which could be potentially detrimental to their health.
Functions and Effects of Green Facades in the Developing Countries: Case Study of Tehran
Many people lost their life caused by environmental pollution every year. The negative effects of environmental crises appear to be much higher in Asian countries. The most important environmental issue in the developing countries and especially in Tehran, to our best knowledge, is air pollution that has affected many aspects of life in society. Environmental topics related to technology’s development have been salient issues among the main concerns of designers. Green facades are the most considerable solutions which designers and architectures are focused on, all over the world. But there are lots of behavioral and psychological problems about this point. In this line, this excavation has tried to reveal the cultural and psychological influences of green façade in developing countries like Tehran. Green façades in developing countries are so useless, although they are so expensive. As a matter of fact, users consider green facade as a decorative item. This research is an attempt to recognize the reasons which show green façades as worthless element. Also, some solutions are presented to promote green façades in the developing countries as an intrinsic solution. There are so many environmental threats, especially about air pollution, for a city as Tehran, which might be solved by green facades.
Optimization of Air Pollution Control Model for Mining
The sustainable measures on air quality management are recognized as one of the most serious environmental concerns in the mining region. The mining operations emit various types of pollutants which have significant impacts on the environment. This study presents a stochastic control strategy by developing the air pollution control model to achieve a cost-effective solution. The optimization method is formulated to predict the cost of treatment using linear programming with an objective function and multi-constraints. The constraints mainly focus on two factors which are: production of metal should not exceed the available resources, and air quality should meet the standard criteria of the pollutant. The applicability of this model is explored through a case study of an open pit metal mine, Utah, USA. This method simultaneously uses meteorological data as a dispersion transfer function to support the practical local conditions. The probabilistic analysis and the uncertainties in the meteorological conditions are accomplished by Monte Carlo simulation. Reasonable results have been obtained to select the optimized treatment technology for PM2.5, PM10, NOx, and SO2. Additional comparison analysis shows that baghouse is the least cost option as compared to electrostatic precipitator and wet scrubbers for particulate matter, whereas non-selective catalytical reduction and dry-flue gas desulfurization are suitable for NOx and SO2 reduction respectively. Thus, this model can aid planners to reduce these pollutants at a marginal cost by suggesting control pollution devices, while accounting for dynamic meteorological conditions and mining activities.
Intelligent Rescheduling Trains for Air Pollution Management
Optimization of timetable is the need of the day for the rescheduling and routing of trains in real time. Trains are scheduled in parallel with the road transport vehicles to the same destination. As the number of trains is restricted due to single track, customers usually opt for road transport to use frequently. The air pollution increases as the density of vehicles on road transport is increased. Use of an alternate mode of transport like train helps in reducing air-pollution. This paper mainly aims at attracting the passengers to Train transport by proper rescheduling of trains using hybrid of stop-skip algorithm and iterative convex programming algorithm. Rescheduling of train bi-directionally is achieved on a single track with dynamic dual time and varying stops. Introduction of more trains attract customers to use rail transport frequently, thereby decreasing the pollution. The results are simulated using Network Simulator (NS-2).
Trees for Air Pollution Tolerance to Develop Green Belts as an Ecological Mitigation
Air pollution both from point and non-point sources is difficult to control once released in to the atmosphere. There is no engineering method known available to ameliorate the dispersed pollutants. The only suitable approach is the ecological method of constructing green belts in and around the pollution sources. Air pollution in Muscat, Oman is a serious concern due to ever increasing vehicles on roads. Identifying the air pollution tolerance levels of species is important for implementing pollution control strategies in the urban areas of Muscat. Hence, in the present study, Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) for ten avenue tree species was evaluated by analyzing four bio-chemical parameters, plus their Anticipated Performance Index (API) in field conditions. Based on the two indices, Ficus benghalensis was the most suitable one with the highest performance score. Conocarpus erectuse, Phoenix dactylifera, and Pithcellobium dulce were found to be good performers and are recommended for extensive planting. Azadirachta indica which is preferred for its dense canopy is qualified in the moderate category. The rest of the tree species expressed lower API score of less than 51, hence cannot be considered as suitable species for pollution mitigation plantation projects.
Estimation of the Road Traffic Emissions and Dispersion in the Developing Countries Conditions
We present in this work our model of road traffic
emissions (line sources) and dispersion of these emissions, named
DISPOLSPEM (Dispersion of Poly Sources and Pollutants Emission
Model). In its emission part, this model was designed to keep the
consistent bottom-up and top-down approaches. It also allows to
generate emission inventories from reduced input parameters being
adapted to existing conditions in Morocco and in the other developing
countries. While several simplifications are made, all the performance
of the model results are kept. A further important advantage of
the model is that it allows the uncertainty calculation and emission
rate uncertainty according to each of the input parameters. In the
dispersion part of the model, an improved line source model has
been developed, implemented and tested against a reference solution.
It provides improvement in accuracy over previous formulas of line
source Gaussian plume model, without being too demanding in terms
of computational resources. In the case study presented here, the
biggest errors were associated with the ends of line source sections;
these errors will be canceled by adjacent sections of line sources
during the simulation of a road network. In cases where the wind
is parallel to the source line, the use of the combination discretized
source and analytical line source formulas minimizes remarkably the
error. Because this combination is applied only for a small number
of wind directions, it should not excessively increase the calculation
Risk Assessment of Particulate Matter (PM10) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia
In recent decades, particulate matter (PM10) have
received much attention due to its potential adverse health impact and
the subsequent need to better control or regulate these pollutants.
The aim of this paper is focused on study risk assessment of PM10
in four different districts (Shebikah, Masfalah, Aziziyah, Awali) in
Makkah, Saudi Arabia during the period from 1 Ramadan 1434 AH -
27 Safar 1435 AH. Samples were collected by using Low Volume
Sampler (LVS Low Volume Sampler) device and filtration method
for estimating the total concentration of PM10.
The study indicated that the mean PM10 concentrations were 254.6
(186.1 - 343.2) μg/m3 in Shebikah, 184.9 (145.6 - 271.4) μg/m3 in
Masfalah, 162.4 (92.4-253.8) μg/m3 in Aziziyah, and 56.0 (44.5 -
119.8) μg/m3 in Awali. These values did not exceed the permissible
limits in PME (340 μg/m3 as daily average). Furthermore, health
assessment is carried out using AirQ2.2.3 model to estimate the
number of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases. The
cumulative number of cases per 100,000 were 1534 (18-3050 case),
which lower than that recorded in the United States, Malaysia. The
concentration response coefficient was 0.49 (95% CI 0.05 - 0.70) per
10 μg/m3 increase of PM10.
Investigation of Public Perception of Air Pollution and Life Quality in Tehran
This study was undertaken at four different sites
(north polluted, south polluted, south healthy and north healthy) in
Tehran, in order to examine whether there was a relationship between
publicly available air quality data and the public’s perception of air
quality and to suggest some guidelines for reducing air pollution. A
total of 200 people were accidentally filled out the research
questionnaires at mentioned sites and air quality data were obtained
simultaneously from the Air Quality Control Department. Data was
analyzed in Excel and SPSS software’s. Clean air and job security
were of great importance to people comparing to other pleasant
aspect of life. Also air pollution and serious diseases were the most
important of people concerns. Street monitors and news paper
services on air quality were little used by the public as a means of
obtaining information on air pollution. Using public transportation
and avoiding inevitable journeys are the most important ways for
reducing air pollution. The results reveal that the public’s perception
of air quality is not a reliable indicator of the actual levels of air
A Comparison of Air Quality in Arid and Temperate Climatic Conditions – A Case Study of Leeds and Makkah
In this paper air quality conditions in Makkah and
Leeds are compared. These two cities have totally different climatic
conditions. Makkah climate is characterised as hot and dry (arid)
whereas that of Leeds is characterised as cold and wet (temperate).
This study uses air quality data from 2012 collected in Makkah,
Saudi Arabia and Leeds, UK. The concentrations of all pollutants,
except NO are higher in Makkah. Most notable, the concentrations of
PM10 are much higher in Makkah than in Leeds. This is probably due
to the arid nature of climatic conditions in Makkah and not solely due
to anthropogenic emission sources, otherwise like PM10 some of the
other pollutants, such as CO, NO, and SO2 would have shown much
greater difference between Leeds and Makkah. Correlation analysis is
performed between different pollutants at the same site and the same
pollutants at different sites. In Leeds the correlation between PM10
and other pollutants is significantly stronger than in Makkah. Weaker
correlation in Makkah is probably due to the fact that in Makkah
most of the gaseous pollutants are emitted by combustion processes,
whereas most of the PM10 is generated by other sources, such as
windblown dust, re-suspension, and construction activities. This is in
contrast to Leeds where all pollutants including PM10 are
predominantly emitted by combustions, such as road traffic.
Furthermore, in Leeds frequent rains wash out most of the
atmospheric particulate matter and suppress re-suspension of dust.
Temporal trends of various pollutants are compared and discussed.
This study emphasises the role of climatic conditions in managing air
quality, and hence the need for region-specific controlling strategies
according to the local climatic and meteorological conditions.
Air Pollution Control from Rice Shellers - A Case Study
A Rice Sheller is used for obtaining polished white
rice from paddy. There are about 3000 Rice Shellers in Punjab and
50000 in India. During the process of shelling lot of dust is emitted
from different unit operations like paddy silo, paddy shaker, bucket
elevators, huskers, paddy separator etc. These dust emissions have
adverse effect on the health of the workers and the wear and tear of
the shelling machinery is fast. All the dust emissions spewing out of
these unit operations of a rice Sheller were contained by providing
suitable hoods and enclosures while ensuring their workability. These
were sucked by providing an induced draft fan followed by a high
efficiency cyclone separator that has got an overall dust collection
efficiency of more than 90%. This cyclone separator replaced two
cyclone separators and a filter bag house, which the Rice Sheller was
already having. The dust concentration in the stack after the
installation of cyclone separator is well within the stipulated
standards. Besides controlling pollution, there is improvement in the
quality of products like bran and the life of shelling machinery has
enhanced. The payback period of this technology is less than four
Developing Emission Factors of Fugitive Particulate Matter Emissions for Construction Sites in the Middle East Area
Fugitive particulate matter (PM) is a major source of
airborne pollution in the Middle East countries. The meteorological
conditions and topography of the area makes it highly susceptible to
wind-blown particles which raise many air quality concerns. Air
quality tools such as field monitoring, emission factors and dispersion
modeling have been used in previous research studies to analyze the
release and impacts of fugitive PM in the region. However, these
tools have been originally developed based on experiments made for
European and North American regions. In this work, an experimental
campaign was conducted on April-May 2014 in a construction site in
Doha city, Qatar. The ultimate goal is to evaluate the applicability of
the existing emission factors for construction sites in dry and arid
areas like the Middle East.
Annoyance Caused by Air Pollution: A Comparative Study of Two Industrialized Regions
Although there had been a many studies that shows
the impact of air pollution on physical health, comparatively less was
known of human behavioral responses and annoyance impacts.
Annoyance caused by air pollution is a public health problem because
it can be an ambient stressor causing stress and disease and can affect
quality of life. The objective of this work is to evaluate the
annoyance caused by air pollution in two different industrialized
urban areas, Dunkirk (France) and Vitoria (Brazil). The populations
of these cities often report feeling annoyed by dust. Surveys were
conducted, and the collected data were analyzed using statistical
analyses. The results show that sociodemographic variables,
importance of air quality, perceived industrial risk, perceived air
pollution and occurrence of health problems play important roles in
the perceived annoyance. These results show the existence of a
common problem in geographically distant areas and allow
stakeholders to develop prevention strategies.
Slope Effect in Emission Evaluation to Assess Real Pollutant Factors
The exposure to outdoor air pollution causes lung
cancer and increases the risk of bladder cancer. Because air pollution
in urban areas is mainly caused by transportation, it is necessary to
evaluate pollutant exhaust emissions from vehicles during their realworld
use. Nevertheless their evaluation and reduction is a key
problem, especially in the cities, that account for more than 50% of
A particular attention was given to the slope variability along the
streets during each journey performed by the instrumented vehicle.
In this paper we dealt with the problem of describing a
quantitatively approach for the reconstruction of GPS coordinates and
altitude, in the context of correlation study between driving cycles /
emission / geographical location, during an experimental campaign
realized with some instrumented cars.
Finally the slope analysis can be correlated to the emission and
consumption values in a specific road position, and it could be
evaluated its influence on their behaviour.
Zinc Contaminate on Urban Roadside in Rush Hour, Bangkok, Thailand
This research aims to study the Zinc (Zn) concentration in fine particulate matter on Rajchawithee roadside in rush hour. 30 Samples were collected in Jun to August 2013 by 8 stage non-avaible cascade impactor. Each samples (filter paper) were digest with nitric acid and analyed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Zinc determination. The highest value for the mean fraction (18.00 ± 9.28%) is the size 9.0 – 110.0 micron follow by the range 3.3 – 4.7 micron (14.77 ± 14.66 %) and 1.1 – 2.1 micron (14.01 ± 11.77 %). The concentration of Zn in the particulate matter of range 0.43 – 0.7mm, 0.7 – 1.1 mm, 1.1 – 2.1 mm, 2.1 – 3.3 mm, 3.3 – 4.7 mm, 4.7 – 5.8 mm, 5.8 – 9.0 mm, 9.0 – 10.0 mm, were 41.56 – 217.62 mg/m3 (175.86 ±32.25 mg/m3), 152.60 – 217.24 mg/m3 (187.71 ± 17.42 mg/m3), 142.90 – 214.67 mg/m3(180.95 ± 18.71 mg/m3), 155.48 – 218.19 mg/m3(183.22 ± 19.94 mg/m3), 151.72 – 217.39 mg/m3(181.85 ± 17.57 mg/m3), 133.86 – 220.17 mg/m3 (178.78 ± 23.45 mg/m3), 160.00 – 220.35 mg/m3 (182.58 ± 18.08 mg/m3), 153.30 – 226.70 mg/m3 (181.52 ± 20.05 mg/m3), respectively. The Zn concentration in each size of particulate matter was not statistically significant different (p > .005)
GPS Signal Correction to Improve Vehicle Location during Experimental Campaign
In recent years in Italy the progress of the automobile industry, in the field of reduction of emissions values, is very remarkable. Nevertheless their evaluation and reduction is a key problem, especially in the cities, that account for more than 50% of world population. In this paper we dealt with the problem of describing a quantitatively approach for the reconstruction of GPS coordinates and altitude, in the context of correlation study between driving cycles / emission / geographical location, during an experimental campaign realized with some instrumented cars.
Comparative Studies on the Concentration of Some Heavy Metal in Urban Particulate Matter, Bangkok, Thailand
The main objective of this study was to investigate particulate matter concentration on main and secondary roadsides in urban area and study the concentration of some heavy metals including lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) in particulate matter in the Bangkok area.
The averaged particle concentration for main roadsides is higher than secondary roadsides. The particulate matter less than 10 micron concentration contribute the majority of the Total Suspended Particulate matter for main roads and zinc concentrations were higher than copper and lead for both sites.
Changes in Fine PM Pollution Levels with Tightening of Regulations on Vehicle Emissions
A long-term campaign for monitoring the
concentration of atmospheric Particulate Matter (PM) was conducted
at multiple sites located in the center and suburbs of the Tokyo
Metropolitan Area in Japan. The concentration of fine PM has shown a
declining trend over the last two decades. A positive matrix
factorization model elucidated that the contribution of combustion
sources was drastically reduced. In Japan, the regulations on vehicle
exhaust emissions were phased in and gradually tightened over the last
two decades, which has triggered a notable reduction in PM emissions
from automobiles and has contributed to the mitigation of the problem
of fine PM pollution.
Using Copulas to Measure Association between Air Pollution and Respiratory Diseases
Air pollution is still considered as one of the major
environmental and health issues. There is enough research evidence
to show a strong relationship between exposure to air contaminants
and respiratory illnesses among children and adults. In this paper we
used the Copula approach to study a potential relationship between
selected air pollutants (PM10 and NO2) and hospital admissions for
respiratory diseases. Kendall-s tau and Spearman-s rho rank
correlation coefficients are calculated and used in Copula method.
This paper demonstrates that copulas can be used to provide
additional information as a measure of an association when compared
to the standard correlation coefficients. The results find a significant
correlation between the selected air pollutants and hospital
admissions for most of the selected respiratory illnesses.
Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Adsorbed in Particulates
The progress of concentrations of particular heavy metals was assessed in chosen localities in region Moravia, the Czech Republic, from 2007 to 2009. Particular metals were observed in localities with various types and characterization of zone. Pb, Ni, As and Cd were emphasized as a result of their toxicity and potential adverse health effect to the exposed population. The progress of metal concentrations and their health effects in the most polluted localities were examined. According to the results, the air pollution limit values were not exceeded. Based on the health risk assessment, the probability of developing tumorous diseases is acceptable, except for the increased probability of cancer risk from long-term exposure to As.
Assessment of the Influence of External Earth Terrain at Construction of the Physicmathematical Models or Finding the Dynamics of Pollutants' Distribution in Urban Atmosphere
There is a complex situation on the transport environment in the cities of the world. For the analysis and prevention of environmental problems an accurate calculation hazardous substances concentrations at each point of the investigated area is required. In the turbulent atmosphere of the city the wellknown methods of mathematical statistics for these tasks cannot be applied with a satisfactory level of accuracy. Therefore, to solve this class of problems apparatus of mathematical physics is more appropriate. In such models, because of the difficulty as a rule the influence of uneven land surface on streams of air masses in the turbulent atmosphere of the city are not taken into account. In this paper the influence of the surface roughness, which can be quite large, is mathematically shown. The analysis of this problem under certain conditions identified the possibility of areas appearing in the atmosphere with pressure tending to infinity, i.e. so-called "wall effect".
Portable Continuous Aerosol Concentrator for the Determination of NO2 in the Air
The paper deals with the development of portable aerosol concentrator and its application for the determination of nitrites and nitrates. The device enables the continuous trapping of pollutants in the air. An extensive literature search has been elaborated which aims at the development of samplers and the possibilities of their application in the continuous determination of volatile organic compounds. The practical part of the paper is focused on the development of the portable aerosol concentrator. The device using the Aerosol Enrichment Unit has been experimentally verified and subsequently realized. It operates on the principle of equilibrium accumulation of pollutants from the gaseous phase using absorption liquid polydisperse aerosol. The device has been applied for monitoring nitrites and nitrates in the air. The chemiluminescence detector was used for detection; the achieved detection limit for nitrites was 28 ng/m3 and for nitrates 78 ng/m3.
Sustainable Urban Transport Management and Its Strategies
Rapid process of urbanism development has increased
the demand for some infrastructures such as supplying potable water,
electricity network and transportation facilities and etc. Nonefficiency
of the existing system with parallel managements of urban
traffic management has increased the gap between supply and
demand of traffic facilities. A sustainable transport system requires
some activities more important than air pollution control, traffic or
fuel consumption reduction and the studies show that there is no
unique solution for solving complicated transportation problems and
solving such a problem needs a comprehensive, dynamic and reliable
mechanism. Sustainable transport management considers the effects
of transportation development on economic efficiency, environmental
issues, resources consumption, land use and social justice and helps
reduction of environmental effects, increase of transportation system
efficiency as well as improvement of social life and aims to enhance
efficiency, goods transportation, provide services with minimum
access problems that cannot be realized without reorganization of
strategies, policies and plans.
Development of a Novel Pneumatic Hybrid Engine
Although electrical motors are still the main devices
used in vehicular exhaust comprises more than 95 percent of the air
pollution in Taiwan's largest city, Taipei. On average, all commuters in Taipei travel 13.6 km daily, while motorcycle commuters travel 12.2 km. The convenience and mobility of motorcycles makes them
irreplaceable in Taiwan city traffic but they add significantly to air pollution problems. In order to improve air pollution conditions, some
new types of vehicles have been proposed, such as fuel cell driven and
hybrid energy vehicles. In this study, we develop a model pneumatic hybrid motorcycle system and simulate its acceleration and mileage
(km/L) performance. The results show that the pneumatic hybrid
motorcycle can improve efficiency.
Chemical Analysis of PM2.5 during Dry Deforestation Season in Southeast Asia
In Southeast Asia, during the dry season (August to
October) forest fires in Indonesia emit pollutants into the atmosphere.
For two years during this period, a total of 67 samples of 2.5 μm
particulate matters were collected and analyzed for total mass and
elemental composition with ICP - MS after microwave digestion. A
study of 60 elements measured during these periods suggest that the
concentration of most of elements, even those usually related to
crustal source, are extremely high and unpredictable during the haze
period. In By contrast, trace element concentration in non - haze
months is more stable and covers a lower range. Other unexpected
events and their effects on the findings are discussed.
Daily and Seasonal Changes of Air Pollution in Kuwait
This paper focuses on assessment of air pollution in Umm-Alhyman, Kuwait, which is located south to oil refineries, power station, oil field, and highways. The measurements were made over a period of four days in March and July in 2001, 2004, and 2008. The measured pollutants included methanated and nonmethanated hydrocarbons (MHC, NMHC), CO, CO2, SO2, NOX, O3, and PM10. Also, meteorological parameters were measured, which includes temperature, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation. Over the study period, data analysis showed increase in measured SO2, NOX and CO by factors of 1.2, 5.5 and 2, respectively. This is explained in terms of increase in industrial activities, motor vehicle density, and power generation. Predictions of the measured data were made by the ISC-AERMOD software package and by using the ISCST3 model option. Finally, comparison was made between measured data against international standards.
A Finite Element Solution of the Mathematical Model for Smoke Dispersion from Two Sources
Smoke discharging is a main reason of air pollution
problem from industrial plants. The obstacle of a building has an
affect with the air pollutant discharge. In this research, a mathematical
model of the smoke dispersion from two sources and one source with
a structural obstacle is considered. The governing equation of the
model is an isothermal mass transfer model in a viscous fluid. The
finite element method is used to approximate the solutions of the
model. The triangular linear elements have been used for discretising
the domain, and time integration has been carried out by semi-implicit
finite difference method. The simulations of smoke dispersion in
cases of one chimney and two chimneys are presented. The maximum
calculated smoke concentration of both cases are compared. It is then
used to make the decision for smoke discharging and air pollutant
control problems on industrial area.
The Recession as an Opportunity for Curbing Transport Emissions
The effects of the transport sector on the environment are a well-recognized issue in the European Union and around the world. This area is a subject of much discussion as to how these negative effects could be minimized, especially with regards to impacts contributing to climate change. This paper aims to investigate the results of the economic crisis and how its consequences could be exploited to combat air pollution.
A Study of the Damages to Historical Monuments due to Climatic Factors and Air Pollution and Offering Solutions
Historical monuments as architectural heritage are,
economically and culturally, considered one of the key aspects for
modern communities. Cultural heritage represents a country-s
national identity and pride and maintains and enriches that country-s
culture. Therefore, conservation of the monuments remained from
our ancestors requires everybody-s serious and unremitting effort.
Conservation, renewal, restoration, and technical study of cultural
and historical matters are issues which have a special status among
various forms of art and science in the present century and this is due
to two reasons: firstly, progress of humankind in this century has
created a factor called environmental pollution which not only has
caused new destructive processes of cultural/historical monuments
but also has accelerated the previous destructive processes by several
times, and secondly, the rapid advance of various sciences, especially
chemistry, has lead to the contribution of new methods and materials
to this significant issue.
Analysis of Climatic Strategies in Designing the Residential Buildings in Cold Dry Climate of Tabriz Metropolis to Reduce Air Pollution in Urban Environment
Nowadays, the earth is countered with serious problem
of air pollution. This problem has been started from the industrial
revolution and has been faster in recent years, so that leads the earth
to ecological and environmental disaster. One of its results is the
global warming problem and its related increase in global
temperature. The most important factors in air pollution especially in
urban environments are Automobiles and residential buildings that are
the biggest consumers of the fossil energies, so that if the residential
buildings as a big part of the consumers of such energies reduce their
consumption rate, the air pollution will be decreased. Since
Metropolises are the main centers of air pollution in the world,
assessment and analysis of efficient strategies in decreasing air
pollution in such cities, can lead to the desirable and suitable results
and can solve the problem at least in critical level. Tabriz city is one
of the most important metropolises in North west of Iran that about
two million people are living there. for its situation in cold dry
climate, has a high rate of fossil energies consumption that make air
pollution in its urban environment. These two factors, being both
metropolis and in cold dry climate, make this article try to analyze the
strategies of climatic design in old districts of the city and use them in
new districts of the future. These strategies can be used in this city
and other similar cities and pave the way to reduce energy
consumption and related air pollution to save whole world.
Impact Assessment of Air Pollution Stress on Plant Species through Biochemical Estimations
The present study was conducted to investigate the
response of plants exposed to lignite-based thermal power plant
emission. For this purpose, five plant species were collected from 1.0
km distance (polluted site) and control plants were collected from
20.0 km distance (control site) to thermal power plant. The common
tree species Cassia siamea Lamk., Polyalthia longifolia. Sonn,
Acacia longifolia (Andrews) Wild., Azadirachta indica A.Juss, Ficus
religiosa L. were selected as test plants. Photosynthetic pigments
changes (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids) and rubisco
enzyme modifications were studied. Reduction was observed in the
photosynthetic pigments of plants growing in polluted site and also
large sub unit of the rubisco enzyme was degraded in Azadirachta
indica A. Juss collected from polluted site.