|Commenced in January 2007||Frequency: Monthly||Edition: International||Paper Count: 52|
This paper introduces a digital method for fault section identification in transmission lines. The method uses digital set of the measured short circuit current to locate faults in electrical power systems. The digitized current is used to construct a set of overdetermined system of equations. The problem is then constructed and solved using the proposed digital optimization technique to find the fault distance. The proposed optimization methodology is an application of simulated annealing optimization technique. The method is tested using practical case study to evaluate the proposed method. The accurate results obtained show that the algorithm can be used as a powerful tool in the area of power system protection.
In telemedicine, the image repository service is important to increase the accuracy of diagnostic support of medical personnel. This study makes comparison between two routing algorithms regarding the quality of service (QoS), to be able to analyze the optimal performance at the time of loading and/or downloading of medical images. This study focused on comparing the performance of Tabu Search with other heuristic and metaheuristic algorithms that improve QoS in telemedicine services in Colombia. For this, Tabu Search and Simulated Annealing heuristic algorithms are chosen for their high usability in this type of applications; the QoS is measured taking into account the following metrics: Delay, Throughput, Jitter and Latency. In addition, routing tests were carried out on ten images in digital image and communication in medicine (DICOM) format of 40 MB. These tests were carried out for ten minutes with different traffic conditions, reaching a total of 25 tests, from a server of Universidad Militar Nueva Granada (UMNG) in Bogotá-Colombia to a remote user in Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH) - Chile. The results show that Tabu search presents a better QoS performance compared to Simulated Annealing, managing to optimize the routing of medical images, a basic requirement to offer diagnostic images services in telemedicine.
Traditionally, three important manufacturing functions which are process planning, scheduling and due-date assignment are performed sequentially and separately. Although there are numerous works on the integration of process planning and scheduling and plenty of works focusing on scheduling with due date assignment, there are only a few works on integrated process planning, scheduling and due-date assignment. Although due-dates are determined without taking into account of weights of the customers in the literature, here weighted due-date assignment is employed to get better performance. Jobs are scheduled according to weighted earliest due date dispatching rule and due dates are determined according to some popular due date assignment methods by taking into account of the weights of each job. Simulated Annealing, Evolutionary Strategies, Random Search, hybrid of Random Search and Simulated Annealing, and hybrid of Random Search and Evolutionary Strategies, are applied as solution techniques. Three important manufacturing functions are integrated step-by-step and higher integration levels are found better. Search meta-heuristics are found to be very useful while improving performance measure.
In this study, the RRAM devices with the TiN/Ti/HfOx/TiN structure were fabricated, then the electrical characteristics of the devices without annealing and after 400 °C and 500 °C of the furnace annealing (FA) temperature processes were compared. The RRAM devices after the FA’s 400 °C showed the lower forming, set and reset voltages than the other devices without annealing. However, the RRAM devices after the FA’s 500 °C did not show any electrical characteristics because the TiN/Ti/HfOx/TiN device was oxidized, as shown in the XPS analysis. From these results, the RRAM devices after the FA’s 400 °C showed the best electrical characteristics.
Traditionally, the three important manufacturing functions, which are process planning, scheduling and due-date assignment, are performed separately and sequentially. For couple of decades, hundreds of studies are done on integrated process planning and scheduling problems and numerous researches are performed on scheduling with due date assignment problem, but unfortunately the integration of these three important functions are not adequately addressed. Here, the integration of these three important functions is studied by using genetic, random-genetic hybrid, simulated annealing, random-simulated annealing hybrid and random search techniques. As well, the importance of the integration of these three functions and the power of meta-heuristics and of hybrid heuristics are studied.
Multiprocessor task scheduling problem for dependent and independent tasks is computationally complex problem. Many methods are proposed to achieve optimal running time. As the multiprocessor task scheduling is NP hard in nature, therefore, many heuristics are proposed which have improved the makespan of the problem. But due to problem specific nature, the heuristic method which provide best results for one problem, might not provide good results for another problem. So, Simulated Annealing which is meta heuristic approach is considered. It can be applied on all types of problems. However, due to many runs, meta heuristic approach takes large computation time. Hence, the hybrid approach is proposed by combining the Duplication Scheduling Heuristic and Simulated Annealing (SA) and the makespan results of Simple Simulated Annealing and Hybrid approach are analyzed.
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) clustering architecture enables features like network scalability, communication overhead reduction, and fault tolerance. After clustering, aggregated data is transferred to data sink and reducing unnecessary, redundant data transfer. It reduces nodes transmitting, and so saves energy consumption. Also, it allows scalability for many nodes, reduces communication overhead, and allows efficient use of WSN resources. Clustering based routing methods manage network energy consumption efficiently. Building spanning trees for data collection rooted at a sink node is a fundamental data aggregation method in sensor networks. The problem of determining Cluster Head (CH) optimal number is an NP-Hard problem. In this paper, we combine cluster based routing features for cluster formation and CH selection and use Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) for intra-cluster communication. The proposed method is based on optimizing MST using Simulated Annealing (SA). In this work, normalized values of mobility, delay, and remaining energy are considered for finding optimal MST. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving the packet delivery ratio and reducing the end to end delay.
Now-a-days autonomous mobile robots have found applications in diverse fields. An autonomous robot system must be able to behave in an intelligent manner to deal with complex and changing environment. This work proposes the performance of path planning and navigation of autonomous mobile robot using Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA), Simulated Annealing (SA) and Particle Swarm optimization (PSO) based intelligent controllers in an unstructured environment. The approach not only finds a valid collision free path but also optimal one. The main aim of the work is to minimize the length of the path and duration of travel from a starting point to a target while moving in an unknown environment with obstacles without collision. Finally, a comparison is made between the three controllers, it is found that the path length and time duration made by the robot using GSA is better than SA and PSO based controllers for the same work.
In this study, the Mo-electrode thin films were deposited using two-stepped process and the high purity copper indium selenide-based powder (CuInSe2, CIS) was fabricated by using hydrothermal process by Nanowin Technology Co. Ltd. Because the CIS powder was aggregated into microscale particles, the CIS power was ground into nano-scale particles. 6 wt% CIS particles were mixed and dispersed into isopropyl alcohol (IPA). A new non-vacuum thin-film deposition process, spray coating method (SPM), was investigated to deposit the high-densified CIS absorber layers. 0.1 ml CIS solution was sprayed on the 20 mm×10 mm Mo/glass substrates and then the CuInSe2 thin films were annealed in a selenization furnace using N2 as atmosphere. The annealing temperature and time were set at 550oC and 5 min, and 0.0g~0.6g extra Se content was added in the furnace. The influences of extra Se content on the densification, crystallization, resistivity (ρ), hall mobility (μ), and carrier concentration of the CIS absorber layers were well investigated in this study.
This paper proposes an application of probabilistic technique, namely Gaussian process regression, for estimating an optimal sequence of the single machine with total weighted tardiness (SMTWT) scheduling problem. In this work, the Gaussian process regression (GPR) model is utilized to predict an optimal sequence of the SMTWT problem, and its solution is improved by using an iterated local search based on simulated annealing scheme, called GPRISA algorithm. The results show that the proposed GPRISA method achieves a very good performance and a reasonable trade-off between solution quality and time consumption. Moreover, in the comparison of deviation from the best-known solution, the proposed mechanism noticeably outperforms the recently existing approaches.
In the modern manufacturing systems, the use of thermal cutting techniques using oxyfuel, plasma and laser have become indispensable for the shape forming of high quality complex components; however, the conventional chip removal production techniques still have its widespread space in the manufacturing industry. Both these types of machining operations require the positioning of end effector tool at the edge where the cutting process commences. This repositioning of the cutting tool in every machining operation is repeated several times and is termed as non-productive time or airtime motion. Minimization of this non-productive machining time plays an important role in mass production with high speed machining. As, the tool moves from one region to the other by rapid movement and visits a meticulous region once in the whole operation, hence the non-productive time can be minimized by synchronizing the tool movements. In this work, this problem is being formulated as a general travelling salesman problem (TSP) and a genetic algorithm approach has been applied to solve the same. For improving the efficiency of the algorithm, the GA has been hybridized with a noble special heuristic and simulating annealing (SA). In the present work a novel heuristic in the combination of GA has been developed for synchronization of toolpath movements during repositioning of the tool. A comparative analysis of new Meta heuristic techniques with simple genetic algorithm has been performed. The proposed metaheuristic approach shows better performance than simple genetic algorithm for minimization of nonproductive toolpath length. Also, the results obtained with the help of hybrid simulated annealing genetic algorithm (HSAGA) are also found better than the results using simple genetic algorithm only.
This paper considers the NP-hard problem of reconstructing binary matrices satisfying exactly-1-4-adjacency constraint from its row and column projections. This problem is formulated into a maximization problem. The objective function gives a measure of adjacency constraint for the binary matrices. The maximization problem is solved by the simulated annealing algorithm and experimental results are presented.
In this paper, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films are deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel method. The ZnO thin films with well defined orientation were acquired by spin coating of zinc acetate dehydrate monoethanolamine (MEA), de-ionized water and isopropanol alcohol. These films were pre-heated at 275°C for 10 min and then annealed at 350°C, 450°C and 550°C for 80 min. The effect of annealing temperature and different thickness on structure and surface morphology of the thin films were verified by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). It was found that there was a significant effect of annealing temperature on the structural parameters of the films such as roughness exponent, fractal dimension and interface width. Thin films also were characterizied by X-ray Diffractometery (XRD) method. XRD analysis revealed that the annealed ZnO thin films consist of single phase ZnO with wurtzite structure and show the c-axis grain orientation. Increasing annealing temperature increased the crystallite size and the c-axis orientation of the film after 450°C. Also In this study, ZnO thin films in different thickness have been prepared by sol-gel method on the glass substrate at room temperature. The thicknesses of films are 100, 150 and 250 nm. Using fractal analysis, morphological characteristics of surface films thickness in amorphous state were investigated. The results show that with increasing thickness, surface roughness (RMS) and lateral correlation length (ξ) are decreased. Also, the roughness exponent (α) and growth exponent (β) were determined to be 0.74±0.02 and 0.11±0.02, respectively.
Effect of aging treatment on microstructural aspects of interfacial layers of the Cu/Al clad sheet produced by differential speed rolling (DSR) process were studied by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). Clad sheet of Al/Cu has been fabricated by using DSR, which caused severe shear deformation between Al and Cu plate to easily bond to each other. Rolling was carried out at 100oC with speed ratio of 2, in which the total thickness reduction was 45%. Interface layers of clad sheet were analyzed by EBSD after subsequent annealing at 400oC for 30 to 120min. With increasing annealing time, thickness of interface layer and fraction of high angle grain boundary were increased and average grain size was decreased.
Al/Cu clad sheet has been fabricated by using differential speed rolling (DSR) process, which caused severe shear deformation between Al and Cu plate to easily bond to each other. Rolling was carried out at 100 and 150oC with speed ratios from 1.4 to 2.2, in which the total thickness reduction was in the range between 14 and 46%. Interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of Al/Cu clad were investigated by scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector, and tension tests. The DSR process was very effective to provide a good interface for atoms diffusion during subsequent annealing. The strength of bonding was higher with the increasing speed ratio. Post heat treatment enhanced the mechanical properties of clad sheet by forming intermetallic compounds in the interface area.
Combinatorial optimization problems arise in many scientific and practical applications. Therefore many researchers try to find or improve different methods to solve these problems with high quality results and in less time. Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Simulated Annealing (SA) have been used to solve optimization problems. Both GA and SA search a solution space throughout a sequence of iterative states. However, there are also significant differences between them. The GA mechanism is parallel on a set of solutions and exchanges information using the crossover operation. SA works on a single solution at a time. In this work SA and GA are combined using new technique in order to overcome the disadvantages' of both algorithms.
In ad hoc networks, the main issue about designing of protocols is quality of service, so that in wireless sensor networks the main constraint in designing protocols is limited energy of sensors. In fact, protocols which minimize the power consumption in sensors are more considered in wireless sensor networks. One approach of reducing energy consumption in wireless sensor networks is to reduce the number of packages that are transmitted in network. The technique of collecting data that combines related data and prevent transmission of additional packages in network can be effective in the reducing of transmitted packages- number. According to this fact that information processing consumes less power than information transmitting, Data Aggregation has great importance and because of this fact this technique is used in many protocols . One of the Data Aggregation techniques is to use Data Aggregation tree. But finding one optimum Data Aggregation tree to collect data in networks with one sink is a NP-hard problem. In the Data Aggregation technique, related information packages are combined in intermediate nodes and form one package. So the number of packages which are transmitted in network reduces and therefore, less energy will be consumed that at last results in improvement of longevity of network. Heuristic methods are used in order to solve the NP-hard problem that one of these optimization methods is to solve Simulated Annealing problems. In this article, we will propose new method in order to build data collection tree in wireless sensor networks by using Simulated Annealing algorithm and we will evaluate its efficiency whit Genetic Algorithm.
Zero inflated Strict Arcsine model is a newly developed model which is found to be appropriate in modeling overdispersed count data. In this study, maximum likelihood estimation method is used in estimating the parameters for zero inflated strict arcsine model. Bootstrapping is then employed to compute the confidence intervals for the estimated parameters.