Microstrip Patch Antenna Enhancement Techniques
Microstrip patch antennas are widely used in many wireless communication applications because of their various advantages such as light weight, compact size, inexpensive, ease of fabrication and high reliability. However, narrow bandwidth and low gain are the major drawbacks of microstrip antennas. The radiation properties of microstrip antenna is affected by many designing factors like feeding techniques, manufacturing substrate, patch and ground structure. This manuscript presents a review of the most popular gain and bandwidth enhancement methods of microstrip antenna and reports a brief description of its feeding techniques.
Improved Small-Signal Characteristics of Infrared 850 nm Top-Emitting Vertical-Cavity Lasers
High-speed infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) with Cu-plated heat sinks were fabricated and tested. VCSELs with 10 mm aperture diameter and 4 mm of electroplated copper demonstrated a -3dB modulation bandwidth (f-3dB) of 14 GHz and a resonance frequency (fR) of 9.5 GHz at a bias current density (Jbias) of only 4.3 kA/cm2, which corresponds to an improved f-3dB2/Jbias ratio of 44 GHz2/kA/cm2. At higher and lower bias current densities, the f-3dB2/ Jbias ratio decreased to about 30 GHz2/kA/cm2 and 18 GHz2/kA/cm2, respectively. Examination of the analogue modulation response demonstrated that the presented VCSELs displayed a steady f-3dB/ fR ratio of 1.41±10% over the whole range of the bias current (1.3Ith to 6.2Ith). The devices also demonstrated a maximum modulation bandwidth (f-3dB max) of more than 16 GHz at a bias current less than the industrial bias current standard for reliability by 25%.
Dynamic Admission Control Based on Effective Demand for Next Generation Wireless Networks
In next generation wireless networks (i.e., 4G and beyond), one of the main objectives is to ensure highest level of customer satisfaction in terms of data transfer speed, decrease in cost and delay, non-rejection and no drop of calls, availability of ‘always-on’ connectivity and services, continuity of connected services, hastle-free roaming in addition to the convenience of use of network services from anywhere and anytime. To take care of these requirements effectively, internet service providers (ISPs) and network planners have to go for major capacity enhancement of network resources and at the same time these resources are to be used effectively and efficiently to reduce cost and to increase revenue. In this work, the effective bandwidth available in a Mobile Switching Center (MSC) of a wireless network providing multi-class multimedia services is analyzed. Bandwidth requirement of the users for a customized Quality of Service (QoS) is estimated. The findings of the QoS estimation are applied for the capacity planning and admission control of the multi-class traffic flows coming into the MSC.
Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation in Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) Networks
Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) networks are a promising candidate for future broadband access networks. These networks combine the optical network as the back end where different passive optical network (PON) technologies are realized and the wireless network as the front end where different wireless technologies are adopted, e.g. LTE, WiMAX, Wi-Fi, and Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). The convergence of both optical and wireless technologies requires designing architectures with robust efficient and effective bandwidth allocation schemes. Different bandwidth allocation algorithms have been proposed in FiWi networks aiming to enhance the different segments of FiWi networks including wireless and optical subnetworks. In this survey, we focus on the differentiating between the different bandwidth allocation algorithms according to their enhancement segment of FiWi networks. We classify these techniques into wireless, optical and Hybrid bandwidth allocation techniques.
Multichannel Scheme under Max-Min Fairness Environment for Cognitive Radio Networks
This paper develops a multiple channel assignment
model, which allows to take advantage of spectrum opportunities in
cognitive radio networks in the most efficient way. The developed
scheme allows making several assignments of available and
frequency adjacent channel, which require a bigger bandwidth, under
an equality environment. The hybrid assignment model it is made by
two algorithms, one that makes the ranking and selects available
frequency channels and the other one in charge of establishing the
Max-Min Fairness for not restrict the spectrum opportunities for all
the other secondary users, who also claim to make transmissions.
Measurements made were done for average bandwidth, average
delay, as well as fairness computation for several channel
assignments. Reached results were evaluated with experimental
spectrum occupational data from captured GSM frequency band. The
developed model shows evidence of improvement in spectrum
opportunity use and a wider average transmission bandwidth for each
secondary user, maintaining equality criteria in channel assignment.
On the Design of Wearable Fractal Antenna
This paper is aimed at proposing a rhombus shaped
wearable fractal antenna for wireless communication systems. The
geometrical descriptors of the antenna have been obtained using
bacterial foraging optimization (BFO) for wide band operation. The
method of moment based IE3D software has been used to simulate
the antenna and observed that miniaturization of 13.08% has been
achieved without degrading the resonating properties of the proposed
antenna. An analysis with different substrates has also been done in
order to evaluate the effectiveness of electrical permittivity on the
presented structure. The proposed antenna has low profile, light
weight and has successfully demonstrated wideband and multiband
characteristics for wearable electronic applications.
Secure Low-Bandwidth Video Streaming through Reliable Multipath Propagation in MANETs
Most of the existing video streaming protocols
provide video services without considering security aspects in
decentralized mobile ad-hoc networks. The security policies adapted
to the currently existing non-streaming protocols, do not comply with
the live video streaming protocols resulting in considerable
vulnerability, high bandwidth consumption and unreliability which
cause severe security threats, low bandwidth and error prone
transmission respectively in video streaming applications. Therefore
a synergized methodology is required to reduce vulnerability and
bandwidth consumption, and enhance reliability in the video
streaming applications in MANET. To ensure the security measures
with reduced bandwidth consumption and improve reliability of the
video streaming applications, a Secure Low-bandwidth Video
Streaming through Reliable Multipath Propagation (SLVRMP)
protocol architecture has been proposed by incorporating the two
algorithms namely Secure Low-bandwidth Video Streaming
Algorithm and Reliable Secure Multipath Propagation Algorithm
using Layered Video Coding in non-overlapping zone routing
network topology. The performances of the proposed system are
compared to those of the other existing secure multipath protocols
Sec-MR, SPREAD using NS 2.34 and the simulation results show
that the performances of the proposed system get considerably
Design of S-Shape GPS Application Electrically Small Antenna
The microstrip antennas area has seen some inventive
work in recent years and is now one of the most dynamic fields of
antenna theory. A novel and simple wideband monopole antenna is
presented printed on a single dielectric substrate which is fed by a 50
ohm microstrip line having a low-profile antenna structure with two
parallel s-shaped meandered line of same size. This antenna is fed by
a coaxial feeding tube. In this research, S–form microstrip patch antenna is designed from
measuring the prototypes of the proposed antenna one available
bands with 10db return loss bandwidths of about GPS application
(GPS L2 1490 MHz) and covering the 1400 to 1580 MHz frequency
band at 1.5 GHz, the simulated results for main parameters such as
return loss, impedance bandwidth, radiation patterns, and gains are
also discussed herein. The modeling study shows that such antennas,
in simplicity design and supply, can satisfy GPS application. Two
parallel slots are incorporated to disturb the surface flow path,
introducing local inductive effect. This antenna is fed by a coaxial
Performance Evaluation of QoS Based Forwarding and Non Forwarding Energetic Node Selection Algorithm for Reducing the Flooding in Multihop Routing in Highly Dynamic MANET
The aim of this paper is to propose a novel technique
to guarantee Quality of Service (QoS) in a highly dynamic
environment. The MANET changes its topology dynamically as the
nodes are moved frequently. This will cause link failure between
mobile nodes. MANET cannot ensure reliability without delay. The
relay node is selected based on achieving QoS in previous
transmission. It considers one more factor Connection Existence
Period (CEP) to ensure reliability. CEP is to find out the period
during that connection exists between the nodes. The node with
highest CEP becomes a next relay node. The relay node is selected
dynamically to avoid frequent failure. The bandwidth of each link
changed dynamically based on service rate and request rate. This
paper proposes Active bandwidth setting up algorithm to guarantee
the QoS. The series of results obtained by using the Network
Simulator (NS-2) demonstrate the viability of our proposed
Design and Optimization of a Microstrip Patch Antenna for Increased Bandwidth
With the ever-increasing need for wireless communication and the emergence of many systems, it is important to design broadband antennas to cover a wide frequency range. The aim of this paper is to design a broadband patch antenna, employing the three techniques of slotting, adding directly coupled parasitic elements, and fractal EBG structures. The bandwidth is improved from 9.32% to 23.77%. A wideband ranging from 4.15 GHz to 5.27 GHz is obtained. Also a comparative analysis of embedding EBG structures at different heights is also done. The composite effect of integrating these techniques in the design provides a simple and efficient method for obtaining low profile, broadband, high gain antenna. By the addition of parasitic elements the bandwidth was increased to only 18.04%. Later on by embedding EBG structures the bandwidth was increased up to 23.77%. The design is suitable for variety of wireless applications like WLAN and Radar Applications.
An 880 / 1760 MHz Dual Bandwidth Active RC Filter for 60 GHz Applications
An active RC filters with a 880 / 1760 MHz dual bandwidth tuning ability is present for 60 GHz unlicensed band applications. A third order Butterworth low-pass filter utilizes two Cherry-Hooper amplifiers to satisfy the very high bandwidth requirements of an amplifier. The low-pass filter is fabricated in 90nm standard CMOS process. Drawing 6.7 mW from 1.2 V power supply, the low frequency gains of the filter are -2.5 and -4.1 dB, and the output third order intercept points (OIP3) are +2.2 and +1.9 dBm for the single channel and channel bonding conditions, respectively.
Design and Layout of Two Stage High Band Width Operational Amplifier
This paper presents the design and layout of a two stage, high speed operational amplifiers using standard 0.35um CMOS technology. The design procedure involves designing the bias circuit, the differential input pair, and the gain stage using CAD tools. Both schematic and layout of the operational amplifier along with the comparison in the results of the two has been presented. The operational amplifier designed, has a gain of 93.51db at low frequencies. It has a gain bandwidth product of 55.07MHz, phase margin of 51.9º and a slew rate of 22v/us for a load of capacitor of 10pF.
UWB Bowtie Slot Antenna for Breast Cancer Detection
UWB is a very attractive technology for many
applications. It provides many advantages such as fine resolution and high power efficiency. Our interest in the current study is the use of
UWB radar technique in microwave medical imaging systems, especially for early breast cancer detection. The Federal Communications Commission FCC allowed frequency bandwidth of
3.1 to 10.6 GHz for this purpose. In this paper we suggest an UWB Bowtie slot antenna with enhanced bandwidth. Effects of varying the geometry of the antenna
on its performance and bandwidth are studied. The proposed antenna
is simulated in CST Microwave Studio. Details of antenna design and
simulation results such as return loss and radiation patterns are discussed in this paper. The final antenna structure exhibits good
UWB characteristics and has surpassed the bandwidth requirements.
Application of CPN Tools for Simulation and Analysis of Bandwidth Allocation
We consider the problem of bandwidth allocation in a
substrate network as an optimization problem for the aggregate utility
of multiple applications with diverse requirements and describe a
simulation scheme for dynamically adaptive bandwidth allocation
protocols. The proposed simulation model based on Coloured Petri
Nets (CPN) is realized using CPN Tools.
High-Speed High-Gain CMOS OTA for SC Applications
A fast settling multipath CMOS OTA for high speed
switched capacitor applications is presented here. With the basic
topology similar to folded-cascode, bandwidth and DC gain of the
OTA are enhanced by adding extra paths for signal from input to
output. Designed circuit is simulated with HSPICE using level 49
parameters (BSIM 3v3) in 0.35mm standard CMOS technology. DC
gain achieved is 56.7dB and Unity Gain Bandwidth (UGB) obtained
is 1.15GHz. These results confirm that adding extra paths for signal
can improve DC gain and UGB of folded-cascode significantly.
A Survey: Bandwidth Management in an IP Based Network
this paper presented a survey analysis subjected on
network bandwidth management from published papers referred in
IEEE Explorer database in three years from 2009 to 2011. Network
Bandwidth Management is discussed in today-s issues for computer
engineering applications and systems. Detailed comparison is
presented between published papers to look further in the IP based
network critical research area for network bandwidth management.
Important information such as the network focus area, a few
modeling in the IP Based Network and filtering or scheduling used in
the network applications layer is presented. Many researches on
bandwidth management have been done in the broad network area
but fewer are done in IP Based network specifically at the
applications network layer. A few researches has contributed new
scheme or enhanced modeling but still the issue of bandwidth
management still arise at the applications network layer. This survey
is taken as a basic research towards implementations of network
bandwidth management technique, new framework model and
scheduling scheme or algorithm in an IP Based network which will
focus in a control bandwidth mechanism in prioritizing the network
traffic the applications layer.
Application-Specific Instruction Sets Processor with Implicit Registers to Improve Register Bandwidth
Application-Specific Instruction (ASI ) set Processors
(ASIP) have become an important design choice for embedded
systems due to runtime flexibility, which cannot be provided by
custom ASIC solutions. One major bottleneck in maximizing ASIP
performance is the limitation on the data bandwidth between the
General Purpose Register File (GPRF) and ASIs. This paper presents
the Implicit Registers (IRs) to provide the desirable data bandwidth.
An ASI Input/Output model is proposed to formulate the overheads of
the additional data transfer between the GPRF and IRs, therefore,
an IRs allocation algorithm is used to achieve the better performance
by minimizing the number of extra data transfer instructions. The
experiment results show an up to 3.33x speedup compared to the
results without using IRs.
Virtual Machines Cooperation for Impatient Jobs under Cloud Paradigm
The increase on the demand of IT resources diverts
the enterprises to use the cloud as a cheap and scalable solution.
Cloud computing promises achieved by using the virtual machine as a
basic unite of computation. However, the virtual machine pre-defined
settings might be not enough to handle jobs QoS requirements. This
paper addresses the problem of mapping jobs have critical start
deadlines to virtual machines that have predefined specifications.
These virtual machines hosted by physical machines and shared a
fixed amount of bandwidth. This paper proposed an algorithm that
uses the idle virtual machines bandwidth to increase the quote of other
virtual machines nominated as executors to urgent jobs. An algorithm
with empirical study have been given to evaluate the impact of the
proposed model on impatient jobs. The results show the importance
of dynamic bandwidth allocation in virtualized environment and its
affect on throughput metric.
High Performance In0.42Ga0.58As/In0.26Ga0.74As Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Quantum Well Laser on In0.31Ga0.69As Ternary Substrate
This paper reports on the theoretical performance
analysis of the 1.3 μm In0.42Ga0.58As /In0.26Ga0.74As multiple quantum
well (MQW) vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) on the
ternary In0.31Ga0.69As substrate. The output power of 2.2 mW has
been obtained at room temperature for 7.5 mA injection current. The
material gain has been estimated to be ~3156 cm-1 at room
temperature with the injection carrier concentration of 2×1017 cm-3.
The modulation bandwidth of this laser is measured to be 9.34 GHz
at room temperature for the biasing current of 2 mA above the
threshold value. The outcomes reveal that the proposed InGaAsbased
MQW laser is the promising one for optical communication
A Comparative Analysis of Performance and QoS Issues in MANETs
Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANETs) are collections
of wireless mobile nodes dynamically reconfiguring and collectively
forming a temporary network. These types of networks assume
existence of no fixed infrastructure and are often useful in battle-field
tactical operations or emergency search-and-rescue type of
operations where fixed infrastructure is neither feasible nor practical.
They also find use in ad hoc conferences, campus networks and
commercial recreational applications carrying multimedia traffic. All
of the above applications of MANETs require guaranteed levels of
performance as experienced by the end-user. This paper focuses on
key challenges in provisioning predetermined levels of such Quality
of Service (QoS). It also identifies functional areas where QoS
models are currently defined and used. Evolving functional areas
where performance and QoS provisioning may be applied are also
identified and some suggestions are provided for further research in
this area. Although each of the above functional areas have been
discussed separately in recent research studies, since these QoS
functional areas are highly correlated and interdependent, a
comprehensive and comparative analysis of these areas and their
interrelationships is desired. In this paper we have attempted to
provide such an overview.
, DynamicNetwork Topology
, End-to-End Delay
, Flexible QoS Model forMANET(FQMM)
, Hidden Terminal
, Mobile AdhocNetwork(MANET)
, Packet Jitter
, Relative Bandwidth Service Differentiation(RBSD)
, Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP).
Enhanced-Delivery Overlay Multicasting Scheme by Optimizing Bandwidth and Latency Discrepancy Ratios
With optimized bandwidth and latency discrepancy ratios, Node Gain Scores (NGSs) are determined and used as a basis for shaping the max-heap overlay. The NGSs - determined as the respective bandwidth-latency-products - govern the construction of max-heap-form overlays. Each NGS is earned as a synergy of discrepancy ratio of the bandwidth requested with respect to the estimated available bandwidth, and latency discrepancy ratio between the nodes and the source node. The tree leads to enhanceddelivery overlay multicasting – increasing packet delivery which could, otherwise, be hindered by induced packet loss occurring in other schemes not considering the synergy of these parameters on placing the nodes on the overlays. The NGS is a function of four main parameters – estimated available bandwidth, Ba; individual node's requested bandwidth, Br; proposed node latency to its prospective parent (Lp); and suggested best latency as advised by source node (Lb). Bandwidth discrepancy ratio (BDR) and latency discrepancy ratio (LDR) carry weights of α and (1,000 - α ) , respectively, with arbitrary chosen α ranging between 0 and 1,000 to ensure that the NGS values, used as node IDs, maintain a good possibility of uniqueness and balance between the most critical factor between the BDR and the LDR. A max-heap-form tree is constructed with assumption that all nodes possess NGS less than the source node. To maintain a sense of load balance, children of each level's siblings are evenly distributed such that a node can not accept a second child, and so on, until all its siblings able to do so, have already acquired the same number of children. That is so logically done from left to right in a conceptual overlay tree. The records of the pair-wise approximate available bandwidths as measured by a pathChirp scheme at individual nodes are maintained. Evaluation measures as compared to other schemes – Bandwidth Aware multicaSt architecturE (BASE), Tree Building Control Protocol (TBCP), and Host Multicast Tree Protocol (HMTP) - have been conducted. This new scheme generally performs better in terms of trade-off between packet delivery ratio; link stress; control overhead; and end-to-end delays.
Internet Bandwidth Network Quality Management: The Case Study of Telecom Organization of Thailand
This paper addresses a current problem that occurs among Thai internet service providers with regard to bandwidth network quality management. The IPSTAR department of Telecom Organization of Thailand public company (TOT); the largest internet service provider in Thailand, is the case study to analyze the problem that exists. The Internet bandwidth network quality management (iBWQM) framework is mainly applied to the problem that has been found. Bandwidth management policy (BMP) and quality of service (QoS) are two antecedents of iBWQM. This paper investigates internet user behavior, marketing demand and network operation views in order to determine bandwidth management policy (e.g. quota management, scheduling and malicious management). The congestion of bandwidth is also analyzed to enhance quality of service (QoS). Moreover, the iBWQM framework is able to improve the quality of service and increase bandwidth utilization, minimize complaint rate concerns to slow speed, and provide network planning guidelines through Thai Internet services providers.
On the Analysis of Bandwidth Management for Hybrid Load Balancing Scheme in WLANs
In wireless networks, bandwidth is scare resource and it is essential to utilize it effectively. This paper analyses effects of using different bandwidth management techniques on the network performances of the Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) that use hybrid load balancing scheme. In particular, we study three bandwidth management schemes, namely Complete Sharing (CS), Complete Partitioning (CP), and Partial Sharing (PS). Performances of these schemes are evaluated by simulation experiments in term of percentage of network association blocking. Our results show that the CS scheme can provide relatively low blocking percentage in various network traffic scenarios whereas the PS scheme can enhance quality of services of the multimedia traffic with rather small expenses on the blocking percentage of the best effort traffic.
Seamless Flow of Voluminous Data in High Speed Network without Congestion Using Feedback Mechanism
Continuously growing needs for Internet applications
that transmit massive amount of data have led to the emergence of
high speed network. Data transfer must take place without any
congestion and hence feedback parameters must be transferred from
the receiver end to the sender end so as to restrict the sending rate in
order to avoid congestion. Even though TCP tries to avoid
congestion by restricting the sending rate and window size, it never
announces the sender about the capacity of the data to be sent and
also it reduces the window size by half at the time of congestion
therefore resulting in the decrease of throughput, low utilization of
the bandwidth and maximum delay. In this paper, XCP protocol is
used and feedback parameters are calculated based on arrival rate,
service rate, traffic rate and queue size and hence the receiver
informs the sender about the throughput, capacity of the data to be
sent and window size adjustment, resulting in no drastic decrease in
window size, better increase in sending rate because of which there is
a continuous flow of data without congestion. Therefore as a result of
this, there is a maximum increase in throughput, high utilization of
the bandwidth and minimum delay. The result of the proposed work
is presented as a graph based on throughput, delay and window size.
Thus in this paper, XCP protocol is well illustrated and the various
parameters are thoroughly analyzed and adequately presented.
Improvement of the Quality of Internet Service Based On an Internet Exchange Point (IXP)
Internet is without any doubt the fastest and effective mean of communication making it possible to reach a great number of people in the world. It draws its base from exchange points. Indeed exchange points are used to inter-connect various Internet suppliers and operators in order to allow them to exchange traffic and it is with these interconnections that Internet made its great strides. They thus make it possible to limit the traffic delivered via the operators of transits. This limitation allows a significant improvement of the quality of service, a reduction in the latency time just as a reduction of the cost of connection for the final subscriber. Through this article we will show how the installation of an IXP allows an improvement and a diversification of the services just as a reduction of the Internet connection costs.
Improving Performance of World Wide Web by Adaptive Web Traffic Reduction
The ever increasing use of World Wide Web in the
existing network, results in poor performance. Several techniques
have been developed for reducing web traffic by compressing the size
of the file, saving the web pages at the client side, changing the burst
nature of traffic into constant rate etc. No single method was
adequate enough to access the document instantly through the
Internet. In this paper, adaptive hybrid algorithms are developed for
reducing web traffic. Intelligent agents are used for monitoring the
web traffic. Depending upon the bandwidth usage, user-s preferences,
server and browser capabilities, intelligent agents use the best
techniques to achieve maximum traffic reduction. Web caching,
compression, filtering, optimization of HTML tags, and traffic
dispersion are incorporated into this adaptive selection. Using this
new hybrid technique, latency is reduced to 20 – 60 % and cache hit
ratio is increased 40 – 82 %.
VFAST TCP: A delay-based enhanced version of FAST TCP
This paper is aimed at describing a delay-based endto-
end (e2e) congestion control algorithm, called Very FAST TCP
(VFAST), which is an enhanced version of FAST TCP. The main
idea behind this enhancement is to smoothly estimate the Round-Trip
Time (RTT) based on a nonlinear filter, which eliminates throughput
and queue oscillation when RTT fluctuates. In this context, an evaluation
of the suggested scheme through simulation is introduced, by
comparing our VFAST prototype with FAST in terms of throughput,
queue behavior, fairness, stability, RTT and adaptivity to changes in
network. The achieved simulation results indicate that the suggested
protocol offer better performance than FAST TCP in terms of RTT
estimation and throughput.
An Integrated Software Architecture for Bandwidth Adaptive Video Streaming
Video streaming over lossy IP networks is very
important issues, due to the heterogeneous structure of networks.
Infrastructure of the Internet exhibits variable bandwidths, delays,
congestions and time-varying packet losses. Because of variable
attributes of the Internet, video streaming applications should not
only have a good end-to-end transport performance but also have a
robust rate control, furthermore multipath rate allocation mechanism.
So for providing the video streaming service quality, some other
components such as Bandwidth Estimation and Adaptive Rate
Controller should be taken into consideration. This paper gives an
overview of video streaming concept and bandwidth estimation tools
and then introduces special architectures for bandwidth adaptive
video streaming. A bandwidth estimation algorithm – pathChirp,
Optimized Rate Controllers and Multipath Rate Allocation Algorithm
are considered as all-in-one solution for video streaming problem.
This solution is directed and optimized by a decision center which is
designed for obtaining the maximum quality at the receiving side.
Bandwidth Allocation in Mobile ATM Cellular Networks
Bandwidth allocation in wired network is less complex
and to allocate bandwidth in wireless networks is complex and
challenging, due to the mobility of source end system.This paper
proposes a new approach to bandwidth allocation to higher and lower
priority mobile nodes.In our proposal bandwidth allocation to new
mobile node is based on bandwidth utilization of existing mobile
nodes.The first section of the paper focuses on introduction to
bandwidth allocation in wireless networks and presents the existing
solutions available for allocation of bandwidth. The second section
proposes the new solution for the bandwidth allocation to higher and
lower priority nodes. Finally this paper ends with the analytical
evaluation of the proposed solution.
Bandwidth Allocation for ABR Service in Cellular Networks
Available Bit Rate Service (ABR) is the lower priority
service and the better service for the transmission of data. On wireline
ATM networks ABR source is always getting the feedback from
switches about increase or decrease of bandwidth according to the
changing network conditions and minimum bandwidth is guaranteed.
In wireless networks guaranteeing the minimum bandwidth is really a
challenging task as the source is always in mobile and traveling from
one cell to another cell. Re establishment of virtual circuits from start
to end every time causes the delay in transmission. In our proposed
solution we proposed the mechanism to provide more available
bandwidth to the ABR source by re-usage of part of old Virtual
Channels and establishing the new ones. We want the ABR source to
transmit the data continuously (non-stop) inorderto avoid the delay.
In worst case scenario at least minimum bandwidth is to be allocated.
In order to keep the data flow continuously, priority is given to the
handoff ABR call against new ABR call.