Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 8

8
10004123
Statistical Analysis and Optimization of a Process for CO2 Capture
Abstract:

CO2 capture and storage technologies play a significant role in contributing to the control of climate change through the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. The present study evaluates and optimizes CO2 capture through a process, where carbon dioxide is passed into pH adjusted high salinity water and reacted with sodium chloride to form a precipitate of sodium bicarbonate. This process is based on a modified Solvay process with higher CO2 capture efficiency, higher sodium removal, and higher pH level without the use of ammonia. The process was tested in a bubble column semi-batch reactor and was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). CO2 capture efficiency and sodium removal were optimized in terms of major operating parameters based on four levels and variables in Central Composite Design (CCD). The operating parameters were gas flow rate (0.5–1.5 L/min), reactor temperature (10 to 50 oC), buffer concentration (0.2-2.6%) and water salinity (25-197 g NaCl/L). The experimental data were fitted to a second-order polynomial using multiple regression and analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimum values of the selected variables were obtained using response optimizer. The optimum conditions were tested experimentally using desalination reject brine with salinity ranging from 65,000 to 75,000 mg/L. The CO2 capture efficiency in 180 min was 99% and the maximum sodium removal was 35%. The experimental and predicted values were within 95% confidence interval, which demonstrates that the developed model can successfully predict the capture efficiency and sodium removal using the modified Solvay method.

7
10003828
Identification of the Main Transition Velocities in a Bubble Column Based on a Modified Shannon Entropy
Abstract:
The gas holdup fluctuations in a bubble column (0.15 m in ID) have been recorded by means of a conductivity wire-mesh sensor in order to extract information about the main transition velocities. These parameters are very important for bubble column design, operation and scale-up. For this purpose, the classical definition of the Shannon entropy was modified and used to identify both the onset (at UG=0.034 m/s) of the transition flow regime and the beginning (at UG=0.089 m/s) of the churn-turbulent flow regime. The results were compared with the Kolmogorov entropy (KE) results. A slight discrepancy was found, namely the transition velocities identified by means of the KE were shifted to somewhat higher (0.045 and 0.101 m/s) superficial gas velocities UG.
6
10004308
Entropy Analysis in a Bubble Column Based on Ultrafast X-Ray Tomography Data
Abstract:

By means of the ultrafast X-ray tomography facility, data were obtained at different superficial gas velocities UG in a bubble column (0.1 m in ID) operated with an air-deionized water system at ambient conditions. Raw reconstructed images were treated by both the information entropy (IE) and the reconstruction entropy (RE) algorithms in order to identify the main transition velocities in a bubble column. The IE values exhibited two well-pronounced minima at UG=0.025 m/s and UG=0.085 m/s identifying the boundaries of the homogeneous, transition and heterogeneous regimes. The RE extracted from the central region of the column’s cross-section exhibited only one characteristic peak at UG=0.03 m/s, which was attributed to the transition from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous flow regime. This result implies that the transition regime is non-existent in the core of the column.

5
9996735
Study of the Particle Size Effect on Bubble Rise Velocities in a Three-Phase Bubble Column
Abstract:

Experiments were performed in a three-phase bubble column to study variations of bubble rise velocities. The dynamic gas disengagement (DGD) technique and the fast response pressure transducers were utilized to investigate the bubble rise in the column. The superficial gas velocity of large bubbles and small bubbles, the rise velocities of larger and small bubble fractions were studied considering the effect of particle sizes. The results show that the superficial gas velocity associated with large bubbles linearly increase as superficial gas velocity increasing. Particle size has little effect on the both large and small bubble superficial gas velocities. The rise velocities of larger bubble fractions are larger than that of small bubble fractions, and it had different tendency at low and high superficial gas velocities when changing the particle sizes. The rise velocities of small bubble fractions increased and then had a decrease tendency when the particle size became greater.

4
10001634
Prediction of Oxygen Transfer and Gas Hold-Up in Pneumatic Bioreactors Containing Viscous Newtonian Fluids
Abstract:

Pneumatic reactors have been widely employed in various sectors of the chemical industry, especially where are required high heat and mass transfer rates. This study aimed to obtain correlations that allow the prediction of gas hold-up (Ԑ) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa), and compare these values, for three models of pneumatic reactors on two scales utilizing Newtonian fluids. Values of kLa ​​were obtained using the dynamic pressure-step method, while e was used for a new proposed measure. Comparing the three models of reactors studied, it was observed that the mass transfer was superior to draft-tube airlift, reaching e of 0.173 and kLa of 0.00904s-1. All correlations showed good fit to the experimental data (R2≥94%), and comparisons with correlations from the literature demonstrate the need for further similar studies due to shortage of data available, mainly for airlift reactors and high viscosity fluids.

3
4850
A Comparison between Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Gas Flow Model in Slurry Bubble Column Reactor for Direct Synthesis of DME
Abstract:
In the present study, a heterogeneous and homogeneous gas flow dispersion model for simulation and optimisation of a large-scale catalytic slurry reactor for the direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas and CO2, using a churn-turbulent regime was developed. In the heterogeneous gas flow model the gas phase was distributed into two bubble phases: small and large, however in the homogeneous one, the gas phase was distributed into only one large bubble phase. The results indicated that the heterogeneous gas flow model was in more agreement with experimental pilot plant data than the homogeneous one.
2
13126
CFD Simulations to Validate Two and Three Phase Up-flow in Bubble Columns
Abstract:
Bubble columns have a variety of applications in absorption, bio-reactions, catalytic slurry reactions, and coal liquefaction; because they are simple to operate, provide good heat and mass transfer, having less operational cost. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for bubble column becomes important, since it can describe the fluid hydrodynamics on both local and global scale. Euler- Euler two-phase fluid model has been used to simulate two-phase (air and water) transient up-flow in bubble column (15cm diameter) using FLUENT6.3. These simulations and experiments were operated over a range of superficial gas velocities in the bubbly flow and churn turbulent regime (1 to16 cm/s) at ambient conditions. Liquid velocity was varied from 0 to 16cm/s. The turbulence in the liquid phase is described using the standard k-ε model. The interactions between the two phases are described through drag coefficient formulations (Schiller Neumann). The objectives are to validate CFD simulations with experimental data, and to obtain grid-independent numerical solutions. Quantitatively good agreements are obtained between experimental data for hold-up and simulation values. Axial liquid velocity profiles and gas holdup profiles were also obtained for the simulation.
1
5141
Mathematical Simulation of Bubble Column Slurry Reactor for Direct Dimethyl Ether Synthesis Process from Syngas
Abstract:

Based on a global kinetics of direct dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis process from syngas, a steady-state one-dimensional mathematical model for the bubble column slurry reactor (BCSR) has been established. It was built on the assumption of plug flow of gas phase, sedimentation-dispersion model of catalyst grains and isothermal chamber regardless of reaction heats and rates for the design of an industrial scale bubble column slurry reactor. The simulation results indicate that higher pressure and lower temperature were favorable to the increase of CO conversion, DME selectivity, products yield and the height of slurry bed, which has a coincidence with the characteristic of DME synthesis reaction system, and that the height of slurry bed is lessen with the increasing of operation temperature in the range of 220-260℃. CO conversion, the optimal operation conditions in BCSR were proposed. 


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