Determination of the Thermophysical Characteristics of the Composite Material Clay Cement Paper
In Morocco, the building sector is largely responsible for the evolution of energy consumption. The control of energy in this sector remains a major issue despite the rise of renewable energies. The design of an environmentally friendly building requires mastery and knowledge of energy and bioclimatic aspects. This implies taking into consideration of all the elements making up the building and the way in which energy exchanges take place between these elements. In this context, thermal insulation seems to be an ideal starting point for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, thermal insulation seems to be an ideal starting point for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this work is to provide some solutions to reduce energy consumption while maintaining thermal comfort in the building. The objective of our work is to present an experimental study on the characterization of local materials used in the thermal insulation of buildings. These are paper recycling stabilized with cement and clay. The thermal conductivity of these materials, which were constituted based on sand, clay, cement; water, as well as treated paper, was determined by the guarded-hot-plate method. It involves the design of two materials that will subsequently be subjected to thermal and mechanical tests to determine their thermophysical properties. The results show that the thermal conductivity decreases as well in the case of the paper-cement mixture as that of the paper-clay and seems to stabilize around 40%. Measurements of mechanical properties such as flexural strength have shown that the enrichment of the studied material with paper makes it possible to reduce the flexural strength by 20% while optimizing the conductivity.
Feasibility Study of Friction Stir Welding Application for Kevlar Material
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a joining process in the solid state, which eliminates problems associated with the material melting and solidification, such as cracks, residual stresses and distortions generated during conventional welding. Among the most important advantages of FSW are; easy automation, less distortion, lower residual stress and good mechanical properties in the joining region. FSW is a recent approach to metal joining and although originally intended for aluminum alloys, it is investigated in a variety of metallic materials. The basic concept of FSW is a rotating tool, made of non-consumable material, specially designed with a geometry consisting of a pin and a recess (shoulder). This tool is inserted as spinning on its axis at the adjoining edges of two sheets or plates to be joined and then it travels along the joining path line. The tool rotation axis defines an angle of inclination with which the components to be welded. This angle is used for receiving the material to be processed at the tool base and to promote the gradual forge effect imposed by the shoulder during the passage of the tool. This prevents the material plastic flow at the tool lateral, ensuring weld closure on the back of the pin. In this study, two 4 mm Kevlar® plates which were produced with the Kevlar® fabrics, are analyzed with COMSOL Multiphysics in order to investigate the weldability via FSW. Thereafter, some experimental investigation is done with an appropriate workbench in order to compare them with the analysis results.
Sintering of Composite Ceramic based on Corundum with Additive in the Al2O3-TiO2-MnO System
In this paper, the effect of the additive content in the Al2O3-TiO2-MnO system on the sintering of composite ceramics based on corundum was studied. The samples were pressed by uniaxial semi-dry pressing under 100 MPa and sintered at 1500 °С and 1550 °С. The properties of composite ceramics for porosity and flexural strength were studied. When the amount of additives increases, the properties of composite ceramic samples are better than samples without additives.
Power and Wear Reduction Using Composite Links of Crank-Rocker Mechanism with Optimum Transmission Angle
Reducing energy consumption became the major concern for all countries of the world during the recent decades. In general, power saving is currently the nominal goal of most industrial countries. It is well known that fossil fuels are the main pillar of development of world countries. Unfortunately, the increased rate of fossil fuel consumption will lead to serious problems caused by an expected depletion of fuels. Moreover, dangerous gases and vapors emission lead to severe environmental problems during fuel burning. Consequently, most engineering sectors especially the mechanical sectors are looking for improving any machine accompanied by reducing its energy consumption. Crank-Rocker planar mechanism is the most applied in mechanical systems. Besides, it is one of the most significant parts of the machines for obtaining the oscillatory motion. The transmission angle of this mechanism can be considered as an optimum value when its extreme values are equally varied around 90°. In addition, the transmission angle plays an important role in decreasing the required driving power and improving the dynamic properties of the mechanism. Hence, appropriate selection of mechanism links lengthens, which assures optimum transmission angle leads to decreasing the driving power. Moreover, mechanism's links manufactured from composite materials afford link's lightweight, which decreases the required driving torque. Furthermore, wear and corrosion problems can be treated through using composite links instead of using metal ones. This paper is dealing with improving the performance of crank-rocker mechanism using composite links due to their flexural elastic modulus values and stiffness in addition to high damping of composite materials.
Crashworthiness Optimization of an Automotive Front Bumper in Composite Material
In the last years, the crashworthiness of an automotive body structure can be improved, since the beginning of the design stage, thanks to the development of specific optimization tools. It is well known how the finite element codes can help the designer to investigate the crashing performance of structures under dynamic impact. Therefore, by coupling nonlinear mathematical programming procedure and statistical techniques with FE simulations, it is possible to optimize the design with reduced number of analytical evaluations. In engineering applications, many optimization methods which are based on statistical techniques and utilize estimated models, called meta-models, are quickly spreading. A meta-model is an approximation of a detailed simulation model based on a dataset of input, identified by the design of experiments (DOE); the number of simulations needed to build it depends on the number of variables. Among the various types of meta-modeling techniques, Kriging method seems to be excellent in accuracy, robustness and efficiency compared to other ones when applied to crashworthiness optimization. Therefore the application of such meta-model was used in this work, in order to improve the structural optimization of a bumper for a racing car in composite material subjected to frontal impact. The specific energy absorption represents the objective function to maximize and the geometrical parameters subjected to some design constraints are the design variables. LS-DYNA codes were interfaced with LS-OPT tool in order to find the optimized solution, through the use of a domain reduction strategy. With the use of the Kriging meta-model the crashworthiness characteristic of the composite bumper was improved.
Detection of Defects in CFRP by Ultrasonic IR Thermographic Method
In the paper introduced the diagnostic technique making possible the research of internal structures in composite materials reinforced fibres using in different applications. The main reason of damages in structures of these materials is the changing distribution of load in constructions in the lifetime. Appearing defect is largely complicated because of the appearance of disturbing of continuity of reinforced fibres, binder cracks and loss of fibres adhesiveness from binders. Defect in composite materials is usually more complicated than in metals. At present, infrared thermography is the most effective method in non-destructive testing composite. One of IR thermography methods used in non-destructive evaluation is vibrothermography. The vibrothermography is not a new non-destructive method, but the new solution in this test is use ultrasonic waves to thermal stimulation of materials. In this paper, both modelling and experimental results which illustrate the advantages and limitations of ultrasonic IR thermography in inspecting composite materials will be presented. The ThermoSon computer program for computing 3D dynamic temperature distribuions in anisotropic layered solids with subsurface defects subject to ulrasonic stimulation was used to optimise heating parameters in the detection of subsurface defects in composite materials. The program allows for the analysis of transient heat conduction and ultrasonic wave propagation phenomena in solids. The experiments at MIAT were fulfilled by means of FLIR SC 7600 IR camera. Ultrasonic stimulation was performed with the frequency from 15 kHz to 30 kHz with maximum power up to 2 kW.
Dynamic Analysis of Composite Doubly Curved Panels with Variable Thickness
Dynamic analysis of composite doubly curved panels with variable thickness subjected to different pulse types using Generalized Differential Quadrature method (GDQ) is presented in this study. Panels with variable thickness are used in the construction of aerospace and marine industry. Giving variable thickness to panels can allow the designer to get optimum structural efficiency. For this reason, estimating the response of variable thickness panels is very important to design more reliable structures under dynamic loads. Dynamic equations for composite panels with variable thickness are obtained using virtual work principle. Partial derivatives in the equation of motion are expressed with GDQ and Newmark average acceleration scheme is used for temporal discretization. Several examples are used to highlight the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results are compared with finite element method. Effects of taper ratios, boundary conditions and loading type on the response of composite panel are investigated.
Non-Destructive Testing of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic by Infrared Thermography Methods
Composite materials are one answer to the growing demand for materials with better parameters of construction and exploitation. Composite materials also permit conscious shaping of desirable properties to increase the extent of reach in the case of metals, ceramics or polymers. In recent years, composite materials have been used widely in aerospace, energy, transportation, medicine, etc. Fiber-reinforced composites including carbon fiber, glass fiber and aramid fiber have become a major structural material. The typical defect during manufacture and operation is delamination damage of layered composites. When delamination damage of the composites spreads, it may lead to a composite fracture. One of the many methods used in non-destructive testing of composites is active infrared thermography. In active thermography, it is necessary to deliver energy to the examined sample in order to obtain significant temperature differences indicating the presence of subsurface anomalies. To detect possible defects in composite materials, different methods of thermal stimulation can be applied to the tested material, these include heating lamps, lasers, eddy currents, microwaves or ultrasounds. The use of a suitable source of thermal stimulation on the test material can have a decisive influence on the detection or failure to detect defects. Samples of multilayer structure carbon composites were prepared with deliberately introduced defects for comparative purposes. Very thin defects of different sizes and shapes made of Teflon or copper having a thickness of 0.1 mm were screened. Non-destructive testing was carried out using the following sources of thermal stimulation, heating lamp, flash lamp, ultrasound and eddy currents. The results are reported in the paper.
Investigation of Stability of Functionally Graded Material when Encountering Periodic Loading
In this work, functionally graded materials (FGMs), subjected to loading, which varies with time has been studied. The material properties of FGM are changing through the thickness of material as power law distribution. The conical shells have been chosen for this study so in the first step capability equations for FGM have been obtained. With Galerkin method, these equations have been replaced with time dependant differential equations with variable coefficient. These equations have solved for different initial conditions with variation methods. Important parameters in loading conditions are semi-vertex angle, external pressure and material properties. Results validation has been done by comparison between with those in previous studies of other researchers.
Large-Scale Production of High-Performance Fiber-Metal-Laminates by Prepreg-Press-Technology
Lightweight construction became more and more important over the last decades in several applications, e.g. in the automotive or aircraft sector. This is the result of economic and ecological constraints on the one hand and increasing safety and comfort requirements on the other hand. In the field of lightweight design, different approaches are used due to specific requirements towards the technical systems. The use of endless carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) offers the largest weight saving potential of sometimes more than 50% compared to conventional metal-constructions. However, there are very limited industrial applications because of the cost-intensive manufacturing of the fibers and production technologies. Other disadvantages of pure CFRP-structures affect the quality control or the damage resistance. One approach to meet these challenges is hybrid materials. This means CFRP and sheet metal are combined on a material level. Therefore, new opportunities for innovative process routes are realizable. Hybrid lightweight design results in lower costs due to an optimized material utilization and the possibility to integrate the structures in already existing production processes of automobile manufacturers. In recent and current research, the advantages of two-layered hybrid materials have been pointed out, i.e. the possibility to realize structures with tailored mechanical properties or to divide the curing cycle of the epoxy resin into two steps. Current research work at the Chair for Automotive Lightweight Design (LiA) at the Paderborn University focusses on production processes for fiber-metal-laminates. The aim of this work is the development and qualification of a large-scale production process for high-performance fiber-metal-laminates (FML) for industrial applications in the automotive or aircraft sector. Therefore, the prepreg-press-technology is used, in which pre-impregnated carbon fibers and sheet metals are formed and cured in a closed, heated mold. The investigations focus e.g. on the realization of short process chains and cycle times, on the reduction of time-consuming manual process steps, and the reduction of material costs. This paper gives an overview over the considerable steps of the production process in the beginning. Afterwards experimental results are discussed. This part concentrates on the influence of different process parameters on the mechanical properties, the laminate quality and the identification of process limits. Concluding the advantages of this technology compared to conventional FML-production-processes and other lightweight design approaches are carried out.
Field Trial of Resin-Based Composite Materials for the Treatment of Surface Collapses Associated with Former Shallow Coal Mining
Effective treatment of ground instability is essential when managing the impacts associated with historic mining. A field trial was undertaken by the Coal Authority to investigate the geotechnical performance and potential use of composite materials comprising resin and fill or stone to safely treat surface collapses, such as crown-holes, associated with shallow mining. Test pits were loosely filled with various granular fill materials. The fill material was injected with commercially available silicate and polyurethane resin foam products. In situ and laboratory testing was undertaken to assess the geotechnical properties of the resultant composite materials. The test pits were subsequently excavated to assess resin permeation. Drilling and resin injection was easiest through clean limestone fill materials. Recycled building waste fill material proved difficult to inject with resin; this material is thus considered unsuitable for use in resin composites. Incomplete resin permeation in several of the test pits created irregular ‘blocks’ of composite. Injected resin foams significantly improve the stiffness and resistance (strength) of the un-compacted fill material. The stiffness of the treated fill material appears to be a function of the stone particle size, its associated compaction characteristics (under loose tipping) and the proportion of resin foam matrix. The type of fill material is more critical than the type of resin to the geotechnical properties of the composite materials. Resin composites can effectively support typical design imposed loads. Compared to other traditional treatment options, such as cement grouting, the use of resin composites is potentially less disruptive, particularly for sites with limited access, and thus likely to achieve significant reinstatement cost savings. The use of resin composites is considered a suitable option for the future treatment of shallow mining collapses.
Mechanical Testing of Composite Materials for Monocoque Design in Formula Student Car
Inspired by the Formula-1 competition, IMechE
(Institute of Mechanical Engineers) and Formula SAE (Society of
Mechanical Engineers) organize annual competitions for University
and College students worldwide to compete with a single-seat racecar
they have designed and built. Design of the chassis or the frame is a
key component of the competition because the weight and stiffness
properties are directly related with the performance of the car and the
safety of the driver. In addition, a reduced weight of the chassis has
direct influence on the design of other components in the car. Among
others, it improves the power to weight ratio and the aerodynamic
performance. As the power output of the engine or the battery
installed in the car is limited to 80 kW, increasing the power to
weight ratio demands reduction of the weight of the chassis, which
represents the major part of the weight of the car. In order to reduce
the weight of the car, ION Racing team from University of
Stavanger, Norway, opted for a monocoque design. To ensure
fulfilment of the competition requirements of the chassis, the
monocoque design should provide sufficient torsional stiffness and
absorb the impact energy in case of possible collision. The study reported in this article is based on the requirements for
Formula Student competition. As part of this study, diverse
mechanical tests were conducted to determine the mechanical
properties and performances of the monocoque design. Upon a
comprehensive theoretical study of the mechanical properties of
sandwich composite materials and the requirements of monocoque
design in the competition rules, diverse tests were conducted
including 3-point bending test, perimeter shear test and test for
absorbed energy. The test panels were homemade and prepared with
equivalent size of the side impact zone of the monocoque, i.e. 275
mm x 500 mm, so that the obtained results from the tests can be
representative. Different layups of the test panels with identical core
material and the same number of layers of carbon fibre were tested
and compared. Influence of the core material thickness was also
studied. Furthermore, analytical calculations and numerical analysis
were conducted to check compliance to the stated rules for Structural
Equivalency with steel grade SAE/AISI 1010. The test results were
also compared with calculated results with respect to bending and
torsional stiffness, energy absorption, buckling, etc. The obtained results demonstrate that the material composition
and strength of the composite material selected for the monocoque
design has equivalent structural properties as a welded frame and thus
comply with the competition requirements. The developed analytical
calculation algorithms and relations will be useful for future
monocoque designs with different lay-ups and compositions.
An Overview of Corroded Pipe Repair Techniques Using Composite Materials
Polymeric composites are being increasingly used as
repair material for repairing critical infrastructures such as building,
bridge, pressure vessel, piping and pipeline. Technique in repairing
damaged pipes is one of the major concerns of pipeline owners.
Considerable researches have been carried out on the repair of
corroded pipes using composite materials. This article attempts a
short review of the subject matter to provide insight into various
techniques used in repairing corroded pipes, focusing on a wide range
of composite repair systems. These systems including pre-cured
layered, flexible wet lay-up, pre-impregnated, split composite sleeve
and flexible tape systems. Both advantages and limitations of these
repair systems were highlighted. Critical technical aspects have been
discussed through the current standards and practices. Research gaps
and future study scopes in achieving more effective design
philosophy are also presented.
Effects of Different Fiber Orientations on the Shear Strength Performance of Composite Adhesive Joints
A composite material with carbon fiber and polymer
matrix has been used as adherent for manufacturing adhesive joints.
In order to evaluate different fiber orientations on joint performance,
the adherents with the 0°, ±15°, ±30°, ±45° fiber orientations were
used in the single lap joint configuration. The joints with an overlap
length of 25 mm were prepared according to the ASTM 1002
specifications and subjected to tensile loadings. The structural
adhesive used was a two-part epoxy to be cured at 70°C for an hour.
First, mechanical behaviors of the adherents were measured using
three point bending test. In the test, considerations were given to
stress to failure and elastic modulus. The results were compared with
theoretical ones using rule of mixture. Then, the joints were
manufactured in a specially prepared jig, after a proper surface
preparation. Experimental results showed that the fiber orientations
of the adherents affected the joint performance considerably; the
joints with ±45° adherents experienced the worst shear strength, half
of those with 0° adherents, and in general, there was a great
relationship between the fiber orientations and failure mechanisms.
Delamination problems were observed for many joints, which were
thought to be due to peel effects at the ends of the overlap. It was
proved that the surface preparation applied to the adherent surface
was adequate. For further explanation of the results, a numerical
work should be carried out using a possible non-linear analysis.
Design and Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Corrugated-GFRP Infill Panels
This study presented to reduce earthquake damage and
emergency rehabilitation of critical structures such as schools, hightech
factories, and hospitals due to strong ground motions associated
with climate changes. Regarding recent trend, a strong earthquake
causes serious damage to critical structures and then the critical
structure might be influenced by sequence aftershocks (or tsunami)
due to fault plane adjustments. Therefore, in order to improve seismic
performance of critical structures, retrofitted or strengthening study
of the structures under aftershocks sequence after emergency
rehabilitation of the structures subjected to strong earthquakes is
widely carried out. Consequently, this study used composite material
for emergency rehabilitation of the structure rather than concrete and
steel materials because of high strength and stiffness, lightweight,
rapid manufacturing, and dynamic performance. Also, this study was
to develop or improve the seismic performance or seismic retrofit of
critical structures subjected to strong ground motions and earthquake
aftershocks, by utilizing GFRP-Corrugated Infill Panels (GCIP).
Shielding Effectiveness of Rice Husk and CNT Composites in X-Band Frequency
This paper presents the electromagnetic interference
(EMI) shielding effectiveness of rice husk and carbon nanotubes
(RHCNTs) composites in the X-band region (8.2-12.4 GHz). The
difference weight ratio of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were mix with
the rice husk. The rectangular waveguide technique was used to
measure the complex permittivity of the RHCNTs composites
materials. The complex permittivity is represented in terms of both
the real and imaginary parts of permittivity in X-band frequency. The
conductivity of RHCNTs shows increasing when the ratio of CNTs
mixture increases. The composites materials were simulated using
Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio
simulation software. The shielding effectiveness of RHCNTs and
pure rice husk was compared. The highest EMI SE of 30 dB is
obtained for RHCNTs composites of 10 wt % CNTs with 10mm
The Anti-Noise and Anti-Wear Systems for Railways
In recent years there has been a continuous increase of
axle loads, tonnage, train speed and train length which has increased
both the productivity in the rail sector and the risk of rail breaks and
derailments. On the other hand, the environmental requirements (e.g.
noise reduction) for railway operations will become tighter in the
future. In our research we developed a new composite material which
does not change braking properties, is capable of taking extremely
high pressure loads, reduces noise and is environmentally friendly.
Part of our research was also the development of technology which
will be able to apply this material to the rail. The result of our
research was the system which reduces the wear out significantly and
almost completely eliminates the squealing noise at the same time,
and by using only one special material.
Rehabilitation of Reinforced Concrete Columns
In recent years, rehabilitation has been the subject of extensive research due to increased spending on building work and repair of built works. In all cases, it is absolutely essential to carry out methods of strengthening or repair of structural elements, and that following an inspection analysis and methodology of a correct diagnosis. The reinforced concrete columns are important elements in building structures. They support the vertical loads and provide bracing against the horizontal loads. This research about the behavior of reinforced concrete rectangular columns, rehabilitated by concrete liner, confinement FRP fabric, steel liner or cage formed by metal corners. It allows comparing the contributions of different processes used perspective section resistance elements rehabilitated compared to that is not reinforced or repaired. The different results obtained revealed a considerable gain in bearing capacity failure of reinforced sections cladding concrete, metal bracket, steel plates and a slight improvement to the section reinforced with fabric FRP. The use of FRP does not affect the weight of the structures, but the use of different techniques cladding increases the weight of elements rehabilitated and therefore the weight of the building which requires resizing foundations.
Producing New Composite Materials by Using Tragacanth and Waste Ash
In present study, two kinds of thermal power plant ashes; one the fly ash and the other waste ash are mixed with adhesive tragacanth and cement to produce new composite materials. 48 new samples are produced by varying the percentages of the fly ash, waste ash, cement and tragacanth. The new samples are subjected to some tests to find out their properties such as thermal conductivity, compressive strength, tensile strength and sucking capability of water. It is found that; the thermal conductivity decreases with increasing amount of tragacanth in the mixture. The compressive, tensile strength increases when the rate of tragacanth is up to 1%, whilst as the amount of tragacanth increases up to 1.5%, the compressive, tensile strength decreases slightly. The rate of water absorption of samples was more than 30%. From this result, it is concluded that these materials can not be used as external plaster or internal plaster material that faces to water. They can be used in internal plaster unless touching water and they can be used as cover plaster under roof and riprap material in sandwich panels. It is also found that, these materials can be cut with saw, drilled with screw and painted with any kind of paint.
Design and Analysis of an Automobile Bumper with the Capacity of Energy Release Using GMT Materials
Bumpers play an important role in preventing the
impact energy from being transferred to the automobile and
passengers. Saving the impact energy in the bumper to be released in
the environment reduces the damages of the automobile and
The goal of this paper is to design a bumper with minimum weight
by employing the Glass Material Thermoplastic (GMT) materials.
This bumper either absorbs the impact energy with its deformation or
transfers it perpendicular to the impact direction.
To reach this aim, a mechanism is designed to convert about 80%
of the kinetic impact energy to the spring potential energy and
release it to the environment in the low impact velocity according to
American standard1. In addition, since the residual kinetic energy
will be damped with the infinitesimal elastic deformation of the
bumper elements, the passengers will not sense any impact. It should
be noted that in this paper, modeling, solving and result-s analysis
are done in CATIA, LS-DYNA and ANSYS V8.0 software
Studies on Automatic Measurement Technology for Surface Braided Angle of Three-Dimensional Braided Composite Material Performs
This paper describes a new measuring algorithm for
three-dimensional (3-D) braided composite material .Braided angle is
an important parameter of braided composites. The objective of this
paper is to present an automatic measuring system. In the paper, the
algorithm is performed by using vcµ6.0 language on PC. An
advanced filtered algorithm for image of 3-D braided composites
material performs has been developed. The procedure is completely
automatic and relies on the gray scale information content of the
images and their local wavelet transform modulus maxims.
Experimental results show that the proposed method is feasible.
The algorithm was tested on both carbon-fiber and glass-fiber