Conductivity and Selection of Copper Clad Steel Wires for Grounding Applications
Copper clad steel wire (CCS) is primarily used for grounding applications to reduce the high incidence of copper ground conductor theft in electrical installations. The cross sectional area of the CCS is selected by relating the diameter equivalence to a copper conductor. The main difficulty is how to use a simple analytical relation to determine the right conductivity of CCS for a particular application. The use of Eddy-Current instrument for measuring conductivity is known but in most cases, the instrument is not readily available. The paper presents a simplified approach on how to size and determine CCS conductivity for a given application.
Leaching of Flotation Concentrate of Oxide Copper Ore from Sepon Mine, Lao PDR
Acid leaching of flotation concentrate of oxide copper ore containing mainly of malachite was performed in a standard agitation tank with various parameters. The effects of solid to liquid ratio, sulfuric acid concentration, agitation speed, leaching temperature and time were examined to get proper conditions. The best conditions are 1:8 solid to liquid ratio, 10% concentration by weight, 250 rev/min, 30 oC and 5-min leaching time in respect. About 20% Cu grade assayed by atomic absorption technique with 98% copper recovery was obtained from these combined optimum conditions. Dissolution kinetics of the concentrate was approximated as a logarithmic function. As a result, the first-order reaction rate is suggested from this leaching study.
Effect of Copper Ions Doped-Hydroxyapatite 3D Fiber Scaffold
The mineral in human bone is not pure stoichiometric calcium phosphate (Ca/P) as it is partially substituted by in organic elements. In this study, the copper ions (Cu2+) substituted hydroxyapatite (CuHA) powder has been synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The CuHA powder has been used to fabricate CuHA fiber scaffolds by sol-gel process and the following sinter process. The resulted CuHA fibers have slightly different microstructure (i.e. porosity) compared to HA fiber scaffold, which is denser. The mechanical properties test was used to evaluate CuHA, and the results showed decreases in both compression strength and hardness tests. Moreover, the in vitro used endothelial cells to evaluate the angiogenesis of CuHA. The result illustrated that the viability of endothelial cell on CuHA fiber scaffold surfaces tends to antigenic behavior. The results obtained with CuHA scaffold give this material benefit in biological applications such as antimicrobial, antitumor, antigens, compacts, filling cavities of the tooth and for the deposition of metal implants anti-tumor, anti-cancer, bone filler, and scaffold.
Performance of Coded Multi-Line Copper Wire for G.fast Communications in the Presence of Impulsive Noise
In this paper, we focus on the design of a multi-line
copper wire (MLCW) communication system. First, we construct
our proposed MLCW channel and verify its characteristics based
on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In addition, we apply Middleton
class A impulsive noise (IN) to the copper channel for further
investigation. Second, the MIMO G.fast system is adopted utilizing
the proposed MLCW channel model and is compared to a single
line G-fast system. Second, the performance of the coded system
is obtained utilizing concatenated interleaved Reed-Solomon (RS)
code with four-dimensional trellis-coded modulation (4D TCM), and
compared to the single line G-fast system. Simulations are obtained
for high quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellations
that are commonly used with G-fast communications, the results
demonstrate that the bit error rate (BER) performance of the coded
MLCW system shows an improvement compared to the single line
Investigation of Some Flotation Parameters and the Role of Dispersants in the Flotation of Chalcopyrite
A suitable choice of flotation parameters and reagents have a strong effect on the effectiveness of flotation process. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the flotation of chalcopyrite with the different conditions and dispersants. Flotation parameters such as grinding time, pH, type, and dosage of dispersant were investigated. In order to understand the interaction of some dispersants, sodium silicate, sodium hexametaphosphate and sodium polyphosphate were used. The optimum results were obtained at a pH of 11.5 and a grinding time of 10 minutes. A copper concentrate was produced assaying 29.85% CuFeS2 and 65.97% flotation recovery under optimum rougher ﬂotation conditions with sodium silicate.
Optimization of the Co-Precipitation of Industrial Waste Metals in a Continuous Reactor System
A continuous copper precipitation treatment (CCPT) system was conceived at Intel Chandler Site to serve as a first-of-kind (FOK) facility-scale waste copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and manganese (Mn) co-precipitation facility. The process was designed to treat highly variable wastewater discharged from a substrate packaging research factory. The paper discusses metals co-precipitation induced by internal changes for manufacturing facilities that lack the capacity for hardware expansion due to real estate restrictions, aggressive schedules, or budgetary constraints. Herein, operating parameters such as pH and oxidation reduction potential (ORP) were examined to analyze the ability of the CCPT System to immobilize various waste metals. Additionally, influential factors such as influent concentrations and retention times were investigated to quantify the environmental variability against system performance. A total of 2,027 samples were analyzed and statistically evaluated to measure the performance of CCPT that was internally retrofitted for Mn abatement to meet environmental regulations. In order to enhance the consistency of the influent, a separate holding tank was cannibalized from another system to collect and slow-feed the segregated Mn wastewater from the factory into CCPT. As a result, the baseline influent Mn decreased from 17.2+18.7 mg1L-1 at pre-pilot to 5.15+8.11 mg1L-1 post-pilot (70.1% reduction). Likewise, the pre-trial and post-trial average influent Cu values to CCPT were 52.0+54.6 mg1L-1 and 33.9+12.7 mg1L-1, respectively (34.8% reduction). However, the raw Ni content of 0.97+0.39 mg1L-1 at pre-pilot increased to 1.06+0.17 mg1L-1 at post-pilot. The average Mn output declined from 10.9+11.7 mg1L-1 at pre-pilot to 0.44+1.33 mg1L-1 at post-pilot (96.0% reduction) as a result of the pH and ORP operating setpoint changes. In similar fashion, the output Cu quality improved from 1.60+5.38 mg1L-1 to 0.55+1.02 mg1L-1 (65.6% reduction) while the Ni output sustained a 50% enhancement during the pilot study (0.22+0.19 mg1L-1 reduced to 0.11+0.06 mg1L-1). pH and ORP were shown to be significantly instrumental to the precipitative versatility of the CCPT System.
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Effect of the Solid Gas Interface Nanolayer on Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Copper-CO2 Nanofluid
The use of CO2 in oil recovery and in CO2 capture and storage is gaining traction in recent years. These applications involve heat transfer between CO2 and the base fluid, and hence, there arises a need to improve the thermal conductivity of CO2 to increase the process efficiency and reduce cost. One way to improve the thermal conductivity is through nanoparticle addition in the base fluid. The nanofluid model in this study consisted of copper (Cu) nanoparticles in varying concentrations with CO2 as a base fluid. No experimental data are available on thermal conductivity of CO2 based nanofluid. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are an increasingly adopted tool to perform preliminary assessments of nanoparticle (NP) fluid interactions. In this study, the effect of the formation of a nanolayer (or molecular layering) at the gas-solid interface on thermal conductivity is investigated using equilibrium MD simulations by varying NP diameter and keeping the volume fraction (1.413%) of nanofluid constant to check the diameter effect of NP on the nanolayer and thermal conductivity. A dense semi-solid fluid layer was seen to be formed at the NP-gas interface, and the thickness increases with increase in particle diameter, which also moves with the NP Brownian motion. Density distribution has been done to see the effect of nanolayer, and its thickness around the NP. These findings are extremely beneficial, especially to industries employed in oil recovery as increased thermal conductivity of CO2 will lead to enhanced oil recovery and thermal energy storage.
Structure-Activity Relationship of Gold Catalysts on Alumina Supported Cu-Ce Oxides for CO and Volatile Organic Compound Oxidation
The catalytic oxidation of CO and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is considered as one of the most efficient ways to reduce harmful emissions from various chemical industries. The effectiveness of gold-based catalysts for many reactions of environmental significance was proven during the past three decades. The aim of this work was to combine the favorable features of Au and Cu-Ce mixed oxides in the design of new catalytic materials of improved efficiency and economic viability for removal of air pollutants in waste gases from formaldehyde production. Supported oxides of copper and cerium with Cu: Ce molar ratio 2:1 and 1:5 were prepared by wet impregnation of g-alumina. Gold (2 wt.%) catalysts were synthesized by a deposition-precipitation method. Catalysts characterization was carried out by texture measurements, powder X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed reduction and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The catalytic activity in the oxidation of CO, CH3OH and (CH3)2O was measured using continuous flow equipment with fixed bed reactor. Both Cu-Ce/alumina samples demonstrated similar catalytic behavior. The addition of gold caused significant enhancement of CO and methanol oxidation activity (100 % degree of CO and CH3OH conversion at about 60 and 140 oC, respectively). The composition of Cu-Ce mixed oxides affected the performance of gold-based samples considerably. Gold catalyst on Cu-Ce/γ-Al2O3 1:5 exhibited higher activity for CO and CH3OH oxidation in comparison with Au on Cu-Ce/γ-Al2O3 2:1. The better performance of Au/Cu-Ce 1:5 was related to the availability of highly dispersed gold particles and copper oxide clusters in close contact with ceria.
Upsetting of Tri-Metallic St-Cu-Al and St-Cu60Zn-Al Cylindrical Billets
This work investigates upsetting of the tri-metallic cylindrical billets both experimentally and analytically with a reduction ratio 30%. Steel, brass, and copper are used for the outer and outmost rings and aluminum for the inner core. Two different models have been designed to show material flow and the cavity took place over the two interfaces during forming after this reduction ratio. Each model has an outmost ring material as steel. Model 1 has an outer ring between the outmost ring and the solid core material as copper and Model 2 has a material as brass. Solid core is aluminum for each model. Billets were upset in press machine by using parallel flat dies. Upsetting load was recorded and compared for models and single billets. To extend the tests and compare with experimental procedure to a wider range of inner core and outer ring geometries, finite element model was performed. ABAQUS software was used for the simulations. The aim is to show how contact between outmost ring, outer ring and the inner core are carried on throughout the upsetting process. Results have shown that, with changing in height, between outmost ring, outer ring and inner core, the Model 1 and Model 2 had very good interaction, and the contact surfaces of models had various interface behaviour. It is also observed that tri-metallic materials have lower weight but better mechanical properties than single materials. This can give an idea for using and producing these new materials for different purposes.
Lubricating Grease from Waste Cooking Oil and Waste Motor Sludge
Increase in population has increased the demand of energy to fulfill all its needs. This will result in burden on fossil fuels especially crude oil. Waste oil due to its disposal problem creates environmental degradation. In this context, this paper studies utilization of waste cooking oil and waste motor sludge for making lubricating grease. Experimental studies have been performed by variation in time and concentration of mixture of waste cooking oil and waste motor sludge. The samples were analyzed using penetration test (ASTM D-217), dropping point (ASTM D-566), work penetration (ASTM D-217) and copper strip test (ASTM D-408). Among 6 samples, sample 6 gives the best results with a good drop point and a fine penetration value. The dropping point and penetration test values were found to be 205 °C and 315, respectively. The penetration value falls under the category of NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) consistency number 1.
Optimization of Dissolution of Chevreul’s Salt in Ammonium Chloride Solutions
In this study, Chevreul’s salt was dissolved in ammonium chloride solutions. All experiments were performed in a batch reactor. The obtained results were optimized. Parameters used in the experiments were the reaction temperature, the ammonium chloride concentration, the reaction time and the solid-to-liquid ratio. The optimum conditions were determined by 24 factorial experimental design method. The best values of four parameters were determined as based on the experiment results. After the evaluation of experiment results, all parameters were found as effective in experiment conditions selected. The optimum conditions on the maximum Chevreul’s salt dissolution were the ammonium chloride concentration 4.5 M, the reaction time 13.2 min., the reaction temperature 25 oC, and the solid-to-liquid ratio 9/80 g.mL-1. The best dissolution yield in these conditions was 96.20%.
The Investigation of Precipitation Conditions of Chevreul’s Salt
In this study, the precipitation conditions of Chevreul’s salt were evaluated. The structure of Chevreul’s salt was examined by considering the previous studies. Thermodynamically, the most important precipitation parameters were pH, temperature, and sulphite-copper(II) ratio. The amount of Chevreul’s salt increased with increasing the temperature and sulphite-copper(II) ratio at the certain range, while it increased with decreasing the pH value at the chosen range. The best solution medium for recovery of Chevreul’s salt is sulphur dioxide gas-water system. Moreover, the soluble sulphite salts are used as efficient precipitating reagents. Chevreul’s salt is generally used to produce the highly pure copper powders from synthetic copper sulphate solutions and impure leach solutions. When the pH of the initial ammoniacal solution is greater than 8.5, ammonia in the medium is not free, and Chevreul’s salt from solution does not precipitate. In contrast, copper ammonium sulphide is precipitated. The pH of the initial solution containing ammonia for precipitating of Chevreul’s salt must be less than 8.5.
Application of Various Methods for Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils around Agarak Copper-Molybdenum Mine Complex, Armenia
The present study was aimed in assessing the heavy metal pollution of the soils around Agarak copper-molybdenum mine complex and related environmental risks. This mine complex is located in the south-east part of Armenia, and the present study was conducted in 2013. The soils of the five riskiest sites of this region were studied: surroundings of the open mine, the sites adjacent to processing plant of Agarak copper-molybdenum mine complex, surroundings of Darazam active tailing dump, the recultivated tailing dump of “ravine - 2”, and the recultivated tailing dump of “ravine - 3”. The mountain cambisol was the main soil type in the study sites. The level of soil contamination by heavy metals was assessed by Contamination factors (Cf), Degree of contamination (Cd), Geoaccumulation index (I-geo) and Enrichment factor (EF). The distribution pattern of trace metals in the soil profile according to Cf, Cd, I-geo and EF values shows that the soil is much polluted. Almost in all studied sites, Cu, Mo, Pb, and Cd were the main polluting heavy metals, and this was conditioned by Agarak copper-molybdenum mine complex activity. It is necessary to state that the pollution problem becomes pressing as some parts of these highly polluted region are inhabited by population, and agriculture is highly developed there; therefore, heavy metals can be transferred into human bodies through food chains and have direct influence on public health. Since the induced pollution can pose serious threats to public health, further investigations on soil and vegetation pollution are recommended. Finally, Cf calculating based on distance from the pollution source and the wind direction can provide more reasonable results.
Alumina Supported Cu-Mn-La Catalysts for CO and VOCs Oxidation
Recently, copper and manganese-containing systems are recognized as active and selective catalysts in many oxidation reactions. The main idea of this study is to obtain more information about γ-Al2O3 supported Cu-La catalysts and to evaluate their activity to simultaneous oxidation of CO, CH3OH and dimethyl ether (DME). The catalysts were synthesized by impregnation of support with a mixed aqueous solution of nitrates of copper, manganese and lanthanum under different conditions. XRD, HRTEM/EDS, TPR and thermal analysis were performed to investigate catalysts’ bulk and surface properties. The texture characteristics were determined by Quantachrome Instruments NOVA 1200e specific surface area and pore analyzer. The catalytic measurements of single compounds oxidation were carried out on continuous flow equipment with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor in a wide temperature range. On the basis of XRD analysis and HRTEM/EDS, it was concluded that the active component of the mixed Cu-Mn-La/γ–alumina catalysts strongly depends on the Cu/Mn molar ratio and consisted of at least four compounds – CuO, La2O3, MnO2 and Cu1.5Mn1.5O4. A homogeneous distribution of the active component on the carrier surface was found. The chemical composition strongly influenced catalytic properties. This influence was quite variable with regards to the different processes.
Cyclic Heating Effect on Hardness of Copper
Presented work discusses research results concerning the effect of the heat treatment process. Thermal fatigue which expresses repeated heating and cooling processes affect the ductility or the brittleness of the material. In this research, 70 specimens of copper (1.5 mm thickness, 85 mm length, 32 mm width) are subjected to thermal fatigue at different conditions. Heating temperatures Th are 100, 300 and 500 °C. Number of repeated cycles N is from 1 to 100. Heating time th =600 Sec, and Cooling time; tC= 900 Sec. Results are evaluated and then compared to each other and to that of specimens without subjected to thermal fatigue.
Experimental Study on Mechanical Properties of Commercially Pure Copper Processed by Severe Plastic Deformation Technique-Equal Channel Angular Extrusion
The experiments have been conducted to study the mechanical properties of commercially pure copper processing at room temperature by severe plastic deformation using equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) through a die of 90oangle up to 3 passes by route BC i.e. rotating the sample in the same direction by 90o after each pass. ECAE is used to produce from existing coarse grains to ultra-fine, equiaxed grains structure with high angle grain boundaries in submicron level by introducing a large amount of shear strain in the presence of hydrostatic pressure into the material without changing billet shape or dimension. Mechanical testing plays an important role in evaluating fundamental properties of engineering materials as well as in developing new materials and in controlling the quality of materials for use in design and construction. Yield stress, ultimate tensile stress and ductility are structure sensitive properties and vary with the structure of the material. Microhardness and tensile tests were carried out to evaluate the hardness, strength and ductility of the ECAE processed materials. The results reveal that the strength and hardness of commercially pure copper samples improved significantly without losing much ductility after each pass.
Tribological Behaviour Improvement of Lubricant Using Copper (II) Oxide Nanoparticles as Additive
Tribological properties that include nanoparticles are an alternative to improve the tribological behaviour of lubricating oil, which has been investigated by many researchers for the past few decades. Various nanostructures can be used as additives for tribological improvement. However, this also depends on the characteristics of the nanoparticles. In this study, tribological investigation was performed to examine the effect of CuO nanoparticles on the tribological behaviour of Syntium 800 SL 10W−30. Three parameters used in the analysis using the wear tester (piston ring) were load, revolutions per minute (rpm), and concentration. The specifications of the nanoparticles, such as size, concentration, hardness, and shape, can affect the tribological behaviour of the lubricant. The friction and wear experiment was conducted using a tribo-tester and the Response Surface Methodology method was used to analyse any improvement of the performance. Therefore, two concentrations of 40 nm nanoparticles were used to conduct the experiments, namely, 0.005 wt % and 0.01 wt % and compared with base oil 0 wt % (control). A water bath sonicator was used to disperse the nanoparticles in base oil, while a tribo-tester was used to measure the coefficient of friction and wear rate. In addition, the thermal properties of the nanolubricant were also measured. The results have shown that the thermal conductivity of the nanolubricant was increased when compared with the base oil. Therefore, the results indicated that CuO nanoparticles had improved the tribological behaviour as well as the thermal properties of the nanolubricant oil.
Experimental Investigation with Different Inclination Angles on Copper Oscillating Heat Pipes Performance Using Fe2O3/Kerosene under Magnetic Field
This paper presents the result of an experimental
investigation regarding the use of Fe2O3 nanoparticles added to
kerosene as a working fluid, under magnetic field for Copper
Oscillating Heat pipe with inclination angle of 0°(horizontal), 15°,
30°,45°, 60°,75° and 90° (vertical). The following were examined;
measure the temperature distribution and heat transfer rate on
Oscillating Heat Pipe (OHP), with magnetic field under different
angles. Results showed that the addition of Fe2O3 nanoparticles under
magnetic field improved thermal performance of OHP especially in
Comparison of Microwave-Assisted and Conventional Leaching for Extraction of Copper from Chalcopyrite Concentrate
Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) is the most common primary
mineral used for the commercial production of copper. The low
dissolution efficiency of chalcopyrite in sulfate media has prevented
an efficient industrial leaching of this mineral in sulfate media. Ferric
ions, bacteria, oxygen and other oxidants have been used as oxidizing
agents in the leaching of chalcopyrite in sulfate and chloride media
under atmospheric or pressure leaching conditions. Two leaching
methods were studied to evaluate chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) dissolution
in acid media. First, the conventional oxidative acid leaching method
was carried out using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and potassium
dichromate (K2Cr2O7) as oxidant at atmospheric pressure. Second,
microwave-assisted acid leaching was performed using the
microwave accelerated reaction system (MARS) for same reaction
media. Parameters affecting the copper extraction such as leaching
time, leaching temperature, concentration of H2SO4 and
concentration of K2Cr2O7 were investigated. The results of
conventional acid leaching experiments were compared to the
microwave leaching method. It was found that the copper extraction
obtained under high temperature and high concentrations of oxidant
with microwave leaching is higher than those obtained
conventionally. 81% copper extraction was obtained by the
conventional oxidative acid leaching method in 180 min, with the
concentration of 0.3 mol/L K2Cr2O7 in 0.5M H2SO4 at 50 ºC, while
93.5% copper extraction was obtained in 60 min with microwave
leaching method under same conditions.
Essential Micronutrient Biofortification of Sprouts Grown on Mineral Fortified Fiber Mats
Diets high in processed foods have been found to lack
essential micro-nutrients for optimum human development and
overall health. Some micro-nutrients such as copper (Cu) have been
found to enhance the inflammatory response through its oxidative
functions, thereby having a role in cardiovascular disease, metabolic
syndrome, diabetes and related complications. This research study
was designed to determine if food crops could be bio-fortified with
micro-nutrients by growing sprouts on mineral fortified fiber mats. In
the feasibility study described in this contribution, recycled cellulose
fibers and clay, saturated with either micro-nutrient copper ions or
copper nanoparticles, were converted to a novel mineral-cellulose
fiber carrier of essential micro-nutrient and of antimicrobial
properties. Seeds of Medicago sativa (alfalfa), purchased from a
commercial, organic supplier were germinated on engineered
cellulose fiber mats. After the appearance of the first leaves, the
sprouts were dehydrated and analyzed for Cu content. Nutrient
analysis showed ~2 increase in Cu of the sprouts grown on the fiber
mats with copper particles, and ~4 increase on mats with ionic copper
as compared to the control samples. This study illustrates the
potential for the use of engineered mats as a viable way to increase
the micro-nutrient composition of locally-grown food crops and the
need for additional research to determine the uptake, nutritional
implications and risks of micro-nutrient bio-fortification.
Synthesizing CuFe2O4 Spinel Powders by a Combustion-Like Process for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Coatings
The synthesis of CuFe2O4 spinel powders by an
optimized combustion-like process followed by calcination is
described herein. The samples were characterized using X-ray
diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), scanning
electron microscopy (SEM), dilatometry and 4-probe DC methods.
Different glycine to nitrate (G/N) ratios of 1 (fuel-deficient), 1.48
(stoichiometric) and 2 (fuel-rich) were employed. Calcining the asprepared
powders at 800 and 1000°C for 5 hours showed that the G/N
ratio of 2 results in the formation of the desired copper spinel single
phase at both calcination temperatures. For G/N=1, formation of
CuFe2O4 takes place in three steps. First, iron and copper nitrates
decompose to iron oxide and pure copper. Then, copper transforms to
copper oxide and finally, copper and iron oxides react with each other
to form a copper ferrite spinel phase. The electrical conductivity and
the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sintered pelletized
samples were 2 S.cm-1 (800°C) and 11×10-6 °C-1 (25-800°C),
The Effect of Lime Stabilization on E. coli Destruction and Heavy Metal Bioavailability in Sewage Sludge for Agricultural Utilization
The addition of lime as Ca(OH)2 to sewage sludge to
destroy pathogens (Escherichia coli), was evaluated also in relation
to heavy metal bioavailability.
The obtained results show that the use of calcium hydroxide at the
dose of 3% effectively destroyed pathogens ensuring the stability at
high pH values over long period and the duration of the sewage
sludge stabilization. In general, lime addition decreased the total
extractability of heavy metals indicating a reduced bioavailability of
these elements. This is particularly important for a safe utilization in
agricultural soils to reduce the possible transfer of heavy metals to
the food chain.
Heavy Metal Pollution of the Soils around the Mining Area near Shamlugh Town (Armenia) and Related Risks to the Environment
The heavy metal pollution of the soils around the mining area near Shamlugh town and related risks to human health were assessed. The investigations showed that the soils were polluted with heavy metals that can be ranked by anthropogenic pollution degree as follows: Cu>Pb>As>Co>Ni>Zn. The main sources of the anthropogenic metal pollution of the soils were the copper mining area near Shamlugh town, the Chochkan tailings storage facility and the trucks transferring ore from the mining area. Copper pollution degree in some observation sites was unallowable for agricultural production. The total non-carcinogenic chronic hazard index (THI) values in some places, including observation sites in Shamlugh town, were above the safe level (THI<1) for children living in this territory. Although the highest heavy metal enrichment degree in the soils was registered in case of copper, however, the highest health risks to humans especially children were posed by cobalt which is explained by the fact that heavy metals have different toxicity levels and penetration characteristics.
Alumina Supported Copper-Manganese Catalysts for Combustion of Exhaust Gases: Catalysts Characterization
In recent research copper and manganese systems
were found to be the most active in CO and organic compounds
oxidation among the base catalysts. The mixed copper manganese
oxide has been widely studied in oxidation reactions because of their
higher activity at low temperatures in comparison with single oxide
catalysts. The results showed that the formation of spinel
CuxMn3−xO4 in the oxidized catalyst is responsible for the activity
even at room temperature. That is why the most of the investigations
are focused on the hopcalite catalyst (CuMn2O4) as the best coppermanganese
catalyst. Now it’s known that this is true only for CO
oxidation, but not for mixture of CO and VOCs. The purpose of this
study is to investigate the alumina supported copper-manganese
catalysts with different Cu/Mn molar ratio in terms of oxidation of
CO, methanol and dimethyl ether. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation of γ-Al2O3 with
copper and manganese nitrates and the catalytic activity
measurements were carried out in two stage continuous flow
equipment with an adiabatic reactor for simultaneous oxidation of all
compounds under the conditions closest possible to the industrial. Gas
mixtures on the input and output of the reactor were analyzed with a
gas chromatograph, equipped with FID and TCD detectors. The
texture characteristics were determined by low-temperature (- 196oС)
nitrogen adsorption in a Quantachrome Instruments NOVA 1200e
(USA) specific surface area & pore analyzer. Thermal, XRD and
TPR analyses were performed. It was established that the active component of the mixed Cu-
Mn/γ–alumina catalysts strongly depends on the Cu/Mn molar ratio.
Highly active alumina supported Cu-Mn catalysts for CO, methanol
and DME oxidation were synthesized. While the hopcalite is the best
catalyst for CO oxidation, the best compromise for simultaneous
oxidation of all components is the catalyst with Cu/Mn molar ratio
The Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution Degree in the Soils around the Zangezur Copper and Molybdenum Combine
The heavy metal pollution degree in the soils around
the Zangezur copper and molybdenum combine in Syunik Marz,
Armenia was assessed. The results of the study showed that heavy
metal pollution degree in the soils mainly decreased with increasing
distance from the open mine and the ore enrichment combine which
indicated that the open mine and the ore enrichment combine were
the main sources of heavy metal pollution. The only exception was
observed in the northern part of the open mine where pollution
degree in the sites (along the open mine) situated 600 meters far from
the mine was higher than that in the sites located 300 meters far from
the mine. This can be explained by the characteristics of relief and air
currents as well as the weak vegetation cover of these sites and the
characteristics of soil structure. According to geo-accumulation index
(I-geo), contamination factor (Cf), contamination degree (Cd) and
pollution load index (PLI) values, the pollution degree in the soils
around the open mine and the ore enrichment combine was higher
than that in the soils around the tailing dumps which was due to the
proper and accurate operation of the Artsvanik tailing damp and the
recultivation of the Voghji tailing dump.
The high Cu and Mo pollution of the soils was conditioned by the
character of industrial activities, the moving direction of air currents
as well as the physicochemical peculiarities of the soils.
The Catalytic Activity of Cu2O Microparticles
Copper (I) oxide microparticles with the morphology
of cubic and hollow sphere were synthesized with the assistance of
surfactant as the shape controller. Both particles were then subjected
to study the catalytic activity and observed the results of shape effects
of catalysts on rate of catalytic reaction. The decolorizing reaction of
crystal violet and sodium hydroxide was chosen and measured the
decreasing of reactant with respect to times using spectrophotometer.
The result revealed that morphology of crystal had no effect on the
catalytic activity for crystal violet reaction but contributed to total
surface area predominantly.
Alumina Supported Cu-Mn-Cr Catalysts for CO and VOCs Oxidation
This work studies the effect of chemical composition
on the activity and selectivity of γ–alumina supported CuO/
MnO2/Cr2O3 catalysts toward deep oxidation of CO, dimethyl ether
(DME) and methanol. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation
of the support with an aqueous solution of copper nitrate, manganese
nitrate and CrO3 under different conditions. Thermal, XRD and TPR
analysis were performed. The catalytic measurements of single
compounds oxidation were carried out on continuous flow equipment
with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor. Flow-line
equipment with an adiabatic reactor for simultaneous oxidation of all
compounds under the conditions that mimic closely the industrial
ones was used. The reactant and product gases were analyzed by
means of on-line gas chromatographs.
On the basis of XRD analysis it can be concluded that the active
component of the mixed Cu-Mn-Cr/γ–alumina catalysts consists of at
least six compounds – CuO, Cr2O3, MnO2, Cu1.5Mn1.5O4,
Cu1.5Cr1.5O4 and CuCr2O4, depending on the Cu/Mn/Cr molar ratio.
Chemical composition strongly influences catalytic properties, this
influence being quite variable with regards to the different processes.
The rate of CO oxidation rapidly decrease with increasing of
chromium content in the active component while for the DME was
observed the reverse trend. It was concluded that the best
compromise are the catalysts with Cu/(Mn + Cr) molar ratio 1:5 and
Mn/Cr molar ratio from 1:3 to 1:4.
Alumina Supported Copper-Manganese Catalysts for Combustion of Exhaust Gases: Effect of Preparation Method
The development of active and stable catalysts
without noble metals for low temperature oxidation of exhaust gases
remains a significant challenge. The purpose of this study is to
determine the influence of the preparation method on the catalytic
activity of the supported copper-manganese mixed oxides in terms of
VOCs oxidation. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation of γ-
Al2O3 with copper and manganese nitrates and acetates and the
possibilities for CO, CH3OH and dimethyl ether (DME) oxidation
were evaluated using continuous flow equipment with a four-channel
isothermal stainless steel reactor. Effect of the support, Cu/Mn mole
ratio, heat treatment of the precursor and active component loading
were investigated. Highly active alumina supported Cu-Mn catalysts
for CO and VOCs oxidation were synthesized. The effect of
preparation conditions on the activity behavior of the catalysts was
The synergetic interaction between copper and manganese species
increases the activity for complete oxidation over mixed catalysts.
Type of support, calcination temperature and active component
loading along with catalyst composition are important factors,
determining catalytic activity. Cu/Mn molar ratio of 1:5, heat
treatment at 450oC and 20 % active component loading are the best
compromise for production of active catalyst for simultaneous
combustion of CO, CH3OH and DME.
Experimental Chevreul’s Salt Production Methods on Copper Recovery
Experimental production methods of Chevreul’s salt
being an intermediate stage product in copper recovery were
investigated on this article. Chevreul’s salt, Cu2SO3.CuSO3.2H2O,
being a mixed valence copper sulphite compound, has been obtained
by using different methods and reagents. Chevreul’s salt has an
intense brick-red color. It is highly stable and expensive. The
production of Chevreul’s salt plays a key role in hydrometallurgy.
Thermodynamic tendency on precipitation of Chevreul’s salt is
related to pH and temperature. Besides, SO2 gaseous is a versatile
reagent for precipitating of copper sulphites, Using of SO2 for
selective precipitation can be made by appropriate adjustments of pH
and temperature. Chevreul’s salt does not form in acidic solutions if
those solutions contains considerable amount of sulfurous acid. It is
necessary to maintain between pH 2–4.5, because, solubility of
Chevreul’s salt increases with decreasing of pH values. Also, the
region which Chevreul’s salt is stable can be seen from the potentialpH
Antimicrobial Properties of Copper in Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria
For centuries humans have used the antimicrobial
properties of copper to their advantage. Yet, after all these years the
underlying mechanisms of copper mediated cell death in various
microbes remain unclear. We had explored the hypothesis that copper
mediated increased levels of lipid peroxidation in the membrane fatty
acids is responsible for increased killing in Escherichia coli. In this
study we show that in both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus)
and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria there is a
strong correlation between copper mediated cell death and increased
levels of lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, the non-spore forming
gram positive bacteria as well as gram negative bacteria show similar
patterns of cell death, increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as well
as genomic DNA degradation, however there is some difference in
loss in membrane integrity upon exposure to copper alloy surface.