Lung Cancer Detection and Multi Level Classification Using Discrete Wavelet Transform Approach
Uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the lung in the form of tumor can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Patients with Lung Cancer (LC) have an average of five years life span expectancy provided diagnosis, detection and prediction, which reduces many treatment options to risk of invasive surgery increasing survival rate. Computed Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for earlier detection of cancer are common. Gaussian filter along with median filter used for smoothing and noise removal, Histogram Equalization (HE) for image enhancement gives the best results without inviting further opinions. Lung cavities are extracted and the background portion other than two lung cavities is completely removed with right and left lungs segmented separately. Region properties measurements area, perimeter, diameter, centroid and eccentricity measured for the tumor segmented image, while texture is characterized by Gray-Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) functions, feature extraction provides Region of Interest (ROI) given as input to classifier. Two levels of classifications, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) is used for determining patient condition as normal or abnormal, while Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) is used for identifying the cancer stage is employed. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) algorithm is used for the main feature extraction leading to best efficiency. The developed technology finds encouraging results for real time information and on line detection for future research.
River Stage-Discharge Forecasting Based on Multiple-Gauge Strategy Using EEMD-DWT-LSSVM Approach
This study presented hybrid pre-processing approach along with a conceptual model to enhance the accuracy of river discharge prediction. In order to achieve this goal, Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition algorithm (EEMD), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Mutual Information (MI) were employed as a hybrid pre-processing approach conjugated to Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM). A conceptual strategy namely multi-station model was developed to forecast the Souris River discharge more accurately. The strategy used herein was capable of covering uncertainties and complexities of river discharge modeling. DWT and EEMD was coupled, and the feature selection was performed for decomposed sub-series using MI to be employed in multi-station model. In the proposed feature selection method, some useless sub-series were omitted to achieve better performance. Results approved efficiency of the proposed DWT-EEMD-MI approach to improve accuracy of multi-station modeling strategies.
Electrocardiogram Signal Denoising Using a Hybrid Technique
This paper presents an efficient method of electrocardiogram signal denoising based on a hybrid approach. Two techniques are brought together to create an efficient denoising process. The first is an Adaptive Dual Threshold Filter (ADTF) and the second is the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). The presented approach is based on three steps of denoising, the DWT decomposition, the ADTF step and the highest peaks correction step. This paper presents some application of the approach on some electrocardiogram signals of the MIT-BIH database. The results of these applications are promising compared to other recently published techniques.
A Robust Hybrid Blind Digital Image Watermarking System Using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Contourlet Transform
In this paper, a hybrid blind digital watermarking system using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Contourlet Transform (CT) has been implemented and tested. The implemented combined digital watermarking system has been tested against five common types of image attacks. The performance evaluation shows improved results in terms of imperceptibility, robustness, and high tolerance against these attacks; accordingly, the system is very effective and applicable.
Better Perception of Low Resolution Images Using Wavelet Interpolation Techniques
High resolution images are always desired as they contain the more information and they can better represent the original data. So, to convert the low resolution image into high resolution interpolation is done. The quality of such high resolution image depends on the interpolation function and is assessed in terms of sharpness of image. This paper focuses on Wavelet based Interpolation Techniques in which an input image is divided into subbands. Each subband is processed separately and finally combined the processed subbandsto get the super resolution image.
Video Shot Detection and Key Frame Extraction Using Faber Shauder DWT and SVD
Key frame extraction methods select the most
representative frames of a video, which can be used in different areas
of video processing such as video retrieval, video summary, and video
indexing. In this paper we present a novel approach for extracting key
frames from video sequences. The frame is characterized uniquely by
his contours which are represented by the dominant blocks. These
dominant blocks are located on the contours and its near textures.
When the video frames have a noticeable changement, its dominant
blocks changed, then we can extracte a key frame. The dominant
blocks of every frame is computed, and then feature vectors are
extracted from the dominant blocks image of each frame and arranged
in a feature matrix. Singular Value Decomposition is used to calculate
sliding windows ranks of those matrices. Finally the computed ranks
are traced and then we are able to extract key frames of a video.
Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust
against a large range of digital effects used during shot transition.
Diagnosis of Induction Machine Faults by DWT
In this paper, for detection of inclined eccentricity in an induction motor, time–frequency analysis of the stator startup current is carried out. For this purpose, the discrete wavelet transform is used. Data are obtained from simulations, using winding function approach. The results show the validity of the approach for detecting the fault and discriminating with respect to other faults.
Medical Image Fusion Based On Redundant Wavelet Transform and Morphological Processing
The process in which the complementary information from multiple images is integrated to provide composite image that contains more information than the original input images is called image fusion. Medical image fusion provides useful information from multimodality medical images that provides additional information to the doctor for diagnosis of diseases in a better way. This paper represents the wavelet based medical image fusion algorithm on different multimodality medical images. In order to fuse the medical images, images are decomposed using Redundant Wavelet Transform (RWT). The high frequency coefficients are convolved with morphological operator followed by the maximum-selection (MS) rule. The low frequency coefficients are processed by MS rule. The reconstructed image is obtained by inverse RWT. The quantitative measures which includes Mean, Standard Deviation, Average Gradient, Spatial frequency, Edge based Similarity Measures are considered for evaluating the fused images. The performance of this proposed method is compared with Pixel averaging, PCA, and DWT fusion methods. When compared with conventional methods, the proposed framework provides better performance for analysis of multimodality medical images.
Discrete Wavelet Transform Decomposition Level Determination Exploiting Sparseness Measurement
Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has been widely adopted in biomedical signal processing for denoising, compression
and so on. Choosing a suitable decomposition level (DL) in DWT is of paramount importance to its performance. In this paper, we propose to exploit sparseness of the transformed signals to determine the appropriate DL. Simulation results have shown that the sparseness of transformed signals after DWT increases with the increasing DLs. Additional Monte-Carlo simulation results have verified the effectiveness of sparseness measure in determining the DL.
Energy Efficient Transmission of Image over DWT-OFDM System
In many applications retransmissions of lost packets are not permitted. OFDM is a multi-carrier modulation scheme having excellent performance which allows overlapping in frequency domain. With OFDM there is a simple way of dealing with multipath relatively simple DSP algorithms.
In this paper, an image frame is compressed using DWT, and the compressed data is arranged in data vectors, each with equal number of coefficients. These vectors are quantized and binary coded to get the bit steams, which are then packetized and intelligently mapped to the OFDM system. Based on one-bit channel state information at the transmitter, the descriptions in order of descending priority are assigned to the currently good channels such that poorer sub-channels can only affect the lesser important data vectors. We consider only one-bit channel state information available at the transmitter, informing only about the sub-channels to be good or bad. For a good sub-channel, instantaneous received power should be greater than a threshold Pth. Otherwise, the sub-channel is in fading state and considered bad for that batch of coefficients. In order to reduce the system power consumption, the mapped descriptions onto the bad sub channels are dropped at the transmitter. The binary channel state information gives an opportunity to map the bit streams intelligently and to save a reasonable amount of power. By using MAT LAB simulation we can analysis the performance of our proposed scheme, in terms of system energy saving without compromising the received quality in terms of peak signal-noise ratio.
Combined DWT-CT Blind Digital Image Watermarking Algorithm
In this paper, we propose a new robust and secure
system that is based on the combination between two different
transforms Discrete wavelet Transform (DWT) and Contourlet
Transform (CT). The combined transforms will compensate the
drawback of using each transform separately. The proposed
algorithm has been designed, implemented and tested successfully.
The experimental results showed that selecting the best sub-band for
embedding from both transforms will improve the imperceptibility
and robustness of the new combined algorithm. The evaluated
imperceptibility of the combined DWT-CT algorithm which gave a
PSNR value 88.11 and the combination DWT-CT algorithm
improves robustness since it produced better robust against Gaussian
noise attack. In addition to that, the implemented system shored a
successful extraction method to extract watermark efficiently.
Adaptive Digital Watermarking Integrating Fuzzy Inference HVS Perceptual Model
An adaptive Fuzzy Inference Perceptual model has
been proposed for watermarking of digital images. The model
depends on the human visual characteristics of image sub-regions in
the frequency multi-resolution wavelet domain. In the proposed
model, a multi-variable fuzzy based architecture has been designed to
produce a perceptual membership degree for both candidate
embedding sub-regions and strength watermark embedding factor.
Different sizes of benchmark images with different sizes of
watermarks have been applied on the model. Several experimental
attacks have been applied such as JPEG compression, noises and
rotation, to ensure the robustness of the scheme. In addition, the
model has been compared with different watermarking schemes. The
proposed model showed its robustness to attacks and at the same time
achieved a high level of imperceptibility.
ROI Based Embedded Watermarking of Medical Images for Secured Communication in Telemedicine
Medical images require special safety and confidentiality because critical judgment is done on the information provided by medical images. Transmission of medical image via internet or mobile phones demands strong security and copyright protection in telemedicine applications. Here, highly secured and robust watermarking technique is proposed for transmission of image data via internet and mobile phones. The Region of Interest (ROI) and Non Region of Interest (RONI) of medical image are separated. Only RONI is used for watermark embedding. This technique results in exact recovery of watermark with standard medical database images of size 512x512, giving 'correlation factor' equals to 1. The correlation factor for different attacks like noise addition, filtering, rotation and compression ranges from 0.90 to 0.95. The PSNR with weighting factor 0.02 is up to 48.53 dBs. The presented scheme is non blind and embeds hospital logo of 64x64 size.
Coding of DWT Coefficients using Run-length Coding and Huffman Coding for the Purpose of Color Image Compression
In present paper we proposed a simple and effective method to compress an image. Here we found success in size reduction of an image without much compromising with it-s quality. Here we used Haar Wavelet Transform to transform our original image and after quantization and thresholding of DWT coefficients Run length coding and Huffman coding schemes have been used to encode the image. DWT is base for quite populate JPEG 2000 technique.
Palmprint Recognition by Wavelet Transform with Competitive Index and PCA
This manuscript presents, palmprint recognition by
combining different texture extraction approaches with high accuracy.
The Region of Interest (ROI) is decomposed into different frequencytime
sub-bands by wavelet transform up-to two levels and only the
approximate image of two levels is selected, which is known as
Approximate Image ROI (AIROI). This AIROI has information of
principal lines of the palm. The Competitive Index is used as the
features of the palmprint, in which six Gabor filters of different
orientations convolve with the palmprint image to extract the orientation
information from the image. The winner-take-all strategy
is used to select dominant orientation for each pixel, which is
known as Competitive Index. Further, PCA is applied to select highly
uncorrelated Competitive Index features, to reduce the dimensions of
the feature vector, and to project the features on Eigen space. The
similarity of two palmprints is measured by the Euclidean distance
metrics. The algorithm is tested on Hong Kong PolyU palmprint
database. Different AIROI of different wavelet filter families are also
tested with the Competitive Index and PCA. AIROI of db7 wavelet
filter achievs Equal Error Rate (EER) of 0.0152% and Genuine
Acceptance Rate (GAR) of 99.67% on the palm database of Hong
Fault Zone Detection on Advanced Series Compensated Transmission Line using Discrete Wavelet Transform and SVM
In this paper a novel method for finding the fault zone
on a Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) incorporated
transmission line is presented. The method makes use of the Support
Vector Machine (SVM), used in the classification mode to
distinguish between the zones, before or after the TCSC. The use of
Discrete Wavelet Transform is made to prepare the features which
would be given as the input to the SVM. This method was tested on a
400 kV, 50 Hz, 300 Km transmission line and the results were highly
Watermarking Scheme for Color Images using Wavelet Transform based Texture Properties and Secret Sharing
In this paper, a new secure watermarking scheme for
color image is proposed. It splits the watermark into two shares using
(2, 2)- threshold Visual Cryptography Scheme (V CS) with Adaptive
Order Dithering technique and embeds one share into high textured
subband of Luminance channel of the color image. The other share
is used as the key and is available only with the super-user or the
author of the image. In this scheme only the super-user can reveal
the original watermark. The proposed scheme is dynamic in the sense
that to maintain the perceptual similarity between the original and the
watermarked image the selected subband coefficients are modified
by varying the watermark scaling factor. The experimental results
demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. Further, the
proposed scheme is able to resist all common attacks even with strong
Quality Estimation of Video Transmitted overan Additive WGN Channel based on Digital Watermarking and Wavelet Transform
This paper presents an evaluation for a wavelet-based
digital watermarking technique used in estimating the quality of
video sequences transmitted over Additive White Gaussian Noise
(AWGN) channel in terms of a classical objective metric, such as
Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) without the need of the original
video. In this method, a watermark is embedded into the Discrete
Wavelet Transform (DWT) domain of the original video frames
using a quantization method. The degradation of the extracted
watermark can be used to estimate the video quality in terms of
PSNR with good accuracy. We calculated PSNR for video frames
contaminated with AWGN and compared the values with those
estimated using the Watermarking-DWT based approach. It is found
that the calculated and estimated quality measures of the video
frames are highly correlated, suggesting that this method can provide
a good quality measure for video frames transmitted over AWGN
channel without the need of the original video.
Local Curvelet Based Classification Using Linear Discriminant Analysis for Face Recognition
In this paper, an efficient local appearance feature
extraction method based the multi-resolution Curvelet transform is
proposed in order to further enhance the performance of the well
known Linear Discriminant Analysis(LDA) method when applied
to face recognition. Each face is described by a subset of band
filtered images containing block-based Curvelet coefficients. These
coefficients characterize the face texture and a set of simple statistical
measures allows us to form compact and meaningful feature vectors.
The proposed method is compared with some related feature extraction
methods such as Principal component analysis (PCA), as well
as Linear Discriminant Analysis LDA, and independent component
Analysis (ICA). Two different muti-resolution transforms, Wavelet
(DWT) and Contourlet, were also compared against the Block Based
Curvelet-LDA algorithm. Experimental results on ORL, YALE and
FERET face databases convince us that the proposed method provides
a better representation of the class information and obtains much
higher recognition accuracies.
Effectiveness of Contourlet vs Wavelet Transform on Medical Image Compression: a Comparative Study
Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) has demonstrated
far superior to previous Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and
standard JPEG in natural as well as medical image compression. Due
to its localization properties both in special and transform domain,
the quantization error introduced in DWT does not propagate
globally as in DCT. Moreover, DWT is a global approach that avoids
block artifacts as in the JPEG. However, recent reports on natural
image compression have shown the superior performance of
contourlet transform, a new extension to the wavelet transform in two
dimensions using nonseparable and directional filter banks,
compared to DWT. It is mostly due to the optimality of contourlet in
representing the edges when they are smooth curves. In this work, we
investigate this fact for medical images, especially for CT images,
which has not been reported yet. To do that, we propose a
compression scheme in transform domain and compare the
performance of both DWT and contourlet transform in PSNR for
different compression ratios (CR) using this scheme. The results
obtained using different type of computed tomography images show
that the DWT has still good performance at lower CR but contourlet
transform performs better at higher CR.
An Advanced Method for Speech Recognition
In this paper in consideration of each available
techniques deficiencies for speech recognition, an advanced method
is presented that-s able to classify speech signals with the high
accuracy (98%) at the minimum time. In the presented method, first,
the recorded signal is preprocessed that this section includes
denoising with Mels Frequency Cepstral Analysis and feature
extraction using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) coefficients; Then
these features are fed to Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network for
classification. Finally, after training of neural network effective
features are selected with UTA algorithm.
VLSI Design of 2-D Discrete Wavelet Transform for Area-Efficient and High-Speed Image Computing
This paper presents a VLSI design approach of a highspeed
and real-time 2-D Discrete Wavelet Transform computing. The
proposed architecture, based on new and fast convolution approach,
reduces the hardware complexity in addition to reduce the critical
path to the multiplier delay. Furthermore, an advanced twodimensional
(2-D) discrete wavelet transform (DWT)
implementation, with an efficient memory area, is designed to
produce one output in every clock cycle. As a result, a very highspeed
is attained. The system is verified, using JPEG2000
coefficients filters, on Xilinx Virtex-II Field Programmable Gate
Array (FPGA) device without accessing any external memory. The
resulting computing rate is up to 270 M samples/s and the (9,7) 2-D
wavelet filter uses only 18 kb of memory (16 kb of first-in-first-out
memory) with 256×256 image size. In this way, the developed design
requests reduced memory and provide very high-speed processing as
well as high PSNR quality.
A Watermarking System Using the Wavelet Technique for Satellite Images
The huge development of new technologies and the
apparition of open communication system more and more
sophisticated create a new challenge to protect digital content from
piracy. Digital watermarking is a recent research axis and a new
technique suggested as a solution to these problems. This technique
consists in inserting identification information (watermark) into
digital data (audio, video, image, databases...) in an invisible and
indelible manner and in such a way not to degrade original medium-s
quality. Moreover, we must be able to correctly extract the
watermark despite the deterioration of the watermarked medium (i.e
attacks). In this paper we propose a system for watermarking satellite
images. We chose to embed the watermark into frequency domain,
precisely the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). We applied our
algorithm on satellite images of Tunisian center. The experiments
show satisfying results. In addition, our algorithm showed an
important resistance facing different attacks, notably the compression
(JEPG, JPEG2000), the filtering, the histogram-s manipulation and
geometric distortions such as rotation, cropping, scaling.
Super Resolution Blind Reconstruction of Low Resolution Images using Wavelets based Fusion
Crucial information barely visible to the human eye is
often embedded in a series of low resolution images taken of the
same scene. Super resolution reconstruction is the process of
combining several low resolution images into a single higher
resolution image. The ideal algorithm should be fast, and should add
sharpness and details, both at edges and in regions without adding
artifacts. In this paper we propose a super resolution blind
reconstruction technique for linearly degraded images. In our
proposed technique the algorithm is divided into three parts an image
registration, wavelets based fusion and an image restoration. In this
paper three low resolution images are considered which may sub
pixels shifted, rotated, blurred or noisy, the sub pixel shifted images
are registered using affine transformation model; A wavelet based
fusion is performed and the noise is removed using soft thresolding.
Our proposed technique reduces blocking artifacts and also
smoothens the edges and it is also able to restore high frequency
details in an image. Our technique is efficient and computationally
fast having clear perspective of real time implementation.
A Robust Watermarking using Blind Source Separation
In this paper, we present a robust and secure
algorithm for watermarking, the watermark is first transformed into
the frequency domain using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT).
Then the entire DWT coefficient except the LL (Band) discarded,
these coefficients are permuted and encrypted by specific mixing.
The encrypted coefficients are inserted into the most significant
spectral components of the stego-image using a chaotic system. This
technique makes our watermark non-vulnerable to the attack (like
compression, and geometric distortion) of an active intruder, or due
to noise in the transmission link.
Diagnosis of Inter Turn Fault in the Stator of Synchronous Generator Using Wavelet Based ANFIS
In this paper, Wavelet based ANFIS for finding inter
turn fault of generator is proposed. The detector uniquely responds to
the winding inter turn fault with remarkably high sensitivity.
Discrimination of different percentage of winding affected by inter
turn fault is provided via ANFIS having an Eight dimensional input
vector. This input vector is obtained from features extracted from
DWT of inter turn faulty current leaving the generator phase
winding. Training data for ANFIS are generated via a simulation of
generator with inter turn fault using MATLAB. The proposed
algorithm using ANFIS is giving satisfied performance than ANN
with selected statistical data of decomposed levels of faulty current.
A Perceptually Optimized Foveation Based Wavelet Embedded Zero Tree Image Coding
In this paper, we propose a Perceptually Optimized Foveation based Embedded ZeroTree Image Coder (POEFIC) that introduces a perceptual weighting to wavelet coefficients prior to control SPIHT encoding algorithm in order to reach a targeted bit rate with a perceptual quality improvement with respect to a given bit rate a fixation point which determines the region of interest ROI. The paper also, introduces a new objective quality metric based on a Psychovisual model that integrates the properties of the HVS that plays an important role in our POEFIC quality assessment. Our POEFIC coder is based on a vision model that incorporates various masking effects of human visual system HVS perception. Thus, our coder weights the wavelet coefficients based on that model and attempts to increase the perceptual quality for a given bit rate and observation distance. The perceptual weights for all wavelet subbands are computed based on 1) foveation masking to remove or reduce considerable high frequencies from peripheral regions 2) luminance and Contrast masking, 3) the contrast sensitivity function CSF to achieve the perceptual decomposition weighting. The new perceptually optimized codec has the same complexity as the original SPIHT techniques. However, the experiments results show that our coder demonstrates very good performance in terms of quality measurement.
A Perceptually Optimized Wavelet Embedded Zero Tree Image Coder
In this paper, we propose a Perceptually Optimized Embedded ZeroTree Image Coder (POEZIC) that introduces a perceptual weighting to wavelet transform coefficients prior to control SPIHT encoding algorithm in order to reach a targeted bit rate with a perceptual quality improvement with respect to the coding quality obtained using the SPIHT algorithm only. The paper also, introduces a new objective quality metric based on a Psychovisual model that integrates the properties of the HVS that plays an important role in our POEZIC quality assessment. Our POEZIC coder is based on a vision model that incorporates various masking effects of human visual system HVS perception. Thus, our coder weights the wavelet coefficients based on that model and attempts to increase the perceptual quality for a given bit rate and observation distance. The perceptual weights for all wavelet subbands are computed based on 1) luminance masking and Contrast masking, 2) the contrast sensitivity function CSF to achieve the perceptual decomposition weighting, 3) the Wavelet Error Sensitivity WES used to reduce the perceptual quantization errors. The new perceptually optimized codec has the same complexity as the original SPIHT techniques. However, the experiments results show that our coder demonstrates very good performance in terms of quality measurement.
Attack Detection through Image Adaptive Self Embedding Watermarking
Now a days, a significant part of commercial and governmental organisations like museums, cultural organizations, libraries, commercial enterprises, etc. invest intensively in new technologies for image digitization, digital libraries, image archiving and retrieval. Hence image authorization, authentication and security has become prime need. In this paper, we present a semi-fragile watermarking scheme for color images. The method converts the host image into YIQ color space followed by application of orthogonal dual domains of DCT and DWT transforms. The DCT helps to separate relevant from irrelevant image content to generate silent image features. DWT has excellent spatial localisation to help aid in spatial tamper characterisation. Thus image adaptive watermark is generated based of image features which allows the sharp detection of microscopic changes to locate modifications in the image. Further, the scheme utilises the multipurpose watermark consisting of soft authenticator watermark and chrominance watermark. Which has been proved fragile to some predefined processing like intentinal fabrication of the image or forgery and robust to other incidental attacks caused in the communication channel.
A Dual Digital-Image Watermarking Technique
Image watermarking has become an important tool for
intellectual property protection and authentication. In this paper a
watermarking technique is suggested that incorporates two
watermarks in a host image for improved protection and robustness.
A watermark, in form of a PN sequence (will be called the secondary
watermark), is embedded in the wavelet domain of a primary
watermark before being embedded in the host image. The technique
has been tested using Lena image as a host and the camera man as
the primary watermark. The embedded PN sequence was detectable
through correlation among other five sequences where a PSNR of
44.1065 dB was measured. Furthermore, to test the robustness of the
technique, the watermarked image was exposed to four types of
attacks, namely compression, low pass filtering, salt and pepper noise
and luminance change. In all cases the secondary watermark was
easy to detect even when the primary one is severely distorted.