|Commenced in January 2007||Frequency: Monthly||Edition: International||Paper Count: 3|
This paper presents the impact study of GTO Controlled Series Capacitor (GCSC) parameters on measured impedance (Zseen) by MHO distance relays for single transmission line high voltage 220 kV in the presence of single phase to earth fault with fault resistance (RF). The study deals with a 220 kV single electrical transmission line of Eastern Algerian transmission networks at Group Sonelgaz (Algerian Company of Electrical and Gas) compensated by series Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) i.e. GCSC connected at midpoint of the transmission line. The transmitted active and reactive powers are controlled by three GCSC-s. The effects of maximum reactive power injected as well as injected maximum voltage by GCSC on distance relays measured impedance is treated. The simulations results investigate the effects of GCSC injected parameters: variable reactance (XGCSC), variable voltage (VGCSC) and reactive power injected (QGCSC) on measured resistance and reactance in the presence of earth fault with resistance fault varied between 5 to 50 Ω for three cases study.
The distance protection mainly the impedance relay which is considered as the main protection for transmission lines can be subjected to impedance measurement error which is, mainly, due to the fault resistance and to the power fluctuation. Thus, the impedance relay may not operate for a short circuit at the far end of the protected line (case of the under reach) or operates for a fault beyond its protected zone (case of overreach). In this paper, an approach to fault detection by a distance protection, which distinguishes between the faulty conditions and the effect of overload operation mode, has been developed. This approach is based on the symmetrical components; mainly the negative sequence, and it is taking into account both the effect of fault resistance and the overload situation which both have an effect upon the reliability of the protection in terms of dependability for the former and security for the latter.