Piezoelectric Power Output Predictions Using Single-Phase Flow to Power Flow Meters
This research involved the utilization of fluid flow energy to predict power output using Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) piezoelectric stacks. The aim of this work is to extract energy from a controlled level of pressure fluctuation in single-phase flow which forms a part of the energy harvesting technology that powers flow meters. A device- Perspex box was developed and fixed to 50.8 mm rig to induce pressure fluctuation in the flow. An experimental test was carried out using the single-phase water flow in the developed rig in order to measure the power output generation from the piezoelectric stacks. 16 sets of experimental tests were conducted to ensure the maximum output result. The acquired signal of the pressure fluctuation was used to simulate the expected electrical output from the piezoelectric material. The results showed a maximum output voltage of 12 V with an instantaneous output power of 1 µW generated, when the pressure amplitude is 2.6 kPa at a frequency of 2.4 Hz.
The Influence of Disturbances Generated by Arc Furnaces on the Power Quality
The paper presents the impact of work on the electric arc furnace. Arc equipment is one of the largest receivers powered by the power system. Electric arc disturbances arising during melting process occurring in these furnaces are the cause of an abrupt change of the passive power of furnaces. Currents drawn by these devices undergo an abrupt change, which in turn cause voltage fluctuations and light flicker. The quantitative evaluation of the voltage fluctuations is now the basic criterion of assessment of an influence of unquiet receiver on the supplying net. The paper presents the method of determination of range of voltage fluctuations and light flicker at parallel operation of arc devices. The results of measurements of voltage fluctuations and light flicker indicators recorded in power supply networks of steelworks were presented, with different number of parallel arc devices. Measurements of energy quality parameters were aimed at verifying the proposed method in practice. It was also analyzed changes in other parameters of electricity: the content of higher harmonics, asymmetry, voltage dips.
Optimal Placement and Sizing of Energy Storage System in Distribution Network with Photovoltaic Based Distributed Generation Using Improved Firefly Algorithms
The installation of photovoltaic based distributed generation (PVDG) in active distribution system can lead to voltage fluctuation due to the intermittent and unpredictable PVDG output power. This paper presented a method in mitigating the voltage rise by optimally locating and sizing the battery energy storage system (BESS) in PVDG integrated distribution network. The improved firefly algorithm is used to perform optimal placement and sizing. Three objective functions are presented considering the voltage deviation and BESS off-time with state of charge as the constraint. The performance of the proposed method is compared with another optimization method such as the original firefly algorithm and gravitational search algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed optimum BESS location and size improve the voltage stability.
Signal Processing Approach to Study Multifractality and Singularity of Solar Wind Speed Time Series
This paper investigates the nature of the fluctuation of the daily average Solar wind speed time series collected over a period of 2492 days, from 1st January, 1997 to 28th October, 2003. The degree of self-similarity and scalability of the Solar Wind Speed signal has been explored to characterise the signal fluctuation. Multi-fractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA) method has been implemented on the signal which is under investigation to perform this task. Furthermore, the singularity spectra of the signals have been also obtained to gauge the extent of the multifractality of the time series signal.
The Relationship between Fluctuation of Biological Signal: Finger Plethysmogram in Conversation and Anthropophobic Tendency
Human biological signals (pulse wave and brain wave, etc.) have a rhythm which shows fluctuations. This study investigates the relationship between fluctuations of biological signals which are shown by a finger plethysmogram (i.e., finger pulse wave) in conversation and anthropophobic tendency, and identifies whether the fluctuation could be an index of mental health. 32 college students participated in the experiment. The finger plethysmogram of each subject was measured in the following conversation situations: Fun memory talking/listening situation and regrettable memory talking/ listening situation for three minutes each. Lyspect 3.5 was used to collect the data of the finger plethysmogram. Since Lyspect calculates the Lyapunov spectrum, it is possible to obtain the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE). LLE is an indicator of the fluctuation and shows the degree to which a measure is going away from close proximity to the track in a dynamical system. Before the finger plethysmogram experiment, each participant took the psychological test questionnaire “Anthropophobic Scale.” The scale measures the social phobia trend close to the consciousness of social phobia. It is revealed that there is a remarkable relationship between the fluctuation of the finger plethysmography and anthropophobic tendency scale in talking about a regrettable story in conversation: The participants (N=15) who have a low anthropophobic tendency show significantly more fluctuation of finger pulse waves than the participants (N=17) who have a high anthropophobic tendency (F (1, 31) =5.66, p<0.05). That is, the participants who have a low anthropophobic tendency make conversation flexibly using large fluctuation of biological signal; on the other hand, the participants who have a high anthropophobic tendency constrain a conversation because of small fluctuation. Therefore, fluctuation is not an error but an important drive to make better relationships with others and go towards the development of interaction. In considering mental health, the fluctuation of biological signals would be an important indicator.
Dynamic Performance Analysis of Distribution/ Sub-Transmission Networks with High Penetration of PV Generation
More PV systems have been connected to the electrical network each year. As the number of PV systems increases, some issues affecting grid operations have been identified. This paper studied the impacts related to changes in solar irradiance on a distribution/sub-transmission network, considering variations due to moving clouds and daily cycles. Using MATLAB/Simulink software, a solar farm of 30 MWp was built and then implemented to a test network. From simulations, it has been determined that irradiance changes can have a significant impact on the grid by causing voltage fluctuations outside the allowable thresholds. This work discussed some local control strategies and grid reinforcements to mitigate the negative effects of the irradiance changes on the grid.
Identification of the Main Transition Velocities in a Bubble Column Based on a Modified Shannon Entropy
The gas holdup fluctuations in a bubble column (0.15 m in ID) have been recorded by means of a conductivity wire-mesh sensor in order to extract information about the main transition velocities. These parameters are very important for bubble column design, operation and scale-up. For this purpose, the classical definition of the Shannon entropy was modified and used to identify both the onset (at UG=0.034 m/s) of the transition flow regime and the beginning (at UG=0.089 m/s) of the churn-turbulent flow regime. The results were compared with the Kolmogorov entropy (KE) results. A slight discrepancy was found, namely the transition velocities identified by means of the KE were shifted to somewhat higher (0.045 and 0.101 m/s) superficial gas velocities UG.
Wall Pressure Fluctuations in Naturally Developing Boundary Layer Flows on Axisymmetric Bodies
This paper investigates the characteristics of wall
pressure fluctuations in naturally developing boundary layer flows
on axisymmetric bodies experimentally. The axisymmetric body has
a modified ellipsoidal blunt nose. Flush-mounted microphones are
used to measure the wall pressure fluctuations in the boundary layer
flow over the body. The measurements are performed in a low noise
wind tunnel. It is found that the correlation between the flow regime
and the characteristics of the pressure fluctuations is distinct. The
process from small fluctuation in laminar flow to large fluctuation in
turbulent flow is investigated. Tollmien-Schlichting wave (T-S wave)
is found to generate and develop in transition. Because of the T-S
wave, the wall pressure fluctuations in the transition region are higher
than those in the turbulent boundary layer.
Epileptic Seizure Prediction by Exploiting Signal Transitions Phenomena
A seizure prediction method is proposed by extracting
global features using phase correlation between adjacent epochs for
detecting relative changes and local features using fluctuation/
deviation within an epoch for determining fine changes of different
EEG signals. A classifier and a regularization technique are applied
for the reduction of false alarms and improvement of the overall
prediction accuracy. The experiments show that the proposed method
outperforms the state-of-the-art methods and provides high prediction
accuracy (i.e., 97.70%) with low false alarm using EEG signals in
different brain locations from a benchmark data set.
Fluctuations of Transfer Factor of the Mixer Based on Schottky Diode
Fluctuations of Schottky diode parameters in a
structure of the mixer are investigated. These fluctuations are
manifested in two ways. At the first, they lead to fluctuations in the
transfer factor that is lead to the amplitude fluctuations in the signal
of intermediate frequency. On the basis of the measurement data of
1/f noise of the diode at forward current, the estimation of a spectrum
of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer is executed.
Current dependence of the spectrum of relative fluctuations in
transfer factor of the mixer and dependence of the spectrum of
relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer on the amplitude
of the heterodyne signal are investigated. At the second, fluctuations
in parameters of the diode lead to occurrence of 1/f noise in the
output signal of the mixer. This noise limits the sensitivity of the
mixer to the value of received signal.
Modeling and Analysis of DFIG Based Wind Power System Using Instantaneous Power Components
As per the statistical data, the Doubly-fed Induction
Generator (DFIG) based wind turbine with variable speed and
variable pitch control is the most common wind turbine in the
growing wind market. This machine is usually used on the grid
connected wind energy conversion system to satisfy grid code
requirements such as grid stability, Fault Ride Through (FRT), power
quality improvement, grid synchronization and power control etc.
Though the requirements are not fulfilled directly by the machine, the
control strategy is used in both the stator as well as rotor side along
with power electronic converters to fulfil the requirements stated
above. To satisfy the grid code requirements of wind turbine, usually
grid side converter is playing a major role. So in order to improve the
operation capacity of wind turbine under critical situation, the
intensive study of both machine side converter control and grid side
converter control is necessary In this paper DFIG is modeled using
power components as variables and the performance of the DFIG
system is analysed under grid voltage fluctuations. The voltage
fluctuations are made by lowering and raising the voltage values in
the utility grid intentionally for the purpose of simulation keeping in
view of different grid disturbances.
Interest Rate Fluctuation Effect on Commercial Bank’s Fixed Fund Deposit in Nigeria
Commercial banks in Nigeria adopted many strategies
to attract fresh deposits including the use of high deposit rate.
However, pricing of banking services moved in favor of the banks at
the expense of customers, resulting in their seeking other investment
alternatives rather than saving their money in the bank. Both deposit
and lending rates were greatly influenced by the Central Bank of
Nigeria (CBN) decision on interest rate. Therefore, commercial bank
effort to attract deposits via manipulation of her rates was greatly
limited, otherwise the banks will be giving out more than it earned.
The study aimed at examining the relationship between interest rate
and fixed fund deposit of commercial banks, how policy-controlled
interest rate affected commercial bank’s fixed fund deposit The
researcher employed ordinary least square technique, using, multiple
linear regression, unrestricted vector auto-regression, correlation
matrix test, granger causality and impulse response graph in the
analysis. Commercial bank’s interest rates affected commercial
bank’s fixed fund deposit significantly while policy-controlled
interest rate did not significantly transmit through the commercial
bank’s interest rates to affect fixed fund deposit. While commercial
banks seek creative ways to expand their fixed fund deposit, policy
authorities in Nigeria should better coordinate interest rate fluctuation
and induce competition in the entire financial sector.
Investigation on Performance of Change Point Algorithm in Time Series Dynamical Regimes and Effect of Data Characteristics
In this paper, Bayesian online inference in models of
data series are constructed by change-points algorithm, which
separated the observed time series into independent series and study
the change and variation of the regime of the data with related
statistical characteristics. variation of statistical characteristics of time
series data often represent separated phenomena in the some
dynamical system, like a change in state of brain dynamical reflected
in EEG signal data measurement or a change in important regime of
data in many dynamical system. In this paper, prediction algorithm
for studying change point location in some time series data is
simulated. It is verified that pattern of proposed distribution of data
has important factor on simpler and smother fluctuation of hazard
rate parameter and also for better identification of change point
locations. Finally, the conditions of how the time series distribution
effect on factors in this approach are explained and validated with
different time series databases for some dynamical system.
Statistical Characteristics of Distribution of Radiation-Induced Defects under Random Generation
We consider fluctuations of defects density taking into account their interaction. Stochastic field of displacement generation rate gives random defect distribution. We determinate statistical characteristics (mean and dispersion) of random field of point defect distribution as function of defect generation parameters, temperature and properties of irradiated crystal.
Thermodynamic, Structural and Transport Properties of Molten Copper-Thallium Alloys
A self-association model has been used to understand
the concentration dependence of free energy of mixing (GM), heat of
mixing (HM), entropy of mixing (SM), activity (a) and microscopic
structures, such as concentration fluctuation in long wavelength limit
(Scc(0)) and Warren-Cowley short range order parameter ( 1
α )for Cu-
Tl molten alloys at 1573K. A comparative study of surface tension of
the alloys in the liquid state at that temperature has also been carried
out theoretically as function of composition in the light of Butler-s
model, Prasad-s model and quasi-chemical approach. Most of the
computed thermodynamic properties have been found in agreement
with the experimental values. The analysis reveals that the Cu-Tl
molten alloys at 1573K represent a segregating system at all
concentrations with moderate interaction. Surface tensions computed
from different approaches have been found to be comparable to each
other showing increment with the composition of copper.
The Haar Wavelet Transform of the DNA Signal Representation
The Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) which is a doublestranded helix of nucleotides consists of: Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G) and Thymine (T). In this work, we convert this genetic code into an equivalent digital signal representation. Applying a wavelet transform, such as Haar wavelet, we will be able to extract details that are not so clear in the original genetic code. We compare between different organisms using the results of the Haar wavelet Transform. This is achieved by using the trend part of the signal since the trend part bears the most energy of the digital signal representation. Consequently, we will be able to quantitatively reconstruct different biological families.
Analysis of the Structural Fluctuation of the Permitted Building Areas and Housing Distribution Ratios - Focused on 5 Cities Including Bucheon
The purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation
between permitted building areas and housing distribution ratios and
their fluctuation, and test a distribution model during 3 successive governments in 5 cities including Bucheon in reference to the time
series administrative data, and thereby, interpret the results of the analysis in association with the policies pursued by the successive
governments to examine the structural fluctuation of permitted building areas and housing distribution ratios.
In order to analyze the fluctuation of permitted building areas and
housing distribution ratios during 3 successive governments and
examine the cycles of the time series data, the spectral analysis was performed, and in order to analyze the correlation between permitted
building areas and housing distribution ratios, the tabulation was performed to describe the correlations statistically, and in order to
explain about differences of fluctuation distribution of permitted building areas and housing distribution ratios among 3 governments,
the goodness of fit test was conducted.
Metal Streak Analysis with different Acquisition Settings in Postoperative Spine Imaging: A Phantom Study
CT assessment of postoperative spine is challenging in the presence of metal streak artifacts that could deteriorate the
quality of CT images. In this paper, we studied the influence of different acquisition parameters on the magnitude of metal streaking.
A water-bath phantom was constructed with metal insertion similar with postoperative spine assessment. The phantom was scanned with
different acquisition settings and acquired data were reconstructed
using various reconstruction settings. Standardized ROIs were defined within streaking region for image analysis. The result shows
increased kVp and mAs enhanced SNR values by reducing image
noise. Sharper kernel enhanced image quality compared to smooth
kernel, but produced more noise in the images with higher CT fluctuation. The noise between both kernels were significantly
Three Dimensional Numerical Simulation of a Full Scale CANDU Reactor Moderator to Study Temperature Fluctuations
Threedimensional numerical simulations are conducted on a full scale CANDU Moderator and Transient variations of the temperature and velocity distributions inside the tank are determined. The results show that the flow and temperature distributions inside the moderator tank are three dimensional and no symmetry plane can be identified.Competition between the upward moving buoyancy driven flows and the downward moving momentum driven flows, results in the formation of circulation zones. The moderator tank operates in the buoyancy driven mode and any small disturbances in the flow or temperature makes the system unstable and asymmetric. Different types of temperature fluctuations are noted inside the tank: (i) large amplitude are at the boundaries between the hot and cold (ii) low amplitude are in the core of the tank (iii) high frequency fluctuations are in the regions with high velocities and (iv) low frequency fluctuations are in the regions with lower velocities.
Characteristics of Turbulent Round Jets in its Potential-Core Region
In this work, stationary hot-wire measurements are
carried out to investigate the characteristics of a round free jet in its
potential core region (0 ≤ x/d ≤ 10). Measurements are carried out on
an incompressible round jet for a range of Reynolds numbers from
4000 to 8000, calculated based on the jet exit mean velocity and the
nozzle diameter. The effect of flow velocity on the development
characteristics of the jet in the core region is analyzed. Timeaveraged
statistics, spectra of velocity and its higher order moments
are presented and explained.
Ion- Acoustic Solitary Waves in a Self- Gravitating Dusty Plasma Having Two-Temperature Electrons
Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves in a selfgravitating
dusty plasma consisting of warm positive ions,
isothermal two-temperature electrons and negatively charged dust
particles having charge fluctuations is studied using the reductive
perturbation method. It is shown that the nonlinear propagation of
ion-acoustic waves in such plasma can be described by an uncoupled
third order partial differential equation which is a modified form of
the usual Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation. From this nonlinear
equation, a new type of solution for the ion-acoustic wave is
obtained. The effects of two-temperature electrons, gravity and dust
charge fluctuations on the ion-acoustic solitary waves are discussed
with possible applications.
To Be Smooth of The Interest and Output of Accepted Companies Stock at Negotiable Paper Exchange of Tehran
In this research relationship between to be smooth the
interest and output of accepted companies stock at negotiable paper
exchange of Tehran is studied. Static community capacity included
363 companies member of negotiable paper exchange of Tehran that
54 companies were, by considering research limitation, selected from
2004 to 2009. Needed data for model test in librarian method was
chosen from RAH AVARDE NOVIN informative banks, TADBIR
and collecting needed data was selected from Tehran negotiable
paper exchange archive. Given results show that in spite of belief
among people based on companies have more smooth interest have
more output, but resulted outcomes of test-done reveals that there is
no relation between smooth interest and stock output.
Recent Trends in Nonlinear Methods of HRV Analysis: A Review
The linear methods of heart rate variability analysis
such as non-parametric (e.g. fast Fourier transform analysis) and
parametric methods (e.g. autoregressive modeling) has become an
established non-invasive tool for marking the cardiac health, but their
sensitivity and specificity were found to be lower than expected with
positive predictive value
Fractal Analysis on Human Colonic Pressure Activities based on the Box-counting Method
The colonic tissue is a complicated dynamic system
and the colonic activities it generates are composed of irregular
segmental waves, which are referred to as erratic fluctuations or spikes.
They are also highly irregular with subunit fractal structure. The
traditional time-frequency domain statistics like the averaged
amplitude, the motility index and the power spectrum, etc. are
insufficient to describe such fluctuations. Thus the fractal
box-counting dimension is proposed and the fractal scaling behaviors
of the human colonic pressure activities under the physiological
conditions are studied. It is shown that the dimension of the resting
activity is smaller than that of the normal one, whereas the clipped
version, which corresponds to the activity of the constipation patient,
shows with higher fractal dimension. It may indicate a practical
application to assess the colonic motility, which is often indicated by
the colonic pressure activity.
Error-Robust Nature of Genome Profiling Applied for Clustering of Species Demonstrated by Computer Simulation
Genome profiling (GP), a genotype based technology, which exploits random PCR and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis, has been successful in identification/classification of organisms. In this technology, spiddos (Species identification dots) and PaSS (Pattern similarity score) were employed for measuring the closeness (or distance) between genomes. Based on the closeness (PaSS), we can buildup phylogenetic trees of the organisms. We noticed that the topology of the tree is rather robust against the experimental fluctuation conveyed by spiddos. This fact was confirmed quantitatively in this study by computer-simulation, providing the limit of the reliability of this highly powerful methodology. As a result, we could demonstrate the effectiveness of the GP approach for identification/classification of organisms.
The Roles of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors of Ecological State in the Lake Peipsi
In this paper we discuss the problems of the long-term management policy of Lake Peipsi and the roles of natural and anthropogenic factors in the ecological state of the lake. The reduction of the pollution during the last 15 years could not give significant changes of the chemical composition of the water, what implicates the essential role that natural factors have on the ecological state of lake. One of the most important factors having impact on the hydrochemical cycles and ecological state is the hydrological regime which is clearly expressed in L. Peipsi. The absence on clear interrelations of climate cycles and nutrients suggest that complex abiotic and biotic interactions, which take place in the lake ecosystem, plays a significant role in the matter circulation mechanism within lake.