Comparative Analysis of Control Techniques Based Sliding Mode for Transient Stability Assessment for Synchronous Multicellular Converter
This paper features a comparative study performance of sliding mode controller (SMC) for closed-loop voltage control of direct current to direct current (DC-DC) three-cells buck converter connected in parallel, operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM), based on pulse-width modulation (PWM) with SMC based on hysteresis modulation (HM) where an adaptive feedforward technique is adopted. On one hand, for the PWM-based SM, the approach is to incorporate a fixed-frequency PWM scheme which is eﬀectively a variant of SM control. On the other hand, for the HM-based SM, oncoming an adaptive feedforward control that makes the hysteresis band variable in the hysteresis modulator of the SM controller in the aim to restrict the switching frequency variation in the case of any change of the line input voltage or output load variation are introduced. The results obtained under load change, input change and reference change clearly demonstrates a similar dynamic response of both proposed techniques, their eﬀectiveness is fast and smooth tracking of the desired output voltage. The PWM-based SM technique has greatly improved the dynamic behavior with a bit advantageous compared to the HM-based SM technique, as well as provide stability in any operating conditions. Simulation studies in MATLAB/Simulink environment have been performed to verify the concept.
Towards the Prediction of Aesthetic Requirements for Women’s Apparel Product
The prediction of aesthetics of apparel is helpful for the development of a new type of apparel. This study is to build the quantitative relationship between the aesthetics and its design parameters. In particular, women’s pants have been preliminarily studied. This aforementioned relationship has been carried out by statistical analysis. The contributions of this study include the development of a more personalized apparel design mechanism and the provision of some empirical knowledge for the development of other products in the aspect of aesthetics.
Open-Loop Vector Control of Induction Motor with Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Technique
This paper presents open-loop vector control method of induction motor with space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) technique. Normally, the closed loop speed control is preferred and is believed to be more accurate. However, it requires a position sensor to track the rotor position which is not desirable to use it for certain workspace applications. This paper exhibits the performance of three-phase induction motor with the simplest control algorithm without the use of a position sensor nor an estimation block to estimate rotor position for sensorless control. The motor stator currents are measured and are transformed to synchronously rotating (d-q-axis) frame by use of Clarke and Park transformation. The actual control happens in this frame where the measured currents are compared with the reference currents. The error signal is fed to a conventional PI controller, and the corrected d-q voltage is generated. The controller outputs are transformed back to three phase voltages and are fed to SVPWM block which generates PWM signal for the voltage source inverter. The open loop vector control model along with SVPWM algorithm is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink software and is experimented and validated in TMS320F28335 DSP board.
Cascaded H-Bridge Five Level Inverter Based Selective Harmonic Eliminated Pulse Width Modulation for Harmonic Elimination
In this paper, selective harmonic elimination pulse width modulation technique is employed to eliminate lower order harmonics like third by determination of solving non-linear equations. The cascaded H-bridge five level inverter is driven by the Peripheral Interface Controlled (PIC) Microcontroller 16F877A. The performance of single phase cascaded H-bridge five level inverter with relevant to harmonics and a variety of switches with solar cell as its input source is simulated by employing MATLAB/Simulink. A hardware model is developed to verify the performance of the developed system.
Validation of Solar PV Inverter Harmonics Behaviour at Different Power Levels in a Test Network
Grid connected solar PV inverters need to be compliant to standard regulations regarding unwanted harmonic generation. This paper gives an introduction to harmonics, solar PV inverter voltage regulation and balancing through compensation and investigates the behaviour of harmonic generation at different power levels. Practical measurements of harmonics and power levels with a power quality data logger were made, on a test network at a university in Germany. The test setup and test results are discussed. The major finding was that between the morning and afternoon load peak windows when the PV inverters operate under low solar insolation and low power levels, more unwanted harmonics are generated. This has a huge impact on the power quality of the grid as well as capital and maintenance costs. The design of a single-tuned harmonic filter towards harmonic mitigation is presented.
Comparison of Different Discontinuous PWM Technique for Switching Losses Reduction in Modular Multilevel Converters
The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is one of the advanced topologies for medium and high-voltage applications. In high-power, high-voltage MMC, a large number of switching power devices are required. These switching power devices (IGBT) considerable switching losses. This paper analyzes the performance of different discontinuous pulse width modulation (DPWM) techniques and compares the results against a conventional carrier based pulse width modulation method, in order to reduce the switching losses of an MMC. The DPWM reference wave can be generated by adding the zero-sequence component to the original (sine) reference modulation signal. The result of the addition gives the reference signal of DPWM techniques. To minimize the switching losses of the MMC, the clamping period is controlled according to the absolute value of the output load current. No switching is generated in the clamping period so overall switching of the power device is reduced. The simulation result of the different DPWM techniques is compared with conventional carrier-based pulse-width modulation technique.
Microstrip Patch Antenna Enhancement Techniques
Microstrip patch antennas are widely used in many wireless communication applications because of their various advantages such as light weight, compact size, inexpensive, ease of fabrication and high reliability. However, narrow bandwidth and low gain are the major drawbacks of microstrip antennas. The radiation properties of microstrip antenna is affected by many designing factors like feeding techniques, manufacturing substrate, patch and ground structure. This manuscript presents a review of the most popular gain and bandwidth enhancement methods of microstrip antenna and reports a brief description of its feeding techniques.
A Thirteen-Level Asymmetrical Cascaded H-Bridge Single Phase Inverter
This paper presents a thirteen-level asymmetrical
cascaded H-bridge single phase inverter. In this configuration, the
desired output voltage level is achieved by connecting the DC sources in
different combinations by triggering the switches. The modes of
operation are explained well for positive level generations. Moreover, a
comparison is made with conventional topologies of diode clamped,
flying capacitors and cascaded-H-bridge and some recently proposed
topologies to show the significance of the proposed topology in terms of
reduced part counts. The simulation work has been carried out in
MATLAB/Simulink environment. The experimental work is also carried
out for lower rating to verify the performance and feasibility of the
proposed topology. Further the results are presented for different loading
Five-Phase Induction Motor Drive System Driven by Five-Phase Packed U Cell Inverter: Its Modeling and Performance Evaluation
The three phase system drives produce the problem of more torque pulsations and harmonics. This issue prevents the smooth operation of the drives and it also induces the amount of heat generated thus resulting in an increase in power loss. Higher phase system offers smooth operation of the machines with greater power capacity. Five phase variable-speed induction motor drives are commonly used in various industrial and commercial applications like tractions, electrical vehicles, ship propulsions and conveyor belt drive system. In this work, a comparative analysis of the different modulation schemes applied on the five-level five-phase Packed U Cell (PUC) inverter fed induction motor drives is presented. The performance of the inverter is greatly affected with the modulation schemes applied. The system is modeled, designed, and implemented in MATLAB®/Simulink environment. Experimental validation is done for the prototype of single phase, whereas five phase experimental validation is proposed in the future works.
Multi-Level Pulse Width Modulation to Boost the Power Efficiency of Switching Amplifiers for Analog Signals with Very High Crest Factor
The main goal of this paper is to develop a switching amplifier with optimized power efficiency for analog signals with a very high crest factor such as audio or DSL signals. Theoretical calculations show that a switching amplifier architecture based on multi-level pulse width modulation outperforms all other types of linear or switching amplifiers in that respect. Simulations on a 2 W multi-level switching audio amplifier, designed in a 50 V 0.35 mm IC technology, confirm its superior performance in terms of power efficiency. A real silicon implementation of this audio amplifier design is currently underway to provide experimental validation.
Bipolar PWM and LCL Filter Configuration to Reduce Leakage Currents in Transformerless PV System Connected to Utility Grid
This paper presents PV system without considering transformer connected to electric grid. This is considered more economic compared to present PV system. The problem that occurs when transformer is not considered appears with a leakage current near capacitor connected to ground. Bipolar Pulse Width Modulation (BPWM) technique along with filter L-C-L configuration in the circuit is modeled to shrink the leakage current in the circuit. The DC/AC inverter is modeled using H-bridge Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) module which is controlled using proposed Bipolar PWM control technique. To extract maximum power, Maximum Power Point Technique (MPPT) controller is used in this model. Voltage and current regulators are used to determine the reference voltage for the inverter from active and reactive current where reactive current is set to zero. The PLL is modeled to synchronize the measurements. The model is designed with MATLAB Simulation blocks and compared with the methods available in literature survey to show its effectiveness.
Impact of Fluid Flow Patterns on Metastable Zone Width of Borax in Dual Radial Impeller Crystallizer at Different Impeller Spacings
Conducting crystallization in an agitated vessel requires a proper selection of mixing parameters that would result in a production of crystals of specific properties. In dual impeller systems, which are characterized by a more complex hydrodynamics due to the possible fluid flow interactions, revealing a clear link between mixing parameters and crystallization kinetics is still an open issue. The aim of this work is to establish this connection by investigating how fluid flow patterns, generated by two impellers mounted on the same shaft, reflect on metastable zone width of borax decahydrate, one of the most important parameters of the crystallization process. Investigation was carried out in a 15-dm3 bench scale batch cooling crystallizer with an aspect ratio (H/T) equal to 1.3. For this reason, two radial straight blade turbines (4-SBT) were used for agitation. Experiments were conducted at different impeller spacings at the state of complete suspension. During the process of an unseeded batch cooling crystallization, solution temperature and supersaturation were continuously monitored what enabled a determination of the metastable zone width. Hydrodynamic conditions in the vessel achieved at different impeller spacings investigated were analyzed in detail. This was done firstly by measuring the mixing time required to attain the desired level of homogeneity. Secondly, fluid flow patterns generated in a described dual impeller system were both photographed and simulated by VisiMix Turbulent software. Also, a comparison of these two visualization methods was performed. Experimentally obtained results showed that metastable zone width is definitely affected by the hydrodynamics in the crystallizer. This means that this crystallization parameter can be controlled not only by adjusting the saturation temperature or cooling rate, as is usually done, but also by choosing a suitable impeller spacing that will result in a formation of crystals of wanted size distribution.
Impact of Process Parameters on Tensile Strength of Fused Deposition Modeling Printed Crisscross Poylactic Acid
Additive manufacturing gains the popularity in recent times, due to its capability to create prototype as well functional as end use product directly from CAD data without any specific requirement of tooling. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is one of the widely used additive manufacturing techniques that are used to create functional end use part of polymer that is comparable with the injection-molded parts. FDM printed part has an application in various fields such as automobile, aerospace, medical, electronic, etc. However, application of FDM part is greatly affected by poor mechanical properties. Proper selection of the process parameter could enhance the mechanical performance of the printed part. In the present study, experimental investigation has been carried out to study the behavior of the mechanical performance of the printed part with respect to process variables. Three process variables viz. raster angle, raster width and layer height have been varied to understand its effect on tensile strength. Further, effect of process variables on fractured surface has been also investigated.
Comparative Analysis of SVPWM and the Standard PWM Technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor
The multi-level inverters present an important novelty in the field of energy control with high voltage and power. The major advantage of all multi-level inverters is the improvement and spectral quality of its generated output signals. In recent years, various pulse width modulation techniques have been developed. From these technics we have: Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM). This work presents a detailed analysis of the comparative advantage of space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) and the standard SPWM technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor. The comparison is based on the evaluation of harmonic distortion THD.
Improved Small-Signal Characteristics of Infrared 850 nm Top-Emitting Vertical-Cavity Lasers
High-speed infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) with Cu-plated heat sinks were fabricated and tested. VCSELs with 10 mm aperture diameter and 4 mm of electroplated copper demonstrated a -3dB modulation bandwidth (f-3dB) of 14 GHz and a resonance frequency (fR) of 9.5 GHz at a bias current density (Jbias) of only 4.3 kA/cm2, which corresponds to an improved f-3dB2/Jbias ratio of 44 GHz2/kA/cm2. At higher and lower bias current densities, the f-3dB2/ Jbias ratio decreased to about 30 GHz2/kA/cm2 and 18 GHz2/kA/cm2, respectively. Examination of the analogue modulation response demonstrated that the presented VCSELs displayed a steady f-3dB/ fR ratio of 1.41±10% over the whole range of the bias current (1.3Ith to 6.2Ith). The devices also demonstrated a maximum modulation bandwidth (f-3dB max) of more than 16 GHz at a bias current less than the industrial bias current standard for reliability by 25%.
Analysis of Contact Width and Contact Stress of Three-Layer Corrugated Metal Gasket
Contact width and contact stress are important parameters related to the leakage behavior of corrugated metal gasket. In this study, contact width and contact stress of three-layer corrugated metal gasket are investigated due to the modulus of elasticity and thickness of surface layer for 2 type gasket (0-MPa and 400-MPa mode). A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution to analysis the effect of each parameter. The result indicated that lowering the modulus of elasticity ratio of surface layer will result in better contact width but the average contact stresses are smaller. When the modulus of elasticity ratio is held constant with thickness ratio increase, its contact width has an increscent trend otherwise the average contact stress has decreased trend.
Dynamic Admission Control Based on Effective Demand for Next Generation Wireless Networks
In next generation wireless networks (i.e., 4G and beyond), one of the main objectives is to ensure highest level of customer satisfaction in terms of data transfer speed, decrease in cost and delay, non-rejection and no drop of calls, availability of ‘always-on’ connectivity and services, continuity of connected services, hastle-free roaming in addition to the convenience of use of network services from anywhere and anytime. To take care of these requirements effectively, internet service providers (ISPs) and network planners have to go for major capacity enhancement of network resources and at the same time these resources are to be used effectively and efficiently to reduce cost and to increase revenue. In this work, the effective bandwidth available in a Mobile Switching Center (MSC) of a wireless network providing multi-class multimedia services is analyzed. Bandwidth requirement of the users for a customized Quality of Service (QoS) is estimated. The findings of the QoS estimation are applied for the capacity planning and admission control of the multi-class traffic flows coming into the MSC.
Non-Local Behavior of a Mixed-Mode Crack in a Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Medium
In this paper, the problem of a mixed-Mode crack embedded in an infinite medium made of a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) with crack surfaces subjected to electro-mechanical loadings is investigated. Eringen’s non-local theory of elasticity is adopted to formulate the governing electro-elastic equations. The properties of the piezoelectric material are assumed to vary exponentially along a perpendicular plane to the crack. Using Fourier transform, three integral equations are obtained in which the unknown variables are the jumps of mechanical displacements and electric potentials across the crack surfaces. To solve the integral equations, the unknowns are directly expanded as a series of Jacobi polynomials, and the resulting equations solved using the Schmidt method. In contrast to the classical solutions based on the local theory, it is found that no mechanical stress and electric displacement singularities are present at the crack tips when nonlocal theory is employed to investigate the problem. A direct benefit is the ability to use the calculated maximum stress as a fracture criterion. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effects of crack length, material gradient parameter describing FGPMs, and lattice parameter on the mechanical stress and electric displacement field near crack tips.
Diagonal Crack Width of RC Members with High Strength Materials
This paper presents an analysis of the diagonal crack widths of RC members with various types of materials by simulating a compatibility-aided truss model. The analytical results indicated that the diagonal crack width was influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. The yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete decreased the diagonal shear crack width of RC members for the same shear force because of the change of shear failure modes. However, regarding the maximum shear crack width at shear failure, the shear crack width of the beam with high strength materials was greater than that of the beam with normal strength materials.
Experimental Investigation of Indirect Field Oriented Control of Field Programmable Gate Array Based Five-Phase Induction Motor Drive
This paper analyzes the experimental investigation of indirect field oriented control of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based five-phase induction motor drive. A detailed d-q modeling and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) technique of 5-phase drive is elaborated in this paper. In the proposed work, the prototype model of 1 hp 5-phase Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) fed drive is implemented in hardware. SVPWM pulses are generated in FPGA platform through Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) coding. The experimental results are observed under different loading conditions and compared with simulation results to validate the simulation model.
A Digital Pulse-Width Modulation Controller for High-Temperature DC-DC Power Conversion Application
This paper presents a digital non-linear pulse-width modulation (PWM) controller in a high-voltage (HV) buck-boost DC-DC converter for the piezoelectric transducer of the down-hole acoustic telemetry system. The proposed design controls the generation of output signal with voltage higher than the supply voltage and is targeted to work under high temperature. To minimize the power consumption and silicon area, a simple and efficient design scheme is employed to develop the PWM controller. The proposed PWM controller consists of serial to parallel (S2P) converter, data assign block, a mode and duty cycle controller (MDC), linearly PWM (LPWM) and noise shaper, pulse generator and clock generator. To improve the reliability of circuit operation at higher temperature, this design is fabricated with the 1.0-μm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS process. The implementation results validated that the proposed design has the advantages of smaller size, lower power consumption and robust thermal stability.
Development of 25A-Size Three-Layer Metal Gasket by Using FEM Simulation
Contact width and contact stress are important design parameters for optimizing corrugated metal gasket performance based on elastic and plastic contact stress. In this study, we used a three-layer metal gasket with Al, Cu, Ni as the outer layer, respectively. A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution. The gasket model was simulated by using two simulation stages which are forming and tightening simulation. The simulation result shows that aluminum with tangent modulus, Ehal = Eal/150 has the highest slope for contact width. The slope of contact width for plastic mode gasket was higher than the elastic mode gasket.
A Comparative Analysis of Multicarrier SPWM Strategies for Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter
Carrier-based methods have been used widely for switching of multilevel inverters due to their simplicity, flexibility and reduced computational requirements compared to space vector modulation (SVM). This paper focuses on Multicarrier Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (MCSPWM) strategy for the three phase Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter (5LFCI). The inverter is simulated for Induction Motor (IM) load and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) for output waveforms is observed for different controlling schemes.
Impact of Mixing Parameters on Homogenization of Borax Solution and Nucleation Rate in Dual Radial Impeller Crystallizer
Interaction between mixing and crystallization is often
ignored despite the fact that it affects almost every aspect of the
operation including nucleation, growth, and maintenance of the
crystal slurry. This is especially pronounced in multiple impeller
systems where flow complexity is increased. By choosing proper
mixing parameters, what closely depends on the knowledge of the
hydrodynamics in a mixing vessel, the process of batch cooling
crystallization may considerably be improved. The values that render
useful information when making this choice are mixing time and
power consumption. The predominant motivation for this work was
to investigate the extent to which radial dual impeller configuration
influences mixing time, power consumption and consequently the
values of metastable zone width and nucleation rate. In this research,
crystallization of borax was conducted in a 15 dm3 baffled batch
cooling crystallizer with an aspect ratio (H/T) of 1.3. Mixing was
performed using two straight blade turbines (4-SBT) mounted on the
same shaft that generated radial fluid flow. Experiments were
conducted at different values of N/NJS ratio (impeller speed/
minimum impeller speed for complete suspension), D/T ratio
(impeller diameter/crystallizer diameter), c/D ratio (lower impeller
off-bottom clearance/impeller diameter), and s/D ratio (spacing
between impellers/impeller diameter). Mother liquor was saturated at
30°C and was cooled at the rate of 6°C/h. Its concentration was
monitored in line by Na-ion selective electrode. From the values of
supersaturation that was monitored continuously over process time, it
was possible to determine the metastable zone width and
subsequently the nucleation rate using the Mersmann’s nucleation
criterion. For all applied dual impeller configurations, the mixing
time was determined by potentiometric method using a pulse
technique, while the power consumption was determined using a
torque meter produced by Himmelstein & Co. Results obtained in
this investigation show that dual impeller configuration significantly
influences the values of mixing time, power consumption as well as
the metastable zone width and nucleation rate. A special attention
should be addressed to the impeller spacing considering the flow
interaction that could be more or less pronounced depending on the
On the Factors Affecting Computing Students’ Awareness of the Latest ICTs
The education sector is constantly faced with rapid
changes in technologies in terms of ensuring that the curriculum is up
to date and in terms of making sure that students are aware of these
technological changes. This challenge can be seen as the motivation
for this study, which is to examine the factors affecting computing
students’ awareness of the latest Information Technologies (ICTs).
The aim of this study is divided into two sub-objectives which are:
the selection of relevant theories and the design of a conceptual
model to support it as well as the empirical testing of the designed
model. The first objective is achieved by a review of existing
literature on technology adoption theories and models. The second
objective is achieved using a survey of computing students in the four
universities of the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. Data
collected from this survey is analyzed using Statistical package for
the Social Science (SPSS) using descriptive statistics, ANOVA and
Pearson correlations. The main hypothesis of this study is that there is
a relationship between the demographics and the prior conditions of
the computing students and their awareness of general ICT trends and
of Digital Switch Over (DSO) a new technology which involves the
change from analog to digital television broadcasting in order to
achieve improved spectrum efficiency. The prior conditions of the
computing students that were considered in this study are students’
perceived exposure to career guidance and students’ perceived
curriculum currency. The results of this study confirm that gender,
ethnicity, and high school computing course affect students’
perceived curriculum currency while high school location affects
students’ awareness of DSO. The results of this study also confirm
that there is a relationship between students prior conditions and their
awareness of general ICT trends and DSO in particular.
Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation in Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) Networks
Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) networks are a promising candidate for future broadband access networks. These networks combine the optical network as the back end where different passive optical network (PON) technologies are realized and the wireless network as the front end where different wireless technologies are adopted, e.g. LTE, WiMAX, Wi-Fi, and Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). The convergence of both optical and wireless technologies requires designing architectures with robust efficient and effective bandwidth allocation schemes. Different bandwidth allocation algorithms have been proposed in FiWi networks aiming to enhance the different segments of FiWi networks including wireless and optical subnetworks. In this survey, we focus on the differentiating between the different bandwidth allocation algorithms according to their enhancement segment of FiWi networks. We classify these techniques into wireless, optical and Hybrid bandwidth allocation techniques.
Multichannel Scheme under Max-Min Fairness Environment for Cognitive Radio Networks
This paper develops a multiple channel assignment
model, which allows to take advantage of spectrum opportunities in
cognitive radio networks in the most efficient way. The developed
scheme allows making several assignments of available and
frequency adjacent channel, which require a bigger bandwidth, under
an equality environment. The hybrid assignment model it is made by
two algorithms, one that makes the ranking and selects available
frequency channels and the other one in charge of establishing the
Max-Min Fairness for not restrict the spectrum opportunities for all
the other secondary users, who also claim to make transmissions.
Measurements made were done for average bandwidth, average
delay, as well as fairness computation for several channel
assignments. Reached results were evaluated with experimental
spectrum occupational data from captured GSM frequency band. The
developed model shows evidence of improvement in spectrum
opportunity use and a wider average transmission bandwidth for each
secondary user, maintaining equality criteria in channel assignment.
On the Design of Wearable Fractal Antenna
This paper is aimed at proposing a rhombus shaped
wearable fractal antenna for wireless communication systems. The
geometrical descriptors of the antenna have been obtained using
bacterial foraging optimization (BFO) for wide band operation. The
method of moment based IE3D software has been used to simulate
the antenna and observed that miniaturization of 13.08% has been
achieved without degrading the resonating properties of the proposed
antenna. An analysis with different substrates has also been done in
order to evaluate the effectiveness of electrical permittivity on the
presented structure. The proposed antenna has low profile, light
weight and has successfully demonstrated wideband and multiband
characteristics for wearable electronic applications.
Experimental Implementation of Model Predictive Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
Fast speed drives for Permanent Magnet Synchronous
Motor (PMSM) is a crucial performance for the electric traction
systems. In this paper, PMSM is derived with a Model-based
Predictive Control (MPC) technique. Fast speed tracking is achieved
through optimization of the DC source utilization using MPC. The
technique is based on predicting the optimum voltage vector applied
to the driver. Control technique is investigated by comparing to the
cascaded PI control based on Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation
(SVPWM). MPC and SVPWM-based FOC are implemented with the
TMS320F2812 DSP and its power driver circuits. The designed MPC
for a PMSM drive is experimentally validated on a laboratory test
bench. The performances are compared with those obtained by a
conventional PI-based system in order to highlight the improvements,
especially regarding speed tracking response.
Secure Low-Bandwidth Video Streaming through Reliable Multipath Propagation in MANETs
Most of the existing video streaming protocols
provide video services without considering security aspects in
decentralized mobile ad-hoc networks. The security policies adapted
to the currently existing non-streaming protocols, do not comply with
the live video streaming protocols resulting in considerable
vulnerability, high bandwidth consumption and unreliability which
cause severe security threats, low bandwidth and error prone
transmission respectively in video streaming applications. Therefore
a synergized methodology is required to reduce vulnerability and
bandwidth consumption, and enhance reliability in the video
streaming applications in MANET. To ensure the security measures
with reduced bandwidth consumption and improve reliability of the
video streaming applications, a Secure Low-bandwidth Video
Streaming through Reliable Multipath Propagation (SLVRMP)
protocol architecture has been proposed by incorporating the two
algorithms namely Secure Low-bandwidth Video Streaming
Algorithm and Reliable Secure Multipath Propagation Algorithm
using Layered Video Coding in non-overlapping zone routing
network topology. The performances of the proposed system are
compared to those of the other existing secure multipath protocols
Sec-MR, SPREAD using NS 2.34 and the simulation results show
that the performances of the proposed system get considerably