Timescape-Based Panoramic View for Historic Landmarks
Providing a panoramic view of famous landmarks around the world offers artistic and historic value for historians, tourists, and researchers. Exploring the history of famous landmarks by presenting a comprehensive view of a temporal panorama merged with geographical and historical information presents a unique challenge of dealing with images that span a long period, from the 1800’s up to the present. This work presents the concept of temporal panorama through a timeline display of aligned historic and modern images for many famous landmarks. Utilization of this panorama requires a collection of hundreds of thousands of landmark images from the Internet comprised of historic images and modern images of the digital age. These images have to be classified for subset selection to keep the more suitable images that chronologically document a landmark’s history. Processing of historic images captured using older analog technology under various different capturing conditions represents a big challenge when they have to be used with modern digital images. Successful processing of historic images to prepare them for next steps of temporal panorama creation represents an active contribution in cultural heritage preservation through the fulfillment of one of UNESCO goals in preservation and displaying famous worldwide landmarks.
Robust Image Registration Based on an Adaptive Normalized Mutual Information Metric
Image registration is an important topic for many imaging systems and computer vision applications. The standard image registration techniques such as Mutual information/ Normalized mutual information -based methods have a limited performance because they do not consider the spatial information or the relationships between the neighbouring pixels or voxels. In addition, the amount of image noise may significantly affect the registration accuracy. Therefore, this paper proposes an efficient method that explicitly considers the relationships between the adjacent pixels, where the gradient information of the reference and scene images is extracted first, and then the cosine similarity of the extracted gradient information is computed and used to improve the accuracy of the standard normalized mutual information measure. Our experimental results on different data types (i.e. CT, MRI and thermal images) show that the proposed method outperforms a number of image registration techniques in terms of the accuracy.
A Review on Medical Image Registration Techniques
This paper discusses the current trends in medical
image registration techniques and addresses the need to provide a
solid theoretical foundation for research endeavours. Methodological
analysis and synthesis of quality literature was done, providing a
platform for developing a good foundation for research study in
this field which is crucial in understanding the existing levels of
knowledge. Research on medical image registration techniques assists
clinical and medical practitioners in diagnosis of tumours and lesion
in anatomical organs, thereby enhancing fast and accurate curative
treatment of patients. Literature review aims to provide a solid
theoretical foundation for research endeavours in image registration
techniques. Developing a solid foundation for a research study is
possible through a methodological analysis and synthesis of existing
contributions. Out of these considerations, the aim of this paper is
to enhance the scientific community’s understanding of the current
status of research in medical image registration techniques and also
communicate to them, the contribution of this research in the field of
image processing. The gaps identified in current techniques can be
closed by use of artificial neural networks that form learning systems
designed to minimise error function. The paper also suggests several
areas of future research in the image registration.
Automated Video Surveillance System for Detection of Suspicious Activities during Academic Offline Examination
This research work aims to develop a system that will analyze and identify students who indulge in malpractices/suspicious activities during the course of an academic offline examination. Automated Video Surveillance provides an optimal solution which helps in monitoring the students and identifying the malpractice event immediately. This work is organized into three modules. The first module deals with performing an impersonation check using a PCA-based face recognition method which is done by cross checking his profile with the database. The presence or absence of the student is even determined in this module by implementing an image registration technique wherein a grid is formed by considering all the images registered using the frontal camera at the determined positions. Second, detecting such facial malpractices in which a student gets involved in conversation with another, trying to obtain unauthorized information etc., based on the threshold range evaluated by considering his/her mouth state whether open or closed. The third module deals with identification of unauthorized material or gadgets used in the examination hall by training the positive samples of the object through various stages. Here, a top view camera feed is analyzed to detect the suspicious activities. The system automatically alerts the administration when any suspicious activities are identified, thereby reducing the error rate caused due to manual monitoring. This work is an improvement over our previous work published in identifying suspicious activities done by examinees in an offline examination.
Enhanced Face Recognition with Daisy Descriptors Using 1BT Based Registration
In this paper, it is proposed to improve Daisy Descriptor based face recognition using a novel One-Bit Transform (1BT) based pre-registration approach. The 1BT based pre-registration procedure is fast and has low computational complexity. It is shown that the face recognition accuracy is improved with the proposed approach. The proposed approach can facilitate highly accurate face recognition using DAISY descriptor with simple matching and thereby facilitate a low-complexity approach.
A Rigid Point Set Registration of Remote Sensing Images Based on Genetic Algorithms and Hausdorff Distance
Image registration is the process of establishing point
by point correspondence between images obtained from a same
scene. This process is very useful in remote sensing, medicine,
cartography, computer vision, etc. Then, the task of registration is to
place the data into a common reference frame by estimating the
transformations between the data sets. In this work, we develop a
rigid point registration method based on the application of genetic
algorithms and Hausdorff distance. First, we extract the feature points
from both images based on the algorithm of global and local
curvature corner. After refining the feature points, we use Hausdorff
distance as similarity measure between the two data sets and for
optimizing the search space we use genetic algorithms to achieve
high computation speed for its inertial parallel. The results show the
efficiency of this method for registration of satellite images.
A Review of Methods for 2D/3D Registration
2D/3D registration is a special case of medical image
registration which is of particular interest to surgeons. Applications
of 2D/3D registration are  radiotherapy planning and treatment
verification, spinal surgery, hip replacement, neurointerventions and
aortic stenting. The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature
review of the main methods for image registration for the 2D/3D
case. At the end of the paper an algorithm is proposed for 2D/3D
registration based on the Chebyssev polynomials iteration loop.
Hidden State Probabilistic Modeling for Complex Wavelet Based Image Registration
This article presents a computationally tractable probabilistic model for the relation between the complex wavelet coefficients of two images of the same scene. The two images are acquisitioned at distinct moments of times, or from distinct viewpoints, or by distinct sensors. By means of the introduced probabilistic model, we argue that the similarity between the two images is controlled not by the values of the wavelet coefficients, which can be altered by many factors, but by the nature of the wavelet coefficients, that we model with the help of hidden state variables. We integrate this probabilistic framework in the construction of a new image registration algorithm. This algorithm has sub-pixel accuracy and is robust to noise and to other variations like local illumination changes. We present the performance of our algorithm on various image types.
Rigid Registration of Reduced Dimension Images using 1D Binary Projections
The purpose of this work is to present a method for
rigid registration of medical images using 1D binary projections
when a part of one of the two images is missing. We use 1D binary
projections and we adjust the projection limits according to the
reduced image in order to perform accurate registration. We use the
variance of the weighted ratio as a registration function which we
have shown is able to register 2D and 3D images more accurately and
robustly than mutual information methods. The function is computed
explicitly for n=5 Chebyshev points in a [-9,+9] interval and it is
approximated using Chebyshev polynomials for all other points. The
images used are MR scans of the head. We find that the method is
able to register the two images with average accuracy 0.3degrees for
rotations and 0.2 pixels for translations for a y dimension of 156 with
initial dimension 256. For y dimension 128/256 the accuracy
decreases to 0.7 degrees for rotations and 0.6 pixels for translations.
Wavelet based Image Registration Technique for Matching Dental x-rays
Image registration plays an important role in the
diagnosis of dental pathologies such as dental caries, alveolar bone
loss and periapical lesions etc. This paper presents a new wavelet
based algorithm for registering noisy and poor contrast dental x-rays.
Proposed algorithm has two stages. First stage is a preprocessing
stage, removes the noise from the x-ray images. Gaussian filter has
been used. Second stage is a geometric transformation stage.
Proposed work uses two levels of affine transformation. Wavelet
coefficients are correlated instead of gray values. Algorithm has been
applied on number of pre and post RCT (Root canal treatment)
periapical radiographs. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and
Correlation coefficients (CC) are used for quantitative evaluation.
Proposed technique outperforms conventional Multiresolution
strategy based image registration technique and manual registration
A Sub-Pixel Image Registration Technique with Applications to Defect Detection
This paper presents a useful sub-pixel image
registration method using line segments and a sub-pixel edge detector.
In this approach, straight line segments are first extracted from gray
images at the pixel level before applying the sub-pixel edge detector.
Next, all sub-pixel line edges are mapped onto the orientation-distance
parameter space to solve for line correspondence between images.
Finally, the registration parameters with sub-pixel accuracy are
analytically solved via two linear least-square problems. The present
approach can be applied to various fields where fast registration with
sub-pixel accuracy is required. To illustrate, the present approach is
applied to the inspection of printed circuits on a flat panel. Numerical
example shows that the present approach is effective and accurate
when target images contain a sufficient number of line segments,
which is true in many industrial problems.
Super Resolution Blind Reconstruction of Low Resolution Images using Wavelets based Fusion
Crucial information barely visible to the human eye is
often embedded in a series of low resolution images taken of the
same scene. Super resolution reconstruction is the process of
combining several low resolution images into a single higher
resolution image. The ideal algorithm should be fast, and should add
sharpness and details, both at edges and in regions without adding
artifacts. In this paper we propose a super resolution blind
reconstruction technique for linearly degraded images. In our
proposed technique the algorithm is divided into three parts an image
registration, wavelets based fusion and an image restoration. In this
paper three low resolution images are considered which may sub
pixels shifted, rotated, blurred or noisy, the sub pixel shifted images
are registered using affine transformation model; A wavelet based
fusion is performed and the noise is removed using soft thresolding.
Our proposed technique reduces blocking artifacts and also
smoothens the edges and it is also able to restore high frequency
details in an image. Our technique is efficient and computationally
fast having clear perspective of real time implementation.
Shift Invariant Support Vector Machines Face Recognition System
In this paper, we present a new method for
incorporating global shift invariance in support vector machines.
Unlike other approaches which incorporate a feature extraction stage,
we first scale the image and then classify it by using the modified
support vector machines classifier. Shift invariance is achieved by
replacing dot products between patterns used by the SVM classifier
with the maximum cross-correlation value between them. Unlike the
normal approach, in which the patterns are treated as vectors, in our
approach the patterns are treated as matrices (or images). Crosscorrelation
is computed by using computationally efficient
techniques such as the fast Fourier transform. The method has been
tested on the ORL face database. The tests indicate that this method
can improve the recognition rate of an SVM classifier.
Medical Image Registration by Minimizing Divergence Measure Based on Tsallis Entropy
As the use of registration packages spreads, the number of the aligned image pairs in image databases (either by manual or automatic methods) increases dramatically. These image pairs can serve as a set of training data. Correspondingly, the images that are to be registered serve as testing data. In this paper, a novel medical image registration method is proposed which is based on the a priori knowledge of the expected joint intensity distribution estimated from pre-aligned training images. The goal of the registration is to find the optimal transformation such that the distance between the observed joint intensity distribution obtained from the testing image pair and the expected joint intensity distribution obtained from the corresponding training image pair is minimized. The distance is measured using the divergence measure based on Tsallis entropy. Experimental results show that, compared with the widely-used Shannon mutual information as well as Tsallis mutual information, the proposed method is computationally more efficient without sacrificing registration accuracy.
Stroke Extraction and Approximation with Interpolating Lagrange Curves
This paper proposes a stroke extraction method for use in off-line signature verification. After giving a brief overview of the current ongoing researches an algorithm is introduced for detecting and following strokes in static images of signatures. Problems like the handling of junctions and variations in line width and line intensity are discussed in detail. Results are validated by both using an existing on-line signature database and by employing image registration methods.