A Study on the Power Control of Wind Energy Conversion System
The present research presents a direct active and reactive power control (DPC) of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) based on a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) connected to electric power grid. The control strategy of the Rotor Side Converter (RSC) is targeted in extracting a maximum of power under fluctuating wind speed. A fuzzy logic speed controller (FLC) has been used to ensure the MPPT. The Grid Side Converter is directed in a way to ensure sinusoidal current in the grid side and a smooth DC voltage. To reduce fluctuations, rotor torque and voltage use of multilevel inverters is a good way to remove the rotor harmony.
Elimination of Low Order Harmonics in Multilevel Inverter Using Nature-Inspired Metaheuristic Algorithm
Nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithms, particularly those founded on swarm intelligence, have attracted much attention over the past decade. Firefly algorithm has appeared in approximately seven years ago, its literature has enlarged considerably with different applications. It is inspired by the behavior of fireflies. The aim of this paper is the application of firefly algorithm for solving a nonlinear algebraic system. This resolution is needed to study the Selective Harmonic Eliminated Pulse Width Modulation strategy (SHEPWM) to eliminate the low order harmonics; results have been applied on multilevel inverters. The final results from simulations indicate the elimination of the low order harmonics as desired. Finally, experimental results are presented to confirm the simulation results and validate the efficaciousness of the proposed approach.
Level Shifted Carrier Signal Based Scalar Random Pulse Width Modulation Algorithms for Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive
Acoustic noise becoming ever more obnoxious radiated by voltage source inverter fed induction motor drive in modern and industrial applications. The drive utilized for industrial and modern applications should use “spread spectrum” innovation known as Random pulse width modulation (PWM) algorithms where acoustic noise emanates through the machine should be critically concerned. This paper illustrates three types of random PWM control algorithms with fixed switching frequency namely 1) Random modulating PWM 2) Random carrier PWM and 3) Random modulating-carrier PWM. The spectrum plots of the motor stator current demonstrate the strength and robustness of the proposed PWM algorithms. To affirm the proposed algorithms, experimental tests have been conducted using dSPACE rt1104 control board on a v/f control three phase induction motor drive fed by DC link cascaded multilevel inverter.
Contribution to Improving the DFIG Control Using a Multi-Level Inverter
Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is one of the most reliable wind generator. Major problem in wind power generation is to generate Sinusoidal signal with very low THD on variable speed caused by inverter two levels used. This paper presents a multi-level inverter whose objective is to reduce the THD and the dimensions of the output filter. This work proposes a three-level NPC-type inverter, the results simulation are presented demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed inverter.
A Topology for High Voltage Gain Half-Bridge Z-Source Inverter with Low Voltage Stress on Capacitors
In this paper, a topology for high voltage gain half-bridge z-source inverter with low voltage stress on capacitors is proposed. The proposed inverter has only one impedance network. It can generate symmetric and asymmetric voltages with different magnitudes during both half-cycles. By selecting the duty cycle it can also produce conventional half-bridge inverter characteristics. It is used in special applications like, electrochemical and electro plating applications. Calculations of voltage ripple of capacitors, capacitors voltage stress inductors current ripple are presented. The proposed topology is simulated using PSCAD software and the simulated values are compared with the theoretical values.
Cascaded H-Bridge Five Level Inverter Based Selective Harmonic Eliminated Pulse Width Modulation for Harmonic Elimination
In this paper, selective harmonic elimination pulse width modulation technique is employed to eliminate lower order harmonics like third by determination of solving non-linear equations. The cascaded H-bridge five level inverter is driven by the Peripheral Interface Controlled (PIC) Microcontroller 16F877A. The performance of single phase cascaded H-bridge five level inverter with relevant to harmonics and a variety of switches with solar cell as its input source is simulated by employing MATLAB/Simulink. A hardware model is developed to verify the performance of the developed system.
DC-Link Voltage Control of DC-DC Boost Converter-Inverter System with PI Controller
In this paper, the DC-link voltage control of DC-DC boost converter–inverter system is proposed. The mathematical model is developed from four different sub-circuits that depended on the switch positions. The developed differential equations are combined to develop the dynamic model. Transfer function is generated from the switched function model. Fluctuation of DC-link voltage causes connected loads malfunction. For this problem, a kind of traditional controller, the PI controller is applied to achieve constant DC-link voltage. The PI controller gains are obtained based on transfer function step response. The simulation work has been studied by using MATLAB/Simulink software and hardware prototype is implemented with a low-cost microcontroller Arduino Nano. Experimental results are collected by using ArduinoIO library package. Closed-loop DC-link voltage control system is tested with various line and load disturbances. It is found that the experimental results give equal responses with the simulation results.
Simplified Space Vector Based Decoupled Switching Strategy for Indirect Vector Controlled Open-End Winding Induction Motor Drive
In this paper, a dual inverter configuration has been implemented for induction motor drive. This isolated dual inverter is capable to produce high quality of output voltage and minimize common mode voltage (CMV). To this isolated dual inverter a decoupled space vector based pulse width modulation (PWM) technique is proposed. Conventional space vector based PWM (SVPWM) techniques require reference voltage vector calculation and sector identification. The proposed decoupled SVPWM technique generates gating pulses from instantaneous phase voltages and gives a CMV of ±vdc/6. To evaluate proposed algorithm MATLAB based simulation studies are carried on indirect vector controlled open end winding induction motor drive.
A Thirteen-Level Asymmetrical Cascaded H-Bridge Single Phase Inverter
This paper presents a thirteen-level asymmetrical
cascaded H-bridge single phase inverter. In this configuration, the
desired output voltage level is achieved by connecting the DC sources in
different combinations by triggering the switches. The modes of
operation are explained well for positive level generations. Moreover, a
comparison is made with conventional topologies of diode clamped,
flying capacitors and cascaded-H-bridge and some recently proposed
topologies to show the significance of the proposed topology in terms of
reduced part counts. The simulation work has been carried out in
MATLAB/Simulink environment. The experimental work is also carried
out for lower rating to verify the performance and feasibility of the
proposed topology. Further the results are presented for different loading
Five-Phase Induction Motor Drive System Driven by Five-Phase Packed U Cell Inverter: Its Modeling and Performance Evaluation
The three phase system drives produce the problem of more torque pulsations and harmonics. This issue prevents the smooth operation of the drives and it also induces the amount of heat generated thus resulting in an increase in power loss. Higher phase system offers smooth operation of the machines with greater power capacity. Five phase variable-speed induction motor drives are commonly used in various industrial and commercial applications like tractions, electrical vehicles, ship propulsions and conveyor belt drive system. In this work, a comparative analysis of the different modulation schemes applied on the five-level five-phase Packed U Cell (PUC) inverter fed induction motor drives is presented. The performance of the inverter is greatly affected with the modulation schemes applied. The system is modeled, designed, and implemented in MATLAB®/Simulink environment. Experimental validation is done for the prototype of single phase, whereas five phase experimental validation is proposed in the future works.
Comparative Analysis of SVPWM and the Standard PWM Technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor
The multi-level inverters present an important novelty in the field of energy control with high voltage and power. The major advantage of all multi-level inverters is the improvement and spectral quality of its generated output signals. In recent years, various pulse width modulation techniques have been developed. From these technics we have: Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM). This work presents a detailed analysis of the comparative advantage of space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) and the standard SPWM technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor. The comparison is based on the evaluation of harmonic distortion THD.
BLDC Motor Driven for Solar Photo Voltaic Powered Air Cooling System
Solar photovoltaic (SPV) power systems can be
employed as electrical power sources to meet the daily residential
energy needs of rural areas that have no access to grid systems.
In view of this, a standalone SPV powered air cooling system is
proposed in this paper, which constitutes a dc-dc boost converter,
two voltage source inverters (VSI) connected to two brushless dc
(BLDC) motors which are coupled to a centrifugal water pump and
a fan blower. A simple and efficient Maximum Power Point Tracking
(MPPT) technique based on Silver Mean Method (SMM) is utilized
in this paper. The air cooling system is developed and simulated using
the MATLAB / Simulink environment considering the dynamic and
steady state variation in the solar irradiance.
Inverter Based Gain-Boosting Fully Differential CMOS Amplifier
This work presents a fully differential CMOS amplifier consisting of two self-biased gain boosted inverter stages, that provides an alternative to the power hungry operational amplifier. The self-biasing avoids the use of external biasing circuitry, thus reduces the die area, design efforts, and power consumption. In the present work, regulated cascode technique has been employed for gain boosting. The Miller compensation is also applied to enhance the phase margin. The circuit has been designed and simulated in 1.8 V 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The simulation results show a high DC gain of 100.7 dB, Unity-Gain Bandwidth of 107.8 MHz, and Phase Margin of 66.7o with a power dissipation of 286 μW and makes it suitable candidate for the high resolution pipelined ADCs.
Cascaded Neural Network for Internal Temperature Forecasting in Induction Motor
In this study, two systems were created to predict interior temperature in induction motor. One of them consisted of a simple ANN model which has two layers, ten input parameters and one output parameter. The other one consisted of eight ANN models connected each other as cascaded. Cascaded ANN system has 17 inputs. Main reason of cascaded system being used in this study is to accomplish more accurate estimation by increasing inputs in the ANN system. Cascaded ANN system is compared with simple conventional ANN model to prove mentioned advantages. Dataset was obtained from experimental applications. Small part of the dataset was used to obtain more understandable graphs. Number of data is 329. 30% of the data was used for testing and validation. Test data and validation data were determined for each ANN model separately and reliability of each model was tested. As a result of this study, it has been understood that the cascaded ANN system produced more accurate estimates than conventional ANN model.
Experimental Investigation of Indirect Field Oriented Control of Field Programmable Gate Array Based Five-Phase Induction Motor Drive
This paper analyzes the experimental investigation of indirect field oriented control of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based five-phase induction motor drive. A detailed d-q modeling and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) technique of 5-phase drive is elaborated in this paper. In the proposed work, the prototype model of 1 hp 5-phase Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) fed drive is implemented in hardware. SVPWM pulses are generated in FPGA platform through Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) coding. The experimental results are observed under different loading conditions and compared with simulation results to validate the simulation model.
Interfacing Photovoltaic Systems to the Utility Grid: A Comparative Simulation Study to Mitigate the Impact of Unbalanced Voltage Dips
This paper presents the modeling and the control of a grid-connected photovoltaic system (PVS). Firstly, the MPPT control of the PVS and its associated DC/DC converter has been analyzed in order to extract the maximum of available power. Secondly, the control system of the grid side converter (GSC) which is a three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) has been presented. A special attention has been paid to the control algorithms of the GSC converter during grid voltages imbalances. Especially, three different control objectives are to achieve; the mitigation of the grid imbalance adverse effects, at the point of common coupling (PCC), on the injected currents, the elimination of double frequency oscillations in active power flow, and the elimination of double frequency oscillations in reactive power flow. Simulation results of two control strategies have been performed via MATLAB software in order to demonstrate the particularities of each control strategy according to power quality standards.
A Comparative Analysis of Multicarrier SPWM Strategies for Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter
Carrier-based methods have been used widely for switching of multilevel inverters due to their simplicity, flexibility and reduced computational requirements compared to space vector modulation (SVM). This paper focuses on Multicarrier Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (MCSPWM) strategy for the three phase Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter (5LFCI). The inverter is simulated for Induction Motor (IM) load and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) for output waveforms is observed for different controlling schemes.
Model Predictive Control of Three Phase Inverter for PV Systems
This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC)
of a utility interactive three phase inverter (TPI) for a photovoltaic
(PV) system at commercial level. The proposed model uses phase
locked loop (PLL) to synchronize the TPI with the power electric
grid (PEG) and performs MPC control in a dq reference frame. TPI
model consists of a boost converter (BC), maximum power point
tracking (MPPT) control, and a three-leg voltage source inverter
(VSI). The operational model of VSI is used to synthesize the
sinusoidal current and track the reference. The model is validated
using a 35.7 kW PV system in Matlab/Simulink. Implementation
results show simplicity and accuracy, as well as reliability of the
Simulation and Analysis of Control System for a Solar Desalination System
Fresh water is one of the resources which is getting
depleted day by day. A wise method to address this issue is by the
application of renewable energy-sun irradiation and by means of
decentralized, cheap, energetically self-sufficient, robust and simple
to operate plants, distillates can be obtained from sea, river or even
sewage. Solar desalination is a technique used to desalinate water
using solar energy. The present work deals with the comprehensive
design and simulation of solar tracking system using LabVIEW,
temperature and mass flow rate control of the solar desalination plant
using LabVIEW and also analysis of single phase inverter circuit
with LC filters for solar pumping system in MATLAB. The main
objective of this work is to improve the performance of solar
desalination system using automatic tracking system, output control
using temperature and mass flow rate control system and also to
reduce the harmonic distortion in the solar pumping system by means
of LC filters. The simulation of single phase inverter was carried out
using MATLAB and the output waveforms were analyzed.
Simulations were performed for optimum output temperature control,
which in turn controls the mass flow rate of water in the thermal
collectors. Solar tracking system was accomplished using LABVIEW
and was tested successfully. The thermal collectors are tracked in
accordance with the sun’s irradiance levels, thereby increasing the
efficiency of the thermal collectors.
FPGA Based Implementation of Simplified Space Vector PWM Algorithm for Multilevel Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drives
Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation is popular for
variable frequency drives. The method has several advantages over
carried based PWM and is computation intensive. The
implementation of SVPWM for multilevel inverter requires special
attention and at the same time consumes considerable resources. Due
to faster processing power and reduced over all computational
burden, FPGAs are being investigated as an alternative for other
controllers. In this paper, a space vector PWM algorithm is
implemented using FPGA which requires less computational area and
is modular in structure. The algorithm is verified experimentally for
Neutral Point Clamped inverter using FPGA development board
Performance Enhancement of Analog Voltage Inverter with Adaptive Gain Control for Capacitive Load
Piezoelectric actuator is treated as RC load when it is
modeled electrically. For some piezoelectric actuator applications,
arbitrary voltage is required to actuate. Especially for unidirectional
arbitrary voltage driving like as sine wave, some special inverter with
circuit that can charge and discharge the capacitive energy can be
used. In this case, the difference between power supply level and the
object voltage level for RC load is varied. Because the control gain is
constant, the controlled output is not uniform according to the voltage
difference. In this paper, for charge and discharge circuit for
unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving for piezoelectric actuator, the
controller gain is controlled according to the voltage difference. With
the proposed simple idea, the load voltage can have controlled
smoothly although the voltage difference is varied. The
appropriateness is proved from the simulation of the proposed circuit.
Three Phase PWM Inverter for Low Rating Energy Efficient Systems
The paper presents a practical three-phase PWM
inverter suitable for low voltage, low rating energy efficient systems.
The work in the paper is conducted with the view to establishing the
significance of the loss contribution from the PWM inverter in the
determination of the complete losses of a photovoltaic (PV) arraypowered
induction motor drive water pumping system. Losses
investigated include; conduction and switching loss of the devices
and gate drive losses. It is found that the PWM inverter operates at a
reasonable variable efficiency that does not fall below 92%
depending on the load. The results between the simulated and
experimental results for the system with or without a maximum
power tracker (MPT) compares very well, within an acceptable range
of 2% margin.
Advanced Pulse Width Modulation Techniques for Z Source Multi Level Inverter
This paper proposes five level diode clamped Z source
Inverter. The existing PWM techniques used for ZSI are restricted for
two level. The two level Z Source Inverter have high harmonic
distortions which effects the performance of the grid connected PV
system. To improve the performance of the system the number of
voltage levels in the output waveform need to be increased. This
paper presents comparative analysis of a five level diode clamped Z
source Inverter with different carrier based Modified Pulse Width
Modulation techniques. The parameters considered for comparison
are output voltage, voltage gain, voltage stress across switch and total
harmonic distortion when powered by same DC supply. Analytical
results are verified using MATLAB.
Simulation Based Performance Comparison of Different Control Methods of ZSI Feeding Industrial Drives
Industrial drives are source of serious power quality problems. In this, two typical industrial drives have been dealt with, namely, FOC induction motor drives and DTC induction motor drive. The Z-source inverter is an emerging topology of power electronic converters which is capable of buck boost characteristics. The performances of different control methods based Z-source inverters feeding these industrial drives have been investigated, in this work. The test systems have been modeled and simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK. The results obtained after carrying out these simulations have been used to draw the conclusions.
Investigation of the Effects of Sampling Frequency on the THD of 3-Phase Inverters Using Space Vector Modulation
This paper presents the simulation results of the
effects of sampling frequency on the total harmonic distortion (THD)
of three-phase inverters using the space vector pulse width
modulation (SVPWM) and space vector control (SVC) algorithms.
The relationship between the variables was studied using curve fitting
techniques, and it has been shown that, for 50 Hz inverters, there is
an exponential relation between the sampling frequency and THD up
to around 8500 Hz, beyond which the performance of the model
becomes irregular, and there is an negative exponential relation
between the sampling frequency and the marginal improvement to
the THD. It has also been found that the performance of SVPWM is
better than that of SVC with the same sampling frequency in most
frequency range, including the range where the performance of the
former is irregular.
A Literature Assessment of Multi-Level Inverters
Multi-Level Inverter technology has been developed in the area of high-power medium-voltage energy scheme, because of their advantages such as devices of lower rating can be used thereby enabling the schemes to be used for high voltage applications. Reduced Total Harmonic Distortion (THD).Since the dv/dt is low; the Electromagnetic Interference from the scheme is low. To avoid the switching losses Lower switching frequencies can be used. In this paper present a survey of various topologies, control strategy and modulation techniques used by these inverters. Here the regenerative and superior topologies are also discussed.
Grid-Connected Inverter Experimental Simulation and Droop Control Implementation
In this study, we aim to demonstrate a microgrid
system experimental simulation for an easy understanding of a
large-scale microgrid system. This model is required for industrial
training and learning environments. However, in order to create an
exact representation of a microgrid system, the laboratory-scale
system must fulfill the requirements of a grid-connected inverter, in
which power values are assigned to the system to cope with the
intermittent output from renewable energy sources. Aside from that,
during fluctuations in load capacity, the grid-connected system must
be able to supply power from the utility grid side and microgrid side in
a balanced manner. Therefore, droop control is installed in the
inverter’s control board to maintain a balanced power sharing in both
sides. This power control in a stand-alone condition and droop control
in a grid-connected condition must be implemented in order to
maintain a stabilized system. Based on the experimental results, power
control and droop control can both be applied in the system by
comparing the experimental and reference values.
An Approach for Modeling CMOS Gates
A modeling approach for CMOS gates is presented
based on the use of the equivalent inverter. A new model for the
inverter has been developed using a simplified transistor current
model which incorporates the nanoscale effects for the planar
technology. Parametric expressions for the output voltage are
provided as well as the values of the output and supply current to be
compatible with the CCS technology. The model is parametric
according the input signal slew, output load, transistor widths, supply
voltage, temperature and process. The transistor widths of the
equivalent inverter are determined by HSPICE simulations and
parametric expressions are developed for that using a fitting
procedure. Results for the NAND gate shows that the proposed
approach offers sufficient accuracy with an average error in
propagation delay about 5%.
Comparative Review of Modulation Techniques for Harmonic Minimization in Multilevel Inverter
This paper proposed the comparison made between
Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation, Sinusoidal Pulse Width
Modulation and Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width
Modulation technique for minimization of Total Harmonic Distortion
in Cascaded H-Bridge Multi-Level Inverter. In Multicarrier Pulse
Width Modulation method by using Alternate Position of Disposition
scheme for switching pulse generation to Multi-Level Inverter.
Another carrier based approach; Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation
method is also implemented to define the switching pulse generation
system in the multi-level inverter. In Selective Harmonic Elimination
method using Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization
algorithm for define the required switching angles to eliminate low
order harmonics from the inverter output voltage waveform and
reduce the total harmonic distortion value. So, the results validate that
the Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation method
does capably eliminate a great number of precise harmonics and
minimize the Total Harmonic Distortion value in output voltage
waveform in compared with Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation
method, Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation method. In this paper,
comparison of simulation results shows that the Selective Harmonic
Elimination method can attain optimal harmonic minimization
solution better than Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation method,
Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation method.
MPC of Single Phase Inverter for PV System
This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC)
of a utility interactive (UI) single phase inverter (SPI) for a
photovoltaic (PV) system at residential/distribution level. The
proposed model uses single-phase phase locked loop (PLL) to
synchronize SPI with the grid and performs MPC control in a dq
reference frame. SPI model consists of boost converter (BC),
maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control, and a full bridge
(FB) voltage source inverter (VSI). No PI regulators to tune and
carrier and modulating waves are required to produce switching
sequence. Instead, the operational model of VSI is used to synthesize
sinusoidal current and track the reference. Model is validated using a
three kW PV system at the input of UI-SPI in Matlab/Simulink.
Implementation and results demonstrate simplicity and accuracy, as
well as reliability of the model.