|Commenced in January 2007||Frequency: Monthly||Edition: International||Paper Count: 64|
Automation technologies for agriculture field are needed to promote labor-saving. One of the most relevant problems in automated agriculture is represented by controlling the robot along a predetermined path in presence of rough terrain or incline ground. Unfortunately, disturbances originating from interaction with the ground, such as slipping, make it quite difficult to achieve the required accuracy. In general, it is required to move within 5-10 cm accuracy with respect to the predetermined path. Moreover, lateral velocity caused by gravity on the incline field also affects slipping. In this paper, a path-tracking controller for tracked mobile robots moving on rough terrains of incline field such as vineyard is presented. The controller is composed of a disturbance observer and an adaptive controller based on the kinematic model of the robot. The disturbance observer measures the difference between the measured and the reference yaw rate and linear velocity in order to estimate slip. Then, the adaptive controller adapts “virtual” parameter of the kinematics model: Instantaneous Centers of Rotation (ICRs). Finally, target angular velocity reference is computed according to the adapted parameter. This solution allows estimating the effects of slip without making the model too complex. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed solution is tested in a simulation environment.
Machine vision has been widely used in recent years in agriculture, as a tool to promote the automation of processes and increase the levels of productivity. The aim of this work is the development of a path recognition algorithm based on image processing to guide a terrestrial robot in-between tree rows. The proposed algorithm was developed using the software MATLAB, and it uses several image processing operations, such as threshold detection, morphological erosion, histogram equalization and the Hough transform, to find edge lines along tree rows on an image and to create a path to be followed by a mobile robot. To develop the algorithm, a set of images of different types of orchards was used, which made possible the construction of a method capable of identifying paths between trees of different heights and aspects. The algorithm was evaluated using several images with different characteristics of quality and the results showed that the proposed method can successfully detect a path in different types of environments.
One of the biggest concerns in the field of agriculture is around the energy efficiency of robots that will perform agriculture’s activity and their charging methods. In this paper, two different charging methods for agricultural standalone docking stations are shown that will take into account various variants as field size and its irregularities, work’s nature to which the robot will perform, deadlines that have to be respected, among others. Its features also are dependent on the orchard, season, battery type and its technical specifications and cost. First charging base method focuses on wireless charging, presenting more benefits for small field. The second charging base method relies on battery replacement being more suitable for large fields, thus avoiding the robot stop for recharge. Existing many methods to charge a battery, the CC CV was considered the most appropriate for either simplicity or effectiveness. The choice of the battery for agricultural purposes is if most importance. While the most common battery used is Li-ion battery, this study also discusses the use of graphene-based new type of batteries with 45% over capacity to the Li-ion one. A Battery Management Systems (BMS) is applied for battery balancing. All these approaches combined showed to be a promising method to improve a lot of technical agricultural work, not just in terms of plantation and harvesting but also about every technique to prevent harmful events like plagues and weeds or even to reduce crop time and cost.
Autonomous mobile robots (AMR) are expected as smart tools for operations in every automation industry. Path planning and obstacle avoidance is the backbone of AMR as robots have to reach their goal location avoiding obstacles while traversing through optimized path defined according to some criteria such as distance, time or energy. Path planning can be classified into global and local path planning where environmental information is known and unknown/partially known, respectively. A number of sensors are used for data collection. A number of algorithms such as artificial potential field (APF), rapidly exploring random trees (RRT), bidirectional RRT, Fuzzy approach, Purepursuit, A* algorithm, vector field histogram (VFH) and modified local path planning algorithm, etc. have been used in the last three decades for path planning and obstacle avoidance for AMR. This paper makes an attempt to review some of the path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms used in the field of AMR. The review includes comparative analysis of simulation and mathematical computations of path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms using MATLAB 2018a. From the review, it could be concluded that different algorithms may complete the same task (i.e. with a different set of instructions) in less or more time, space, effort, etc.
Today, the developing features of technological tools with limited energy resources have made it necessary to use energy efficiently. Energy management techniques have emerged for this purpose. As with every field, energy management is vital for robots that are being used in many areas from industry to daily life and that are thought to take up more spaces in the future. Particularly, effective power management in autonomous and multi robots, which are getting more complicated and increasing day by day, will improve the performance and success. In this study, robot management algorithms, usage of renewable and hybrid energy sources, robot motion patterns, robot designs, sharing strategies of workloads in multiple robots, road and mission planning algorithms are discussed for efficient use of energy resources by mobile robots. These techniques have been evaluated in terms of efficient use of existing energy resources and energy management in robots.
By the development of IT systems, human-computer interaction is also developing even faster and newer communication methods become available in human-machine interaction. In this article, the application of a hand gesture controlled human-computer interface is being introduced through the example of a mobile robot. The control of the mobile robot is implemented in a realistic virtual environment that is advantageous regarding the aspect of different tests, parallel examinations, so the purchase of expensive equipment is unnecessary. The usability of the implemented hand gesture control has been evaluated by test subjects. According to the opinion of the testing subjects, the system can be well used, and its application would be recommended on other application fields too.
Socially assistive robotic has become increasingly active and it is present in therapies of people affected for several neurobehavioral conditions, such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In fact, robots have played a significant role for positive interaction with children with ASD, by stimulating their social and cognitive skills. This work introduces a mobile socially-assistive robot, which was built for interaction with children with ASD, using non-linear control techniques for this interaction.
In real-time applications, wheeled mobile robots are increasingly used and operated in extreme and diverse conditions traversing challenging surfaces such as a pitted, uneven terrain, natural flat, smooth terrain, as well as wet and dry surfaces. In order to accomplish such tasks, it is critical that the motion control functions without wheel slip and odometry error during the navigation of the two-wheeled mobile robot (WMR). Wheel slip and odometry error are disrupting factors on overall WMR performance in the form of deviation from desired trajectory, navigation, travel time and budgeted energy consumption. The wheeled mobile robot’s ability to operate at peak performance on various work surfaces without wheel slippage and odometry error is directly connected to four main parameters, which are the range of payload distribution, speed, wheel diameter, and wheel width. This paper analyses the effects of those parameters on overall performance and is concerned with determining the ideal range of parameters for optimum performance.
This paper addresses the issue of the autonomous mobile robot (AMR) navigation task based on the hybrid control modes. The novel hybrid control mode, based on multi-sensors information by using the fuzzy approach, has been presented in this research. The system operates in real time, is robust, enables the robot to operate with imprecise knowledge, and takes into account the physical limitations of the environment in which the robot moves, obtaining satisfactory responses for a large number of different situations. An experiment is simulated and carried out with a pioneer mobile robot. From the experimental results, the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed AMR obstacle avoidance and navigation scheme are confirmed. The experimental results show the feasibility, and the control system has improved the navigation accuracy. The implementation of the controller is robust, has a low execution time, and allows an easy design and tuning of the fuzzy knowledge base.
The feedbacks obtained regarding the sense of presence from pilot users operating a Mobile Robotic presence (MRP) system to visit a simulated museum are reported in this paper. The aim is to investigate how much the perception of system’s usefulness and ease of use is affected by operators’ sense of social telepresence (presence) in the remote location. Therefore, scenarios of visiting a museum are simulated and the user operators are supposed to perform some regular tasks inside the remote environment including interaction with local users, navigation and visiting the artworks. Participants were divided into two groups, those who had previous experience of operation and interaction with a MRP system and those who never had experience. Based on the results, both groups provided different feedbacks. Moreover, there was a significant association between user’s sense of presence and their perception of system usefulness and ease of use.
The inspection of underneath vehicle system has been given significant attention by governments after the threat of terrorism become more prevalent. New technologies such as mobile robots and computer vision are led to have more secure environment. This paper proposed that a mobile robot like Aria robot can be used to search and inspect the bombs under parking a lot vehicle. This robot is using fuzzy logic and subsumption algorithms to control the robot that movies underneath the vehicle. An OpenCV library and laser Hokuyo are added to Aria robot to complete the experiment for under vehicle inspection. This experiment was conducted at the indoor environment to demonstrate the efficiency of our methods to search objects and control the robot movements under vehicle. We got excellent results not only by controlling the robot movement but also inspecting object by the robot camera at same time. This success allowed us to know the requirement to construct a new cost effective robot with more functionality.
Weed suppression and weeding are necessary measures for rice cultivation. Weed suppression precedes the process of weeding. It means suppressing the growth of young weeds and creating a weed-less environment. If we suppress the growth of weeds, we can reduce the number of weeds in a paddy field. This would result in a reduction of the weeding work load. In this paper, we will show how we developed a weed suppression robot for the purpose of reducing the weeding work load. The robot has a laser range finder for autonomous mobility and a robot arm for weed suppression. It travels along the rice rows without stepping on and injuring the rice plants in a paddy field. The robot arm applies force to the weed seedlings and thereby suppresses the growth of weeds. This paper will explain the methodology of the autonomous mobile, the experiment in weed suppression, and the method of controlling the robot’s posture on uneven ground.
This paper presents the hardware implemented and validation for a special system to assist the unprofessional users of car with back trailers. The system consists of two platforms; the front car platform (C) and the trailer platform (T). The main objective is to control the Trailer platform using the actuators found in the front platform (c). The mobility of the platform (C) is investigated and inverse and forward kinematics model is obtained for both platforms (C) and (T).The system is simulated using Matlab M-file and the simulation examples results illustrated the system performance. The system is constructed with a hardware setup for the front and trailer platform. The hardware experimental results and the simulated examples outputs showed the validation of the hardware setup.
In this paper we propose a discrete tracking control of nonholonomic mobile robots with two degrees of freedom. The electromechanical model of a mobile robot moving on a horizontal surface without slipping, with two rear wheels controlled by two independent DC electric, and one front roal wheel is considered. We present backstepping design based on the Euler approximate discretetime model of a continuous-time plant. Theoretical considerations are verified by numerical simulation.
This paper presents a hybrid fuzzy logic control strategy for a unicycle trajectory following robot on irregular terrains. In literature, researchers have presented the design of path tracking controllers of mobile robots on non-frictional surface. In this work, the robot is simulated to drive on irregular terrains with contrasting frictional profiles of peat and rough gravel. A hybrid fuzzy logic controller is utilised to stabilise and drive the robot precisely with the predefined trajectory and overcome the frictional impact. The controller gains and scaling factors were optimised using spiral dynamics optimisation algorithm to minimise the mean square error of the linear and angular velocities of the unicycle robot. The robot was simulated on various frictional surfaces and terrains and the controller was able to stabilise the robot with a superior performance that is shown via simulation results.
Now-a-days autonomous mobile robots have found applications in diverse fields. An autonomous robot system must be able to behave in an intelligent manner to deal with complex and changing environment. This work proposes the performance of path planning and navigation of autonomous mobile robot using Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA), Simulated Annealing (SA) and Particle Swarm optimization (PSO) based intelligent controllers in an unstructured environment. The approach not only finds a valid collision free path but also optimal one. The main aim of the work is to minimize the length of the path and duration of travel from a starting point to a target while moving in an unknown environment with obstacles without collision. Finally, a comparison is made between the three controllers, it is found that the path length and time duration made by the robot using GSA is better than SA and PSO based controllers for the same work.
Localization of mobile robots are important tasks for developing autonomous mobile robots. This paper proposes a method to estimate positions of a mobile robot using a omnidirectional camera on the robot. Landmarks for points of references are set up on a field where the robot works. The omnidirectional camera which can obtain 360 [deg] around images takes photographs of these landmarks. The positions of the robots are estimated from directions of these landmarks that are extracted from the images by image processing. This method can obtain the robot positions without accumulative position errors. Accuracy of the estimated robot positions by the proposed method are evaluated through some experiments. The results show that it can obtain the positions with small standard deviations. Therefore the method has possibilities of more accurate localization by tuning of appropriate offset parameters.
The aim of this research is to design and implement line-tracking mobile robot. The robot must follow a line drawn on the floor with different color, avoids hitting moving object like another moving robot or walking people and achieves color sensing. The control system reacts by controlling each of the motors to keep the tracking sensor over the middle of the line. Proximity sensors used to avoid hitting moving objects that may pass in front of the robot. The programs have been written using micro c instructions, then converted into PIC16F887 ATmega48/88/168 microcontrollers counterparts. Practical simulations show that the walking robot accurately achieves line following action and exactly recognizes the colors and avoids any obstacle in front of it.
Mobile robotics is gaining an increasingly important role in modern society. Several potentially dangerous or laborious tasks for human are assigned to mobile robots, which are increasingly capable. Many of these tasks need to be performed within a specified period, i.e, meet a deadline. Missing the deadline can result in financial and/or material losses. Mechanisms for predicting the missing of deadlines are fundamental because corrective actions can be taken to avoid or minimize the losses resulting from missing the deadline. In this work we propose a simple but reliable deadline missing prediction mechanism for mobile robots through the use of historical data and we use the Pioneer 3-DX robot for experiments and simulations, one of the most popular robots in academia.
We present in this work the performances of a mobile omnidirectional robot through evaluating its management of the redundancy of actuation. Thus we come to the predictive control implemented.
The distribution of the wringer on the robot actions, through the inverse pseudo of Moore-Penrose, corresponds to a « geometric ›› distribution of efforts. We will show that the load on vehicle wheels would not be equi-distributed in terms of wheels configuration and of robot movement.
Thus, the threshold of sliding is not the same for the three wheels of the vehicle. We suggest exploiting the redundancy of actuation to reduce the risk of wheels sliding and to ameliorate, thereby, its accuracy of displacement. This kind of approach was the subject of study for the legged robots.