Dialect and Gender Variations in the Place and Manner of Articulation of the Korean Fricatives
This study examines dialect and gender variations in the place and manner of articulation between the two Korean fricatives, /s/ and /s’/, as produced by speakers of the Daegu and Jeju dialects. The acoustic parameters of center of gravity and skewness for the place of articulation, and the rise time and the amplitude rise slope for the manner of articulation were measured. The study results revealed a gender effect, but no dialect effect, for the center of gravity and the skewness. No main effect for either the gender or dialect was found for the rise time and the amplitude rise slope. These findings indicated that, with regard to the place of articulation, Korean fricative sound differences are a gender distinction, not a dialectal one.
Fusion of Shape and Texture for Unconstrained Periocular Authentication
Unconstrained authentication is an important component for personal automated systems and human-computer interfaces. Existing solutions mostly use face as the primary object of analysis. The performance of face-based systems is largely determined by the extent of deformation caused in the facial region and amount of useful information available in occluded face images. Periocular region is a useful portion of face with discriminative ability coupled with resistance to deformation. A reliable portion of periocular area is available for occluded images. The present work demonstrates that joint representation of periocular texture and periocular structure provides an effective expression and poses invariant representation. The proposed methodology provides an effective and compact description of periocular texture and shape. The method is tested over four benchmark datasets exhibiting varied acquisition conditions.
Visual Thing Recognition with Binary Scale-Invariant Feature Transform and Support Vector Machine Classifiers Using Color Information
The demands of smart visual thing recognition in various devices have been increased rapidly for daily smart production, living and learning systems in recent years. This paper proposed a visual thing recognition system, which combines binary scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), bag of words model (BoW), and support vector machine (SVM) by using color information. Since the traditional SIFT features and SVM classifiers only use the gray information, color information is still an important feature for visual thing recognition. With color-based SIFT features and SVM, we can discard unreliable matching pairs and increase the robustness of matching tasks. The experimental results show that the proposed object recognition system with color-assistant SIFT SVM classifier achieves higher recognition rate than that with the traditional gray SIFT and SVM classification in various situations.
Moment Estimators of the Parameters of Zero-One Inflated Negative Binomial Distribution
In this paper, zero-one inflated negative binomial distribution is considered, along with some of its structural properties, then its parameters were estimated using the method of moments. It is found that the method of moments to estimate the parameters of the zero-one inflated negative binomial models is not a proper method and may give incorrect conclusions.
Regionalization of IDF Curves with L-Moments for Storm Events
The construction of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves is one of the most common and useful tools in order to design hydraulic structures and to provide a mathematical relationship between rainfall characteristics. IDF curves, especially those in Peninsular Malaysia, are often built using moving windows of rainfalls. However, these windows do not represent the actual rainfall events since the duration of rainfalls is usually prefixed. Hence, instead of using moving windows, this study aims to find regionalized distributions for IDF curves of extreme rainfalls based on storm events. Homogeneity test is performed on annual maximum of storm intensities to identify homogeneous regions of storms in Peninsular Malaysia. The L-moment method is then used to regionalized Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution of these annual maximums and subsequently. IDF curves are constructed using the regional distributions. The differences between the IDF curves obtained and IDF curves found using at-site GEV distributions are observed through the computation of the coefficient of variation of root mean square error, mean percentage difference and the coefficient of determination. The small differences implied that the construction of IDF curves could be simplified by finding a general probability distribution of each region. This will also help in constructing IDF curves for sites with no rainfall station.
A Fuzzy Approach to Liver Tumor Segmentation with Zernike Moments
In this paper, we present a new segmentation approach
for liver lesions in regions of interest within MRI (Magnetic
Resonance Imaging). This approach, based on a two-cluster Fuzzy CMeans
methodology, considers the parameter variable compactness
to handle uncertainty. Fine boundaries are detected by a local
recursive merging of ambiguous pixels with a sequential forward
floating selection with Zernike moments. The method has been tested
on both synthetic and real images. When applied on synthetic images,
the proposed approach provides good performance, segmentations
obtained are accurate, their shape is consistent with the ground truth,
and the extracted information is reliable. The results obtained on MR
images confirm such observations. Our approach allows, even for
difficult cases of MR images, to extract a segmentation with good
performance in terms of accuracy and shape, which implies that the
geometry of the tumor is preserved for further clinical activities (such
as automatic extraction of pharmaco-kinetics properties, lesion
Face Recognition Using Discrete Orthogonal Hahn Moments
One of the most critical decision points in the design of a
face recognition system is the choice of an appropriate face representation.
Effective feature descriptors are expected to convey sufficient, invariant
and non-redundant facial information. In this work we propose a set of
Hahn moments as a new approach for feature description. Hahn moments
have been widely used in image analysis due to their invariance, nonredundancy
and the ability to extract features either globally and locally.
To assess the applicability of Hahn moments to Face Recognition we
conduct two experiments on the Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL)
database and University of Notre-Dame (UND) X1 biometric collection.
Fusion of the global features along with the features from local facial
regions are used as an input for the conventional k-NN classifier. The
method reaches an accuracy of 93% of correctly recognized subjects for
the ORL database and 94% for the UND database.
Genetic Algorithm and Padé-Moment Matching for Model Order Reduction
A mixed method for model order reduction is
presented in this paper. The denominator polynomial is derived by
matching both Markov parameters and time moments, whereas
numerator polynomial derivation and error minimization is done
using Genetic Algorithm. The efficiency of the proposed method can
be investigated in terms of closeness of the response of reduced order
model with respect to that of higher order original model and a
comparison of the integral square error as well.
Content-Based Color Image Retrieval Based On 2-D Histogram and Statistical Moments
In this paper, we are interested in the problem of
finding similar images in a large database. For this purpose we
propose a new algorithm based on a combination of the 2-D
histogram intersection in the HSV space and statistical moments. The
proposed histogram is based on a 3x3 window and not only on the
intensity of the pixel. This approach overcome the drawback of the
conventional 1-D histogram which is ignoring the spatial distribution
of pixels in the image, while the statistical moments are used to
escape the effects of the discretisation of the color space which is
intrinsic to the use of histograms. We compare the performance of
our new algorithm to various methods of the state of the art and we
show that it has several advantages. It is fast, consumes little memory
and requires no learning. To validate our results, we apply this
algorithm to search for similar images in different image databases.
Characteristic Function in Estimation of Probability Distribution Moments
In this article the problem of distributional moments estimation is considered. The new approach of moments estimation based on usage of the characteristic function is proposed. By statistical simulation technique author shows that new approach has some robust properties. For calculation of the derivatives of characteristic function there is used numerical differentiation. Obtained results confirmed that author’s idea has a certain working efficiency and it can be recommended for any statistical applications.
DWT Based Image Steganalysis
‘Steganalysis’ is one of the challenging and attractive interests for the researchers with the development of information hiding techniques. It is the procedure to detect the hidden information from the stego created by known steganographic algorithm. In this paper, a novel feature based image steganalysis technique is proposed. Various statistical moments have been used along with some similarity metric. The proposed steganalysis technique has been designed based on transformation in four wavelet domains, which include Haar, Daubechies, Symlets and Biorthogonal. Each domain is being subjected to various classifiers, namely K-nearest-neighbor, K* Classifier, Locally weighted learning, Naive Bayes classifier, Neural networks, Decision trees and Support vector machines. The experiments are performed on a large set of pictures which are available freely in image database. The system also predicts the different message length definitions.
Extreme Rainfall Frequency Analysis for Meteorological Sub-Division 4 of India Using L-Moments
Extreme rainfall frequency analysis for Meteorological Sub-Division 4 of India was analyzed using L-moments approach. Serial Correlation and Mann Kendall tests were conducted for checking serially independent and stationarity of the observations. The discordancy measure for the sites was conducted to detect the discordant sites. The regional homogeneity was tested by comparing with 500 generated homogeneous regions using a 4 parameter Kappa distribution. The best fit distribution was selected based on ZDIST statistics and L-moments ratio diagram from the five extreme value distributions GPD, GLO, GEV, P3 and LP3. The LN3 distribution was selected and regional rainfall frequency relationship was established using index-rainfall procedure. A regional mean rainfall relationship was developed using multiple linear regression with latitude and longitude of the sites as variables.
Fuzzy Numbers and MCDM Methods for Portfolio Optimization
A new deployment of the multiple criteria decision
making (MCDM) techniques: the Simple Additive Weighting
(SAW), and the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to
Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) for portfolio allocation, is demonstrated in
this paper. Rather than exclusive reference to mean and variance as in
the traditional mean-variance method, the criteria used in this
demonstration are the first four moments of the portfolio distribution.
Each asset is evaluated based on its marginal impacts to portfolio
higher moments that are characterized by trapezoidal fuzzy numbers.
Then centroid-based defuzzification is applied to convert fuzzy
numbers to the crisp numbers by which SAW and TOPSIS can be
deployed. Experimental results suggest the similar efficiency of these
MCDM approaches to selecting dominant assets for an optimal
portfolio under higher moments. The proposed approaches allow
investors flexibly adjust their risk preferences regarding higher
moments via different schemes adapting to various (from
conservative to risky) kinds of investors. The other significant
advantage is that, compared to the mean-variance analysis, the
portfolio weights obtained by SAW and TOPSIS are consistently
Order Statistics-based “Anti-Bayesian“ Parametric Classification for Asymmetric Distributions in the Exponential Family
Although the field of parametric Pattern Recognition (PR) has been thoroughly studied for over five decades, the use of the Order Statistics (OS) of the distributions to achieve this has not been reported. The pioneering work on using OS for classification was presented in  for the Uniform distribution, where it was shown that optimal PR can be achieved in a counter-intuitive manner, diametrically opposed to the Bayesian paradigm, i.e., by comparing the testing sample to a few samples distant from the mean. This must be contrasted with the Bayesian paradigm in which, if we are allowed to compare the testing sample with only a single point in the feature space from each class, the optimal strategy would be to achieve this based on the (Mahalanobis) distance from the corresponding central points, for example, the means. In , we showed that the results could be extended for a few symmetric distributions within the exponential family. In this paper, we attempt to extend these results significantly by considering asymmetric distributions within the exponential family, for some of which even the closed form expressions of the cumulative distribution functions are not available. These distributions include the Rayleigh, Gamma and certain Beta distributions. As in  and , the new scheme, referred to as Classification by Moments of Order Statistics (CMOS), attains an accuracy very close to the optimal Bayes’ bound, as has been shown both theoretically and by rigorous experimental testing.
The Determinants of Corporate Cash Holdings in Nigeria: Evidence from General Method of Moments (GMM)
The study examines the determinants of corporate cash holding of non-financial quoted firms in Nigeria using a sample of fifty four non-financial quoted firms listed on the Nigeria Stock Exchange for the period 1995-2009. Data were sourced from the Annual reports of the sampled firms and analyzed using Generalized Method of Moments(GMM). The study finds evidence supportive of a target adjustment model and that firms can not instantaneously adjust towards the target cash level owing to the fact that adjustment cost being costly,. Also, the result shows significant negative relationship between cash holdings and firm size, net working capital, return on asset and bank relationship and positive relationship with growth opportunities, leverage, inventories, account receivables and financial distress. Furthermore, there is no significant relationship between cash holdings and cash flow. In Nigerian setting, most of the variables that are relevant for explaining cash holdings in the Developed countries are found by this study to be relevant also in Nigeria.
Detection and Analysis of Deficiencies in Groundnut Plant using Geometric Moments
We propose our genuine research of geometric
moments which detects the mineral inadequacy in the frail groundnut
plant. This plant is prone to many deficiencies as a result of the
variance in the soil nutrients. By analyzing the leaves of the plant, we
detect the visual symptoms that are not recognizable to the naked eyes.
We have collected about 160 samples of leaves from the nearby fields.
The images have been taken by keeping every leaf into a black box to
avoid the external interference. For the first time, it has been possible
to provide the farmer with the stages of deficiencies. This paper has
applied the algorithms successfully to many other plants like Lady-s
finger, Green Bean, Lablab Bean, Chilli and Tomato. But we submit
the results of the groundnut predominantly. The accuracy of our
algorithm and method is almost 93%. This will again pioneer a kind of
green revolution in the field of agriculture and will be a boon to that
Discrete Polynomial Moments and Savitzky-Golay Smoothing
This paper presents unified theory for local (Savitzky-
Golay) and global polynomial smoothing. The algebraic framework
can represent any polynomial approximation and is seamless from
low degree local, to high degree global approximations. The representation
of the smoothing operator as a projection onto orthonormal
basis functions enables the computation of: the covariance matrix
for noise propagation through the filter; the noise gain and; the
frequency response of the polynomial filters. A virtually perfect Gram
polynomial basis is synthesized, whereby polynomials of degree
d = 1000 can be synthesized without significant errors. The perfect
basis ensures that the filters are strictly polynomial preserving. Given
n points and a support length ls = 2m + 1 then the smoothing
operator is strictly linear phase for the points xi, i = m+1. . . n-m.
The method is demonstrated on geometric surfaces data lying on an
invariant 2D lattice.
Method of Moments for Analysis of Multiple Crack Interaction in an Isotropic Elastic Solid
The problem of N cracks interaction in an isotropic
elastic solid is decomposed into a subproblem of a homogeneous solid
without crack and N subproblems with each having a single crack
subjected to unknown tractions on the two crack faces. The unknown
tractions, namely pseudo tractions on each crack are expanded into
polynomials with unknown coefficients, which have to be determined
by the consistency condition, i.e. by the equivalence of the original
multiple cracks interaction problem and the superposition of the N+1
subproblems. In this paper, Kachanov-s approach of average tractions
is extended into the method of moments to approximately impose the
consistence condition. Hence Kachanov-s method can be viewed as
the zero-order method of moments. Numerical results of the stress
intensity factors are presented for interactions of two collinear cracks,
three collinear cracks, two parallel cracks, and three parallel cracks.
As the order of moment increases, the accuracy of the method of
Method of Moments Applied to a Cuboidal Cavity Resonator: Effect of Gravitational Field Produced by a Black Hole
This paper deals with the formulation of Maxwell-s equations in a cavity resonator in the presence of the gravitational field produced by a blackhole. The metric of space-time due to the blackhole is the Schwarzchild metric. Conventionally, this is expressed in spherical polar coordinates. In order to adapt this metric to our problem, we have considered this metric in a small region close to the blackhole and expressed this metric in a cartesian system locally.
A Feature-based Invariant Watermarking Scheme Using Zernike Moments
In this paper, a novel feature-based image
watermarking scheme is proposed. Zernike moments which have
invariance properties are adopted in the scheme. In the proposed
scheme, feature points are first extracted from host image and several
circular patches centered on these points are generated. The patches
are used as carriers of watermark information because they can be
regenerated to locate watermark embedding positions even when
watermarked images are severely distorted. Zernike transform is then
applied to the patches to calculate local Zernike moments. Dither
modulation is adopted to quantize the magnitudes of the Zernike
moments followed by false alarm analysis. Experimental results show
that quality degradation of watermarked image is visually
transparent. The proposed scheme is very robust against image
processing operations and geometric attacks.
Printed Arabic Sub-Word Recognition Using Moments
the cursive nature of the Arabic writing makes it
difficult to accurately segment characters or even deal with the whole
word efficiently. Therefore, in this paper, a printed Arabic sub-word
recognition system is proposed. The suggested algorithm utilizes
geometrical moments as descriptors for the separated sub-words.
Three types of moments are investigated and applied to the printed
sub-word images after dividing each image into multiple parts using
windowing. Since moments are global descriptors, the windowing
mechanism allows the moments to be applied to local regions of the
sub-word. The local-global mixture of the proposed scheme increases
the discrimination power of the moments while keeping the
simplicity and ease of use of moments.
Persian Printed Numeral Characters Recognition Using Geometrical Central Moments and Fuzzy Min-Max Neural Network
In this paper, a new proposed system for Persian
printed numeral characters recognition with emphasis on
representation and recognition stages is introduced. For the first time,
in Persian optical character recognition, geometrical central moments
as character image descriptor and fuzzy min-max neural network for
Persian numeral character recognition has been used. Set of different
experiments on binary images of regular, translated, rotated and
scaled Persian numeral characters has been done and variety of
results has been presented. The best result was 99.16% correct
recognition demonstrating geometrical central moments and fuzzy
min-max neural network are adequate for Persian printed numeral
A Normalization-based Robust Watermarking Scheme Using Zernike Moments
Digital watermarking has become an important technique for copyright protection but its robustness against attacks remains a major problem. In this paper, we propose a normalizationbased robust image watermarking scheme. In the proposed scheme, original host image is first normalized to a standard form. Zernike transform is then applied to the normalized image to calculate Zernike moments. Dither modulation is adopted to quantize the magnitudes of Zernike moments according to the watermark bit stream. The watermark extracting method is a blind method. Security analysis and false alarm analysis are then performed. The quality degradation of watermarked image caused by the embedded watermark is visually transparent. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme has very high robustness against various image processing operations and geometric attacks.
A Robust Image Watermarking Scheme using Image Moment Normalization
Multimedia security is an incredibly significant area
of concern. A number of papers on robust digital watermarking have
been presented, but there are no standards that have been defined so
far. Thus multimedia security is still a posing problem. The aim of
this paper is to design a robust image-watermarking scheme, which
can withstand a different set of attacks. The proposed scheme
provides a robust solution integrating image moment normalization,
content dependent watermark and discrete wavelet transformation.
Moment normalization is useful to recover the watermark even in
case of geometrical attacks. Content dependent watermarks are a
powerful means of authentication as the data is watermarked with its
own features. Discrete wavelet transforms have been used as they
describe image features in a better manner. The proposed scheme
finds its place in validating identification cards and financial
FPGA Based Parallel Architecture for the Computation of Third-Order Cross Moments
Higher-order Statistics (HOS), also known as
cumulants, cross moments and their frequency domain counterparts,
known as poly spectra have emerged as a powerful signal processing
tool for the synthesis and analysis of signals and systems. Algorithms
used for the computation of cross moments are computationally
intensive and require high computational speed for real-time
applications. For efficiency and high speed, it is often advantageous
to realize computation intensive algorithms in hardware. A promising
solution that combines high flexibility together with the speed of a
traditional hardware is Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). In
this paper, we present FPGA-based parallel architecture for the
computation of third-order cross moments. The proposed design is
coded in Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware
Description Language (VHDL) and functionally verified by
implementing it on Xilinx Spartan-3 XC3S2000FG900-4 FPGA.
Implementation results are presented and it shows that the proposed
design can operate at a maximum frequency of 86.618 MHz.
Evolving Neural Networks using Moment Method for Handwritten Digit Recognition
This paper proposes a neural network weights and
topology optimization using genetic evolution and the
backpropagation training algorithm. The proposed crossover and
mutation operators aims to adapt the networks architectures and
weights during the evolution process. Through a specific inheritance
procedure, the weights are transmitted from the parents to their
offsprings, which allows re-exploitation of the already trained
networks and hence the acceleration of the global convergence of the
algorithm. In the preprocessing phase, a new feature extraction
method is proposed based on Legendre moments with the Maximum
entropy principle MEP as a selection criterion. This allows a global
search space reduction in the design of the networks. The proposed
method has been applied and tested on the well known MNIST
database of handwritten digits.
Moment Invariants in Image Analysis
This paper aims to present a survey of object
recognition/classification methods based on image moments. We
review various types of moments (geometric moments, complex
moments) and moment-based invariants with respect to various
image degradations and distortions (rotation, scaling, affine
transform, image blurring, etc.) which can be used as shape
descriptors for classification. We explain a general theory how to
construct these invariants and show also a few of them in explicit
forms. We review efficient numerical algorithms that can be used
for moment computation and demonstrate practical examples of
using moment invariants in real applications.
A Content Based Image Watermarking Scheme Resilient to Geometric Attacks
Multimedia security is an incredibly significant area of concern. The paper aims to discuss a robust image watermarking scheme, which can withstand geometric attacks. The source image is initially moment normalized in order to make it withstand geometric attacks. The moment normalized image is wavelet transformed. The first level wavelet transformed image is segmented into blocks if size 8x8. The product of mean and standard and standard deviation of each block is computed. The second level wavelet transformed image is divided into 8x8 blocks. The product of block mean and the standard deviation are computed. The difference between products in the two levels forms the watermark. The watermark is inserted by modulating the coefficients of the mid frequencies. The modulated image is inverse wavelet transformed and inverse moment normalized to generate the watermarked image. The watermarked image is now ready for transmission. The proposed scheme can be used to validate identification cards and financial instruments. The performance of this scheme has been evaluated using a set of parameters. Experimental results show the effectiveness of this scheme.
Palmprint based Cancelable Biometric Authentication System
A cancelable palmprint authentication system
proposed in this paper is specifically designed to overcome the
limitations of the contemporary biometric authentication system. In
this proposed system, Geometric and pseudo Zernike moments are
employed as feature extractors to transform palmprint image into a
lower dimensional compact feature representation. Before moment
computation, wavelet transform is adopted to decompose palmprint
image into lower resolution and dimensional frequency subbands.
This reduces the computational load of moment calculation
drastically. The generated wavelet-moment based feature
representation is used to generate cancelable verification key with a
set of random data. This private binary key can be canceled and
replaced. Besides that, this key also possesses high data capture
offset tolerance, with highly correlated bit strings for intra-class
population. This property allows a clear separation of the genuine
and imposter populations, as well as zero Equal Error Rate
achievement, which is hardly gained in the conventional biometric
based authentication system.