Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 5

5
10005948
An Intelligent Transportation System for Safety and Integrated Management of Railway Crossings
Abstract:

Railway crossings are complex entities whose optimal management cannot be addressed unless with the help of an intelligent transportation system integrating information both on train and vehicular flows. In this paper, we propose an integrated system named SIMPLE (Railway Safety and Infrastructure for Mobility applied at level crossings) that, while providing unparalleled safety in railway level crossings, collects data on rail and road traffic and provides value-added services to citizens and commuters. Such services include for example alerts, via variable message signs to drivers and suggestions for alternative routes, towards a more sustainable, eco-friendly and efficient urban mobility. To achieve these goals, SIMPLE is organized as a System of Systems (SoS), with a modular architecture whose components range from specially-designed radar sensors for obstacle detection to smart ETSI M2M-compliant camera networks for urban traffic monitoring. Computational unit for performing forecast according to adaptive models of train and vehicular traffic are also included. The proposed system has been tested and validated during an extensive trial held in the mid-sized Italian town of Montecatini, a paradigmatic case where the rail network is inextricably linked with the fabric of the city. Results of the tests are reported and discussed.

4
9997995
LIDAR Obstacle Warning and Avoidance System for Unmanned Aircraft
Abstract:

The availability of powerful eye-safe laser sources and the recent advancements in electro-optical and mechanical beam-steering components have allowed laser-based Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) to become a promising technology for obstacle warning and avoidance in a variety of manned and unmanned aircraft applications. LIDAR outstanding angular resolution and accuracy characteristics are coupled to its good detection performance in a wide range of incidence angles and weather conditions, providing an ideal obstacle avoidance solution, which is especially attractive in low-level flying platforms such as helicopters and small-to-medium size Unmanned Aircraft (UA). The Laser Obstacle Avoidance Marconi (LOAM) system is one of such systems, which was jointly developed and tested by SELEX-ES and the Italian Air Force Research and Flight Test Centre. The system was originally conceived for military rotorcraft platforms and, in this paper, we briefly review the previous work and discuss in more details some of the key development activities required for integration of LOAM on UA platforms. The main hardware and software design features of this LOAM variant are presented, including a brief description of the system interfaces and sensor characteristics, together with the system performance models and data processing algorithms for obstacle detection, classification and avoidance. In particular, the paper focuses on the algorithm proposed for optimal avoidance trajectory generation in UA applications.

3
7396
An Advanced Stereo Vision Based Obstacle Detection with a Robust Shadow Removal Technique
Abstract:

This paper presents a robust method to detect obstacles in stereo images using shadow removal technique and color information. Stereo vision based obstacle detection is an algorithm that aims to detect and compute obstacle depth using stereo matching and disparity map. The proposed advanced method is divided into three phases, the first phase is detecting obstacles and removing shadows, the second one is matching and the last phase is depth computing. We propose a robust method for detecting obstacles in stereo images using a shadow removal technique based on color information in HIS space, at the first phase. In this paper we use Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC) function matching with a 5 × 5 window and prepare an empty matching table τ and start growing disparity components by drawing a seed s from S which is computed using canny edge detector, and adding it to τ. In this way we achieve higher performance than the previous works [2,17]. A fast stereo matching algorithm is proposed that visits only a small fraction of disparity space in order to find a semi-dense disparity map. It works by growing from a small set of correspondence seeds. The obstacle identified in phase one which appears in the disparity map of phase two enters to the third phase of depth computing. Finally, experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

2
1945
An Efficient Obstacle Detection Algorithm Using Colour and Texture
Abstract:

This paper presents a new classification algorithm using colour and texture for obstacle detection. Colour information is computationally cheap to learn and process. However in many cases, colour alone does not provide enough information for classification. Texture information can improve classification performance but usually comes at an expensive cost. Our algorithm uses both colour and texture features but texture is only needed when colour is unreliable. During the training stage, texture features are learned specifically to improve the performance of a colour classifier. The algorithm learns a set of simple texture features and only the most effective features are used in the classification stage. Therefore our algorithm has a very good classification rate while is still fast enough to run on a limited computer platform. The proposed algorithm was tested with a challenging outdoor image set. Test result shows the algorithm achieves a much better trade-off between classification performance and efficiency than a typical colour classifier.

1
8452
Development of Autonomous Line-Following Soccer Robots
Abstract:
The main objective of this project is to build an autonomous microcontroller-based mobile robot for a local robot soccer competition. The black competition field is equipped with white lines to serve as the guidance path for competing robots. Two prototypes of soccer robot embedded with the Basic Stamp II microcontroller have been developed. Two servo motors are used as the drive train for the first prototype whereas the second prototype uses two DC motors as its drive train. To sense the lines, lightdependent resistors (LDRs) supply the analog inputs for the microcontroller. The performances of both prototypes are evaluated. The DC motor-driven robot has produced better trajectory control over the one using servo motors and has brought the team into the final round.
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