Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 7

7
10006595
Mathematical Study for Traffic Flow and Traffic Density in Kigali Roads
Abstract:

This work investigates a mathematical study for traffic flow and traffic density in Kigali city roads and the data collected from the national police of Rwanda in 2012. While working on this topic, some mathematical models were used in order to analyze and compare traffic variables. This work has been carried out on Kigali roads specifically at roundabouts from Kigali Business Center (KBC) to Prince House as our study sites. In this project, we used some mathematical tools to analyze the data collected and to understand the relationship between traffic variables. We applied the Poisson distribution method to analyze and to know the number of accidents occurred in this section of the road which is from KBC to Prince House. The results show that the accidents that occurred in 2012 were at very high rates due to the fact that this section has a very narrow single lane on each side which leads to high congestion of vehicles, and consequently, accidents occur very frequently. Using the data of speeds and densities collected from this section of road, we found that the increment of the density results in a decrement of the speed of the vehicle. At the point where the density is equal to the jam density the speed becomes zero. The approach is promising in capturing sudden changes on flow patterns and is open to be utilized in a series of intelligent management strategies and especially in noncurrent congestion effect detection and control.

6
10003289
Classification of Earthquake Distribution in the Banda Sea Collision Zone with Point Process Approach
Abstract:
Banda Sea Collision Zone (BSCZ) is the result of the interaction and convergence of Indo-Australian plate, Eurasian plate and Pacific plate. This location is located in eastern Indonesia. This zone has a very high seismic activity. In this research, we will calculate the rate (λ) and Mean Square Error (MSE). By this result, we will classification earthquakes distribution in the BSCZ with the point process approach. Chi-square is used to determine the type of earthquakes distribution in the sub region of BSCZ. The data used in this research is data of earthquakes with a magnitude ≥ 6 SR for the period 1964-2013 and sourced from BMKG Jakarta. This research is expected to contribute to the Moluccas Province and surrounding local governments in performing spatial plan document related to disaster management.
5
9997509
Statistical Modeling of Constituents in Ash Evolved From Pulverized Coal Combustion
Authors:
Abstract:

Industries using conventional fossil fuels have an  interest in better understanding the mechanism of particulate  formation during combustion since such is responsible for emission  of undesired inorganic elements that directly impact the atmospheric  pollution level. Fine and ultrafine particulates have tendency to  escape the flue gas cleaning devices to the atmosphere. They also  preferentially collect on surfaces in power systems resulting in  ascending in corrosion inclination, descending in the heat transfer  thermal unit, and severe impact on human health. This adverseness  manifests particularly in the regions of world where coal is the  dominated source of energy for consumption.  This study highlights the behavior of calcium transformation as  mineral grains verses organically associated inorganic components  during pulverized coal combustion. The influence of existing type of  calcium on the coarse, fine and ultrafine mode formation mechanisms  is also presented. The impact of two sub-bituminous coals on particle  size and calcium composition evolution during combustion is to be  assessed. Three mixed blends named Blends 1, 2, and 3 are selected  according to the ration of coal A to coal B by weight. Calcium  percentage in original coal increases as going from Blend 1 to 3.  A mathematical model and a new approach of describing  constituent distribution are proposed. Analysis of experiments of  calcium distribution in ash is also modeled using Poisson distribution.  A novel parameter, called elemental index λ, is introduced as a  measuring factor of element distribution.  Results show that calcium in ash that originally in coal as mineral  grains has index of 17, whereas organically associated calcium  transformed to fly ash shown to be best described when elemental  index λ is 7.  As an alkaline-earth element, calcium is considered the  fundamental element responsible for boiler deficiency since it is the  major player in the mechanism of ash slagging process. The  mechanism of particle size distribution and mineral species of ash  particles are presented using CCSEM and size-segregated ash  characteristics. Conclusions are drawn from the analysis of  pulverized coal ash generated from a utility-scale boiler.

 

4
418
A CUSUM Control Chart to Monitor Wafer Quality
Abstract:

C-control chart assumes that process nonconformities follow a Poisson distribution. In actuality, however, this Poisson distribution does not always occur. A process control for semiconductor based on a Poisson distribution always underestimates the true average amount of nonconformities and the process variance. Quality is described more accurately if a compound Poisson process is used for process control at this time. A cumulative sum (CUSUM) control chart is much better than a C control chart when a small shift will be detected. This study calculates one-sided CUSUM ARLs using a Markov chain approach to construct a CUSUM control chart with an underlying Poisson-Gamma compound distribution for the failure mechanism. Moreover, an actual data set from a wafer plant is used to demonstrate the operation of the proposed model. The results show that a CUSUM control chart realizes significantly better performance than EWMA.

3
7715
A Note on Negative Hypergeometric Distribution and Its Approximation
Authors:
Abstract:
In this paper, at first we explain about negative hypergeometric distribution and its properties. Then we use the w-function and the Stein identity to give a result on the poisson approximation to the negative hypergeometric distribution in terms of the total variation distance between the negative hypergeometric and poisson distributions and its upper bound.
2
11942
Nonconforming Control Charts for Zero-Inflated Poisson Distribution
Abstract:

This paper developed the c-Chart based on a Zero- Inflated Poisson (ZIP) processes that approximated by a geometric distribution with parameter p. The p estimated that fit for ZIP distribution used in calculated the mean, median, and variance of geometric distribution for constructed the c-Chart by three difference methods. For cg-Chart, developed c-Chart by used the mean and variance of the geometric distribution constructed control limits. For cmg-Chart, the mean used for constructed the control limits. The cme- Chart, developed control limits of c-Chart from median and variance values of geometric distribution. The performance of charts considered from the Average Run Length and Average Coverage Probability. We found that for an in-control process, the cg-Chart is superior for low level of mean at all level of proportion zero. For an out-of-control process, the cmg-Chart and cme-Chart are the best for mean = 2, 3 and 4 at all level of parameter.

1
10279
ABURAS Index: A Statistically Developed Index for Dengue-Transmitting Vector Population Prediction
Abstract:
“Dengue" is an African word meaning “bone breaking" because it causes severe joint and muscle pain that feels like bones are breaking. It is an infectious disease mainly transmitted by female mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and causes four serotypes of dengue viruses. In recent years, a dramatic increase in the dengue fever confirmed cases around the equator-s belt has been reported. Several conventional indices have been designed so far to monitor the transmitting vector populations known as House Index (HI), Container Index (CI), Breteau Index (BI). However, none of them describes the adult mosquito population size which is important to direct and guide comprehensive control strategy operations since number of infected people has a direct relationship with the vector density. Therefore, it is crucial to know the population size of the transmitting vector in order to design a suitable and effective control program. In this context, a study is carried out to report a new statistical index, ABURAS Index, using Poisson distribution based on the collection of vector population in Jeddah Governorate, Saudi Arabia.
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