Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 30

30
10009842
Managing Multiple Change Projects in Supply Chains: A Case Study of a Moroccan Multi-Technical Services Company
Abstract:
In this paper, we try to address the topic of multiple change management by adopting an engineered research methodology, conducted within a Moroccan company during its implementation of several change projects that aim at improving its supply chain management performance. Firstly, we present the key concepts related to our research, namely change management, multiproject management and supply chain management. Then, we try to assess how the change management and multi-project management are applied in this company. Finally, we try to propose an approach that will help managers in dealing with multiple change projects. This approach proposes to integrate change management, project management and multi-project management for managing change projects according to three organizational levels: executive level, project portfolio level and change project level.
29
10009494
The Effect of Critical Activity on Critical Path and Project Duration in Precedence Diagram Method
Abstract:

The additional relationships i.e., start-to-start, finish-to-finish, and start-to-finish, between activity in Precedence Diagram Method (PDM) provides a more flexible schedule than traditional Critical Path Method (CPM). But, changing the duration of critical activities in the PDM network will have an anomalous effect on the critical path and the project completion date. In this study, we classified the critical activities in two groups i.e., 1. activity on single critical path and 2. activity on multi-critical paths, and six classes i.e., normal, reverse, neutral, perverse, decrease-reverse and increase-normal, based on their effects on project duration in PDM. Furthermore, we determined the maximum float of time by which the duration each type of critical activities can be changed without effecting the project duration. This study would help the project manager to clearly understand the behavior of each critical activity on critical path, and he/she would be able to change the project duration by shortening or lengthening activities based on project budget and project deadline.

28
10009347
Projectification: Using Project Management Methodology to Manage the Academic Program Review
Abstract:
While research is rich with what criteria could be included in the academic program review processes, there is rarely any mention of how this significant and complex process should be managed. This paper proposes using project management methodology in alignment with the program review criteria of the Dickeson’s Prioritizing Academic Programs model. Project management and academic program review share two distinct characteristics; one is their life cycle, and the second is the core knowledge areas they use. This aligned and structured approach offers academic administrators a step-by-step guide that can help them manage this process and effectively assess academic programs.
27
10008537
Systems Engineering and Project Management Process Modeling in the Aeronautics Context: Case Study of SMEs
Abstract:

The aeronautics sector is currently living an unprecedented growth largely due to innovative projects. In several cases, such innovative developments are being carried out by Small and Medium sized-Enterprises (SMEs). For instance, in Europe, a handful of SMEs are leading projects like airships, large civil drones, or flying cars. These SMEs have all limited resources, must make strategic decisions, take considerable financial risks and in the same time must take into account the constraints of safety, cost, time and performance as any commercial organization in this industry. Moreover, today, no international regulations fully exist for the development and certification of this kind of projects. The absence of such a precise and sufficiently detailed regulatory framework requires a very close contact with regulatory instances. But, SMEs do not always have sufficient resources and internal knowledge to handle this complexity and to discuss these issues. This poses additional challenges for those SMEs that have system integration responsibilities and that must provide all the necessary means of compliance to demonstrate their ability to design, produce, and operate airships with the expected level of safety and reliability. The final objective of our research is thus to provide a methodological framework supporting SMEs in their development taking into account recent innovation and institutional rules of the sector. We aim to provide a contribution to the problematic by developing a specific Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) approach. Airspace regulation, aeronautics standards and international norms on systems engineering are taken on board to be formalized in a set of models. This paper presents the on-going research project combining Systems Engineering and Project Management process modeling and taking into account the metamodeling problematic.

26
10008219
Analysis of the Interference from Risk-Determining Factors of Cooperative and Conventional Construction Contracts
Abstract:
As a result of intensive competition, the building sector is suffering from a high degree of rivalry. Furthermore, there can be observed an unbalanced distribution of project risks. Clients are aimed to shift their own risks into the sphere of the constructors or planners. The consequence of this is that the number of conflicts between the involved parties is inordinately high or even increasing; an alternative approach to counter on that developments are cooperative project forms in the construction sector. This research compares conventional contract models and models with partnering agreements to examine the influence on project risks by an early integration of the involved parties. The goal is to show up deviations in different project stages from the design phase to the project transfer phase. These deviations are evaluated by a survey of experts from the three spheres: clients, contractors and planners. By rating the influence of the participants on specific risk factors it is possible to identify factors which are relevant for a smooth project execution.
25
10005974
Promoting Innovation Pedagogy in a Capacity Building Project in Indonesia
Authors:
Abstract:

This study presents a project that tests and adjusts active European learning and teaching methods in Indonesian universities to increase their external impact on enterprises and other organizations; it also assesses the implementation of the Erasmus+ projects funded by the European Union. The project is based on the approach of innovation pedagogy that responds to regional development needs and integrates applied research and development projects into education to create capabilities for students to participate in development work after graduation. The assessment of the Erasmus+ project resulted in many improvements that can be made to achieve higher quality and innovativeness. The results of this study are useful for those who want to improve the applied research and development projects of higher education institutions.

24
10005097
An Improved GA to Address Integrated Formulation of Project Scheduling and Material Ordering with Discount Options
Abstract:
Concurrent planning of the resource constraint project scheduling and material ordering problems have received significant attention within the last decades. Hence, the issue has been investigated here with the aim to minimize total project costs. Furthermore, the presented model considers different discount options in order to approach the real world conditions. The incorporated alternatives consist of all-unit and incremental discount strategies. On the other hand, a modified version of the genetic algorithm is applied in order to solve the model for larger sizes, in particular. Finally, the applicability and efficiency of the given model is tested by different numerical instances.
23
10004405
Managing a Cross-Disciplinary Research Project in a University: The Case of LEARNIT
Abstract:

This paper explores the main issues related to implementing a cross-disciplinary research project (LEARNIT) based on collaboration between universities from three European countries. The paper discusses the importance of using the holistic approach to managing scientific projects with due account for the complicated nature of the educational environment of a modern university. To illustrate this approach, the author describes some actions to be taken for supporting different focus areas of LEARNIT project, in the process using integrated tangible, non-tangible, and semi-tangible resources of the partner university. The methodology of the paper is based on the academic literature and research papers analysis within management discipline. The analysis reported in the paper is also based on the author’s professional experience in the area of managing international research projects in a university.

22
10004241
An Agile, Intelligent and Scalable Framework for Global Software Development
Abstract:

Global Software Development (GSD) is becoming a common norm in software industry, despite of the fact that global distribution of the teams presents special issues for effective communication and coordination of the teams. Now trends are changing and project management for distributed teams is no longer in a limbo. GSD can be effectively established using agile and project managers can use different agile techniques/tools for solving the problems associated with distributed teams. Agile methodologies like scrum and XP have been successfully used with distributed teams. We have employed exploratory research method to analyze different recent studies related to challenges of GSD and their proposed solutions. In our study, we had deep insight in six commonly faced challenges: communication and coordination, temporal differences, cultural differences, knowledge sharing/group awareness, speed and communication tools. We have established that each of these challenges cannot be neglected for distributed teams of any kind. They are interlinked and as an aggregated whole can cause the failure of projects. In this paper we have focused on creating a scalable framework for detecting and overcoming these commonly faced challenges. In the proposed solution, our objective is to suggest agile techniques/tools relevant to a particular problem faced by the organizations related to the management of distributed teams. We focused mainly on scrum and XP techniques/tools because they are widely accepted and used in the industry. Our solution identifies the problem and suggests an appropriate technique/tool to help solve the problem based on globally shared knowledgebase. We can establish a cause and effect relationship using a fishbone diagram based on the inputs provided for issues commonly faced by organizations. Based on the identified cause, suitable tool is suggested, our framework suggests a suitable tool. Hence, a scalable, extensible, self-learning, intelligent framework proposed will help implement and assess GSD to achieve maximum out of it. Globally shared knowledgebase will help new organizations to easily adapt best practices set forth by the practicing organizations.

21
10001052
The Cost of Innovation in Software Development Projects
Abstract:

The paper tackles the topic of determining the cost of innovation in software development projects. Innovation can be achieved either in a planned or unplanned manner. The paper approaches the scenarios were innovation is planned for. As a starting point an innovative software development project is analyzed. The project is depicted step by step as it was implemented, from inception to delivery. Costs that are proprietary to innovation in software development are isolated based on the author’s personal experience in managing the above mentioned project. Innovation costs components identified by the author are then validated using open discussions with software development professionals and projects managers on LinkedIn groups. In order to receive relevant feedback only groups that focus on software development and innovation management are targeted. Additional innovation cost components suggested by software development professionals and projects managers are also considered. Based on the identified cost components an indicator is built. The indicator is meant to formalize the process of determining the cost of innovation in a software development project. The indicator aggregates all the innovation cost components that are identified in the research process. The process of calculating each cost component is also described. Conclusions are formulated and new related research topics are submitted for debate.

20
10005747
Practical Experiences as Part of Project Management Course
Abstract:
Practical experiences have been one of the successful criteria for the Project Management course for the art and design students. There are series of events that the students have to undergo as part of their practical exercises in the learning context for Project Management courses. These series have been divided into few mini programs that involved the whole individual in each group. Therefore, the events have been one of the bench marks for these students. Through the practical experience, the task that has been given to individual has been performed according to the needs of professional practice and ethics.
19
10000838
Understanding Success Factors of an Information Security Management System Plan Phase Self-Implementation
Abstract:

The goal of this study is to identify success factors that could influence the ISMS self-implementation in government sector from qualitative perspective. This study is based on a case study in one of the Malaysian government agency. Semi-structured interviews involving five key informants were conducted to examine factors addressed in the conceptual framework. Subsequently, thematic analysis was executed to describe the influence of each factor on the success implementation of ISMS. The result of this study indicates that management commitment, implementer commitment and implementer competency are part of the success factors for ISMS self-implementation in Malaysian Government Sector.

18
9999643
ERP Implementation in Iran: (A Successful Experience in DGC)
Abstract:

Nowadays, the amounts of companies which tend to have an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) application are increasing. Although ERP projects are expensive, time consuming, and complex, there are some successful experiences. These days, developing countries are striving to implement ERP projects successfully; however, there are many obstacles. Therefore, these projects would be failed or partially failed. This paper concerns the implementation of a successful ERP implementation, IFS, in Iran at Dana Geophysics Company (DGC). After a short review of ERP and ERP market in Iran, we propose a three phases deployment methodology (phase 1: Preparation and Business Process Management (BPM) phase 2: implementation and phase 3: testing, golive-1 (pilot) and golive-2 (final)). Then, we present five guidelines (Project Management, Change Management, Business Process Management (BPM), Training& Knowledge Management, and Technical Management), which were chose as work streams. In this case study we present lessons learned in Project management and Business process Management.

17
9998985
A Case Study of Al-Shifa: A Healthcare Information System in Oman
Abstract:

The case study presents the progression of a project management of Al-Shifa, a healthcare information system in Oman. The case study describes the evolution of the implementation of a healthcare information system tailored to meet the needs of the healthcare units under the supervision of the Ministry of Health (MOH) in Oman. A focus group methodology was used for collecting the relevant information from the main project's stakeholders. In addition reports about the project made available for the researchers. The case analysis is made based on the Project Management approach developed by the Project Management Institute (PMI). The main finding that there was no formal project management approach adopted by the MOH for the development and implementation of the herewith mentioned healthcare information system project. Furthermore, the project had suffered a scope creep in terms of features, cost and time-schedule. The recommendations of the authors, for the rescue of the project from its current dilemma, consist of technological, administrative and human resources development actions.

16
17279
Applications of Building Information Modeling (BIM) in Knowledge Sharing and Management in Construction
Abstract:

Construction knowledge can be referred to and reused among involved project managers and jobsite engineers to alleviate problems on a construction jobsite and reduce the time and cost of solving problems related to constructability. This paper proposes a new methodology to provide sharing of construction knowledge by using the Building Information Modeling (BIM) approach. The main characteristics of BIM include illustrating 3D CAD-based presentations and keeping information in a digital format, and facilitation of easy updating and transfer of information in the 3D BIM environment. Using the BIM approach, project managers and engineers can gain knowledge related to 3D BIM and obtain feedback provided by jobsite engineers for future reference. This study addresses the application of knowledge sharing management in the construction phase of construction projects and proposes a BIM-based Knowledge Sharing Management (BIMKSM) system for project managers and engineers. The BIMKSM system is then applied in a selected case study of a construction project in Taiwan to verify the proposed methodology and demonstrate the effectiveness of sharing knowledge in the BIM environment. The combined results demonstrate that the BIMKSM system can be used as a visual BIM-based knowledge sharing management platform by utilizing the BIM approach and web technology.

15
8333
Project Management Maturity Models and Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3®): A Critical Morphological Evaluation
Abstract:

There exists a strong correlation between efficient project management and competitive advantage for organizations. Therefore, organizations are striving to standardize and assess the rigor of their project management processes and capabilities i.e. project management maturity. Researchers and standardization organizations have developed several project management maturity models (PMMMs) to assess project management maturity of the organizations. This study presents a critical evaluation of some of the leading PMMMs against OPM3® in a multitude of ways to look at which PMMM is the most comprehensive model - which could assess most aspects of organizations and also help the organizations in gaining competitive advantage over competitors. After a detailed morphological analysis of the models, it is concluded that OPM3® is the most promising maturity model that can really provide a competitive advantage to the organizations due to its unique approach of assessment and improvement strategies.

14
11471
Project Management Success for Contractors
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the implementation of Project Management practices by UiTM contractors to ensure project success. A questionnaire survey was administered to 120 UiTM contractors in Malaysia. The purpose of this method was to gather information on the contractors- project background and project management skills. It was found that all of the contractors had basic knowledge and understanding of project management skills. It is suggested that a reasonable project plan and an appropriate organizational structure are influential factors for project success. It is recommended that the contractors need to have an effective program of work and up to date information system are emphasized.
13
14023
Project Management in Student Satellite Projects: A University – Industry Collaboration View
Abstract:

This research contribution propels the idea of collaborating environment for the execution of student satellite projects in the backdrop of project management principles. The recent past has witnessed a technological shift in the aerospace industry from the big satellite projects to the small spacecrafts especially for the earth observation and communication purposes. This vibrant shift has vitalized the academia and industry to share their resources and to create a win-win paradigm of mutual success and technological development along with the human resource development in the field of aerospace. Small student satellites are the latest jargon of academia and more than 100 CUBESAT projects have been executed successfully all over the globe and many new student satellite projects are in the development phase. The small satellite project management requires the application of specific knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to achieve the defined mission requirements. The Authors have presented the detailed outline for the project management of student satellites and presented the role of industry to collaborate with the academia to get the optimized results in academic environment.

12
6341
Scrum as the Method Supporting the Implementation of Knowledge Management in an Organization
Abstract:

Many companies have switched their processes to project-oriented in the last years. This brings new possibilities and effectiveness not only in the field of external processes connected with the product delivery but also the internal processes as well. However centralized project organization which is based on the role of project manager in the team has proved insufficient in some cases. Agile methods of project organization are trying to solve this problem by bringing new view on the project organization, roles, processes and competences. Scrum is one of these methods which builds on the principles of knowledge management to drive the project to effectiveness from all view angles. Using this method to organize internal and delivery projects helps the organization to create and share knowledge throughout the company. It also supports forming unique competences of individuals and project teams and drives innovations in the company.

11
238
A Systematic Review on the Integration of Project Management with Organizational Flows
Abstract:
Software projects are very dynamic and require recurring adjustments of their project plans. These settings can be understood as reconfigurations in the schedule, in the resources allocation and other design elements. Yet, during the planning and execution of a software project, the integration of specific activities in the projects with the activities that take part in the organization-s common activity flow should be considered. This article presents the results from a systematic review of aspects related to software projects- dynamic reconfiguration emphasizing the integration of project management with the organizational flows. A series of studies was analyzed from the year 2000 to the present. The results of this work show that there is a diversity of techniques and strategies for dynamic reconfiguration of software projects-. However, few approaches consider the integration of software project activities with the activities that take part in the organization-s common workflow.
10
6959
Study of the Effect of Project Management on Manufacturing and Production Projects
Abstract:
In this article the accumulated results out of the effects and length of the manufacture and production projects in the university and research standard have been settled with the usefulness definition of the process of project management for the accessibility to the proportional pattern in the “time and action" stages. Studies show that many problems confronted by the researchers in these projects are connected to the non-profiting of: 1) autonomous timing for gathering the educational theme, 2) autonomous timing for planning and pattern, presenting before the construction, and 3) autonomous timing for manufacture and sample presentation from the output. The result of this study indicates the division of every manufacture and production projects into three smaller autonomous projects from its kind, budget and autonomous expenditure, shape and order of the stages for the management of these kinds of projects. In this case study real result are compared with theoretical results.
9
5253
Development of a Support Tool for Cost and Schedule Integration Managment at Program Level
Abstract:

There has been gradual progress of late in construction projects, particularly in big-scale megaprojects. Due to the long-term construction period, however, with large-scale budget investment, lack of construction management technologies, and increase in the incomplete elements of project schedule management, a plan to conduct efficient operations and to ensure business safety is required. In particular, as the project management information system (PMIS) is meant for managing a single project centering on the construction phase, there is a limitation in the management of program-scale businesses like megaprojects. Thus, a program management information system (PgMIS) that includes program-level management technologies is needed to manage multiple projects. In this study, a support tool was developed for managing the cost and schedule information occurring in the construction phase, at the program level. In addition, a case study on the developed support tool was conducted to verify the usability of the system. With the use of the developed support tool program, construction managers can monitor the progress of the entire project and of the individual subprojects in real time.

8
4965
Financing - Scheduling Optimization for Construction Projects by using Genetic Algorithms
Abstract:
Investment in a constructed facility represents a cost in the short term that returns benefits only over the long term use of the facility. Thus, the costs occur earlier than the benefits, and the owners of facilities must obtain the capital resources to finance the costs of construction. A project cannot proceed without an adequate financing, and the cost of providing an adequate financing can be quite large. For these reasons, the attention to the project finance is an important aspect of project management. Finance is also a concern to the other organizations involved in a project such as the general contractor and material suppliers. Unless an owner immediately and completely covers the costs incurred by each participant, these organizations face financing problems of their own. At a more general level, the project finance is the only one aspect of the general problem of corporate finance. If numerous projects are considered and financed together, then the net cash flow requirements constitute the corporate financing problem for capital investment. Whether project finance is performed at the project or at the corporate level does not alter the basic financing problem .In this paper, we will first consider facility financing from the owner's perspective, with due consideration for its interaction with other organizations involved in a project. Later, we discuss the problems of construction financing which are crucial to the profitability and solvency of construction contractors. The objective of this paper is to present the steps utilized to determine the best combination of minimum project financing. The proposed model considers financing; schedule and maximum net area .The proposed model is called Project Financing and Schedule Integration using Genetic Algorithms "PFSIGA". This model intended to determine more steps (maximum net area) for any project with a subproject. An illustrative example will demonstrate the feature of this technique. The model verification and testing are put into consideration.
7
11873
Project Risk Management Techniques in Resource Allocation, Scheduling and Planning
Abstract:
Normally business changes are made in order to change a level of activity in some way, whether it is sales, cash flow, productivity, or product portfolio. When attempts are made to make such changes, too often the business reverts to the old levels of activity as soon as management attention is diverted. Risk management is a field of growing interest to project managers as well as in general business and organizational management. There are several approaches used to manage risk in projects and this paper is a brief outline of some that you might encounter, with an indication of their strengths and weaknesses.
6
11106
Development of Web-based Teams Management System in Construction
Authors:
Abstract:

Construction project control attempts to obtain real-time information and effectively enhance dynamic control and management via information sharing and analysis among project participants to eliminate construction conflicts and project delays. However, survey results for Taiwan indicate that construction commercial project management software is not widely accepted for subcontractors and suppliers. To solve the project communications problems among participants, this study presents a novel system called the Construction Dynamic Teams Communication Management (Con-DTCM) system for small-to-medium sized subcontractors and suppliers in Taiwanese Construction industry, and demonstrates that the Con-DTCM system responds to the most recent project information efficiently and enhances management of project teams (general contractor, suppliers and subcontractors) through web-based environment. Web-based technology effectively enhances information sharing during construction project management, and generates cost savings via the Internet. The main unique characteristic of the proposed Con-DTCM system is extremely user friendly and easily design compared with current commercial project management applications. The Con-DTCM system is applied to a case study of construction of a building project in Taiwan to confirm the proposed methodology and demonstrate the effectiveness of information sharing during the construction phase. The advantages of the Con-DTCM system are in improving project control and management efficiency for general contractors, and in providing dynamic project tracking and management, which enables subcontractors and suppliers to acquire the most recent project-related information. Furthermore, this study presents and implements a generic system architecture.

5
15740
Time-Cost-Quality Trade-off Software by using Simplified Genetic Algorithm for Typical Repetitive Construction Projects
Abstract:

Time-Cost Optimization "TCO" is one of the greatest challenges in construction project planning and control, since the optimization of either time or cost, would usually be at the expense of the other. Since there is a hidden trade-off relationship between project and cost, it might be difficult to predict whether the total cost would increase or decrease as a result of the schedule compression. Recently third dimension in trade-off analysis is taken into consideration that is quality of the projects. Few of the existing algorithms are applied in a case of construction project with threedimensional trade-off analysis, Time-Cost-Quality relationships. The objective of this paper is to presents the development of a practical software system; that named Automatic Multi-objective Typical Construction Resource Optimization System "AMTCROS". This system incorporates the basic concepts of Line Of Balance "LOB" and Critical Path Method "CPM" in a multi-objective Genetic Algorithms "GAs" model. The main objective of this system is to provide a practical support for typical construction planners who need to optimize resource utilization in order to minimize project cost and duration while maximizing its quality simultaneously. The application of these research developments in planning the typical construction projects holds a strong promise to: 1) Increase the efficiency of resource use in typical construction projects; 2) Reduce construction duration period; 3) Minimize construction cost (direct cost plus indirect cost); and 4) Improve the quality of newly construction projects. A general description of the proposed software for the Time-Cost-Quality Trade-Off "TCQTO" is presented. The main inputs and outputs of the proposed software are outlined. The main subroutines and the inference engine of this software are detailed. The complexity analysis of the software is discussed. In addition, the verification, and complexity of the proposed software are proved and tested using a real case study.

4
8018
Six Sigma Process and its Impact on the Organizational Productivity
Abstract:

The six sigma method is a project-driven management approach to improve the organization-s products, services, and processes by continually reducing defects in the organization. Understanding the key features, obstacles, and shortcomings of the six sigma method allows organizations to better support their strategic directions, and increasing needs for coaching, mentoring, and training. It also provides opportunities to better implement six sigma projects. The purpose of this paper is the survey of six sigma process and its impact on the organizational productivity. So I have studied key concepts , problem solving process of six sigmaas well as the survey of important fields such as: DMAIC, six sigma and productivity applied programme, and other advantages of six sigma. In the end of this paper, present research conclusions. (direct and positive relation between six sigma and productivity)

3
13188
Iterative Way to Acquire Information Technology for Defense and Aerospace
Abstract:
Defense and Aerospace environment is continuously striving to keep up with increasingly sophisticated Information Technology (IT) in order to remain effective in today-s dynamic and unpredictable threat environment. This makes IT one of the largest and fastest growing expenses of Defense. Hundreds of millions of dollars spent a year on IT projects. But, too many of those millions are wasted on costly mistakes. Systems that do not work properly, new components that are not compatible with old ones, trendy new applications that do not really satisfy defense needs or lost through poorly managed contracts. This paper investigates and compiles the effective strategies that aim to end exasperation with low returns and high cost of Information Technology acquisition for defense; it tries to show how to maximize value while reducing time and expenditure.
2
2913
Potential of GIS to Find Solutions to Space Related Problems in Construction Industry
Authors:
Abstract:
Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computerbased tool used extensively to solve various engineering problems related to spatial data. In spite of growing popularity of GIS, its complete potential to construction industry has not been realized. In this paper, the summary of up-to-date work on spatial applications of GIS technologies in construction industry is presented. GIS technologies have the potential to solve space related problems of construction industry involving complex visualization, integration of information, route planning, E-commerce, cost estimation, etc. GISbased methodology to handle time and space issues of construction projects scheduling is developed and discussed in this paper.
1
7847
Flexible Heuristics for Project Scheduling with Limited Resources
Authors:
Abstract:
Resource-constrained project scheduling is an NPhard optimisation problem. There are many different heuristic strategies how to shift activities in time when resource requirements exceed their available amounts. These strategies are frequently based on priorities of activities. In this paper, we assume that a suitable heuristic has been chosen to decide which activities should be performed immediately and which should be postponed and investigate the resource-constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP) from the implementation point of view. We propose an efficient routine that, instead of shifting the activities, extends their duration. It makes it possible to break down their duration into active and sleeping subintervals. Then we can apply the classical Critical Path Method that needs only polynomial running time. This algorithm can simply be adapted for multiproject scheduling with limited resources.

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