Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 20

Experimental Characterization of the Thermal Behavior of a Sawdust Mortar

Currently, the reduction of energy consumption, through the use of abundant and recyclable natural materials, for better thermal insulation represents an important area of research. To this end, the use of bio-sourced materials has been identified as one of the green sectors with a very high economic development potential for the future. Because of its role in reducing the consumption of fossil-based raw materials, it contributes significantly to the storage of atmospheric carbon, limits greenhouse gas emissions and creates new economic opportunities. This study constitutes a contribution to the elaboration and the experimental characterization of the thermal behavior of a sawdust-reduced mortar matrix. We have taken into account the influence of the size of the grain fibers of sawdust, hence the use of three different ranges and also different percentage in the different confections. The intended practical application consists of producing a light weight compound at a lower cost to ensure a better thermal and acoustic behavior compared to that existing in the field, in addition to the desired resistances. Improving energy performance, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the building sector, is amongst the objectives to be achieved. The results are very encouraging and highlight the value of the proposed design of organic-source mortar panels which have specific mechanical properties acceptable for their use, low densities, lower cost of manufacture and labor, and above all a positive impact on the environment.

Uvulars Alternation in Hasawi Arabic: A Harmonic Serialism Approach

This paper investigates a phonological phenomenon, which exhibits variation ‘alternation’ in terms of the uvular consonants [q] and [ʁ] in Hasawi Arabic. This dialect is spoken in Alahsa city, which is located in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. To the best of our knowledge, no such research has systematically studied this phenomenon in Hasawi Arabic dialect. This paper is significant because it fills the gap in the literature about this alternation phenomenon in this understudied dialect. A large amount of the data is extracted from several interviews the author has conducted with 10 participants, native speakers of the dialect, and complemented by additional forms from social media. The latter method of collecting the data adds to the significance of the research. The analysis of the data is carried out in Harmonic Serialism Optimality Theory (HS-OT), a version of the Optimality Theoretic (OT) framework, which holds that linguistic forms are the outcome of the interaction among violable universal constraints, and in the recent development of OT into a model that accounts for linguistic variation in harmonic derivational steps. This alternation process is assumed to be phonologically unconditioned and in free variation in other varieties of Arabic dialects in the area. The goal of this paper is to investigate whether this phenomenon is in free variation or governed, what governs this alternation between [q] and [ʁ] and whether the alternation is phonological or other linguistic constraints are in action. The results show that the [q] and [ʁ] alternation is not free and it occurs due to different assimilation processes. Positional, segmental sequence and vowel adjacency factors are in action in Hasawi Arabic.

Characterization of Two Hybrid Welding Techniques on SA 516 Grade 70 Weldments

Commercially SA 516 Grade 70 is frequently used for the manufacturing of pressure vessels, boilers and storage tanks etc. in fabrication industry. Heat input is the major parameter during welding that may bring significant changes in the microstructure as well as the mechanical properties. Different welding technique has different heat input rate per unit surface area. Materials with large thickness are dealt with different combination of welding techniques to achieve required mechanical properties. In the present research two schemes: Scheme 1: SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding) & GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) and Scheme 2: SMAW & SAW (Submerged Arc Welding) of hybrid welding techniques have been studied. The purpose of these schemes was to study hybrid welding effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the weldment, heat affected zone and base metal area. It is significant to note that the thickness of base plate was 12 mm, also welding conditions and parameters were set according to ASME Section IX. It was observed that two different hybrid welding techniques performed on two different plates demonstrated that the mechanical properties of both schemes are more or less similar. It means that the heat input, welding techniques and varying welding operating conditions & temperatures did not make any detrimental effect on the mechanical properties. Hence, the hybrid welding techniques mentioned in the present study are favorable to implicate for the industry using the plate thickness around 12 mm thick.

MCDM Spectrum Handover Models for Cognitive Wireless Networks
Spectrum handover is a significant topic in the cognitive radio networks to assure an efficient data transmission in the cognitive radio user’s communications. This paper proposes a comparison between three spectrum handover models: VIKOR, SAW and MEW. Four evaluation metrics are used. These metrics are, accumulative average of failed handover, accumulative average of handover performed, accumulative average of transmission bandwidth and, accumulative average of the transmission delay. As a difference with related work, the performance of the three spectrum handover models was validated with captured data of spectrum occupancy in experiments performed at the GSM frequency band (824 MHz - 849 MHz). These data represent the actual behavior of the licensed users for this wireless frequency band. The results of the comparison show that VIKOR Algorithm provides a 15.8% performance improvement compared to SAW Algorithm and, it is 12.1% better than the MEW Algorithm.
The Effects of Wood Ash on Ignition Point of Wood
The effects of wood ash from five common tropical woods on the ignition point of four common tropical woods in Nigeria were investigated. The ash and moisture contents of the wood sawdust from Mahogany (Khaya ivorensis), Opepe (Sarcocephalus latifolius), Abura (Mitragyna ciliata), Rubber (Heavea brasilensis) and Poroporo (Sorghum bicolour) used, were determined using a furnace (Vecstar furnaces, model ECF2, serial no. f3077) and oven (Genlab laboratory oven, model MINO/040) respectively. The metal contents of the five wood sawdust ash samples were determined using a Perkin Elmer optima 3000 dv atomic absorption spectrometer while the ignition points were determined using Vecstar furnaces model ECF2. Poroporo had the highest ash content, 2.263g while rubber had the least, 0.710g. The results for the moisture content range from 2.971g to 0.903g. Magnesium metal had the highest concentration of all the metals, in all the wood ash samples; with mahogany ash having the highest concentration, 9.196ppm while rubber ash had the least concentration of magnesium metal, 2.196 ppm. The ignition point results showed that the wood ashes from mahogany and opepe increased the ignition points of the test wood samples, Danta (Nesogordonia papaverifera), Ekpaya, Akomu (Pycnanthus angolensis) and Oleku when coated on them while the ashes from poroporo, rubber and abura decreased the ignition points of the test wood samples when coated on them. However, Opepe saw dust ash decreased the ignition point in one of the test wood samples, suggesting that the metal content of the test wood sample was more than that of the Opepe saw dust ash. Therefore, Mahogany and Opepe saw dust ashes could be used in the surface treatment of wood to enhance their fire resistance or retardancy. However, the caution to be exercised in this application is that the metal content of the test wood samples should be evaluated as well.
Experimental Study on Slicing of Sapphire with Fixed Abrasive Diamond Wire Saw

Experimental study on slicing of sapphire with fixed abrasive diamond wire saw was conducted in this paper. The process parameters were optimized through orthogonal experiment of three factors and four levels. The effects of wire speed, feed speed and tension pressure on the surface roughness were analyzed. Surface roughness in cutting direction and feed direction were both detected. The results show that feed speed plays the most significant role on the surface roughness of sliced sapphire followed by wire speed and tension pressure. The optimized process parameters are as follows: wire speed 1.9 m/s, feed speed 0.187 mm/min and tension pressure 0.18 MPa. In the end, the results were verified by analysis of variance.

Quality Properties of Fermented Mugworts and Rapid Pattern Analysis of Their Volatile Flavor Components by Electric Nose Based On SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) Sensor in GC System

The changes in quality properties and nutritional components in two fermented mugworts (Artemisia capillaries Thumberg, Artemisiaeasiaticae Nakai) were characterized followed by the rapid pattern analysis of volatile flavor compounds by Electric Nose based on SAW(Surface Acoustic Wave) sensor in GC system. There were remarkable decreases in the pH and small changes in the total soluble solids after fermentation. The L (lightness) and b (yellowness) values in Hunter's color system were shown to be decreased, whilst the a (redness) value was increased by fermentation. The HPLC analysis demonstrated that total amino acids were increased in quantity and the essential amino acids were contained higher in A. asiaticaeNakai than in A. capillaries Thumberg. While the total polyphenol contents were not affected by fermentation, the total sugar contents were dramatically decreased. Scopoletinwere highly abundant in A. capillarisThumberg, however, it was not detected in A. asiaticaeNakai. Volatile flavor compounds by Electric Nose showed that the intensity of several peaks were increased much and seven additional flavor peaks were newly produced after fermentation. The flavor differences of two mugworts were clearly distinguished from the image patterns of VaporPrintTM which indicate that the fermentation enables the two mugworts to have subtle flavor differences.

Development of Better Quality Low-Cost Activated Carbon from South African Pine Tree (Pinus patula) Sawdust: Characterization and Comparative Phenol Adsorption

The remediation of water resources pollution in developing countries requires the application of alternative sustainable cheaper and efficient end-of-pipe wastewater treatment technologies. The feasibility of use of South African cheap and abundant pine tree (Pinus patula) sawdust for development of lowcost AC of comparable quality to expensive commercial ACs in the abatement of water pollution was investigated. AC was developed at optimized two-stage N2-superheated steam activation conditions in a fixed bed reactor, and characterized for proximate and ultimate properties, N2-BET surface area, pore size distribution, SEM, pHPZC and FTIR. The sawdust pyrolysis activation energy was evaluated by TGA. Results indicated that the chars prepared at 800oC and 2hrs were suitable for development of better quality AC at 800oC and 47% burn-off having BET surface area (1086m2/g), micropore volume (0.26cm3/g), and mesopore volume (0.43cm3/g) comparable to expensive commercial ACs, and suitable for water contaminants removal. The developed AC showed basic surface functionality at pHPZC at 10.3, and a phenol adsorption capacity that was higher than that of commercial Norit (RO 0.8) AC. Thus, it is feasible to develop better quality low-cost AC from (Pinus patula) sawdust using twostage N2-steam activation in fixed-bed reactor.

Thermo-Elastic Properties of Artificial Limestone Bricks with Wood Sawdust

In this study, artificial limestone brick samples are produced by using wood sawdust wastes (WSW) having different grades of sizes and limestone powder waste (LPW). The thermo-elastic properties of produced brick samples in various WSW amounts are investigated. At 30% WSW replacement with LPW in the brick sample the thermal conductivity value is effectively reduced and the reduction in the thermal conductivity value of brick sample at 30% WSW replacement with LPW is about 38.9% as compared with control sample. The energy conservation in buildings by using LPW and WSW in masonry brick material production having low thermal conductivity reduces energy requirements. A strong relationship is also found among the thermal conductivity, unit weight and ultrasonic pulse velocity values of brick samples produced. It shows a potential to be used for walls, wooden board substitute, alternative to the concrete blocks, ceiling panels, sound barrier panels, absorption materials etc.

Morphology of Machined Surfaces from Electro Discharge Sawing and Sinking Electro Discharge Machining
Electro Discharge Sawing is a hybrid process combining the features of SEDM and ECM. Its major characteristic is extremely fast erosion rate compare to either of the above processes. This paper brings out its relative feature of SEDM and EDS about their erosion rates, surface roughness, and morphology of machined surfaces.
Fuzzy Numbers and MCDM Methods for Portfolio Optimization
A new deployment of the multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) techniques: the Simple Additive Weighting (SAW), and the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) for portfolio allocation, is demonstrated in this paper. Rather than exclusive reference to mean and variance as in the traditional mean-variance method, the criteria used in this demonstration are the first four moments of the portfolio distribution. Each asset is evaluated based on its marginal impacts to portfolio higher moments that are characterized by trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. Then centroid-based defuzzification is applied to convert fuzzy numbers to the crisp numbers by which SAW and TOPSIS can be deployed. Experimental results suggest the similar efficiency of these MCDM approaches to selecting dominant assets for an optimal portfolio under higher moments. The proposed approaches allow investors flexibly adjust their risk preferences regarding higher moments via different schemes adapting to various (from conservative to risky) kinds of investors. The other significant advantage is that, compared to the mean-variance analysis, the portfolio weights obtained by SAW and TOPSIS are consistently well-diversified.
Effect of Electric Field Amplitude on Electrical Fatigue Behavior of Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramic
Fatigue behaviors of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramics under different amplitude of bipolar electrical loads have been investigated. Fatigue behavior is represented by the change of hysteresis loops and remnant polarization. Three levels of electrical load amplitudes (1.00, 1.25 and 1.50 kV /mm) were applied in this experimental. It was found that the remnant polarization decreased significantly with the number of loading cycles. The degree of fatigue degradation depends on the amplitude of electric field. The higher amplitude exhibits the greater fatigue degradation.
Effect of Adding Sawdust on Mechanical- Physical Properties of Ceramic Bricks to Obtain Lightweight Building Material
This paper studies the application of a variety of sawdust materials in the production of lightweight insulating bricks. First, the mineralogical and chemical composition of clays was determined. Next, ceramic bricks were fabricated with different quantities of materials (3–6 and 9 wt. % for sawdust, 65 wt. % for grey clay, 24–27 and 30 wt. % for yellow clay and 2 wt% of tuff). These bricks were fired at 800 and 950 °C. The effect of adding this sawdust on the technological behaviour of the brick was assessed by drying and firing shrinkage, water absorption, porosity, bulk density and compressive strength. The results have shown that the optimum sintering temperature is 950 °C. Below this temperature, at 950 °C, increased open porosity was observed, which decreased the compressive strength of the bricks. Based on the results obtained, the optimum amounts of waste were 9 wt. % sawdust of eucalyptus, 24 wt. % shaping moisture and 1.6 particle size diameter. These percentages produced bricks whose mechanical properties were suitable for use as secondary raw materials in ceramic brick production.
Traveling Wave Solutions for the Sawada-Kotera-Kadomtsev-Petviashivili Equation and the Bogoyavlensky-Konoplechenko Equation by (G'/G)- Expansion Method

This paper presents a new function expansion method for finding traveling wave solutions of a nonlinear equations and calls it the G G -expansion method, given by Wang et al recently. As an application of this new method, we study the well-known Sawada-Kotera-Kadomtsev-Petviashivili equation and Bogoyavlensky-Konoplechenko equation. With two new expansions, general types of soliton solutions and periodic solutions for these two equations are obtained.

Analysis and Remediation of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Pollution in Selected Surface Water Bodies of Enugu State of Nigeria
The assessment of surface waters in Enugu metropolis for fecal coliform bacteria was undertaken. Enugu urban was divided into three areas (A1, A2 and A3), and fecal coliform bacteria analysed in the surface waters found in these areas for four years (2005-2008). The plate count method was used for the analyses. Data generated were subjected to statistical tests involving; Normality test, Homogeneity of variance test, correlation test, and tolerance limit test. The influence of seasonality and pollution trends were investigated using time series plots. Results from the tolerance limit test at 95% coverage with 95% confidence, and with respect to EU maximum permissible concentration show that the three areas suffer from fecal coliform pollution. To this end, remediation procedure involving the use of saw-dust extracts from three woods namely; Chlorophora-Excelsa (C-Excelsa),Khayan-Senegalensis,(CSenegalensis) and Erythrophylum-Ivorensis (E-Ivorensis) in controlling the coliforms was studied. Results show that mixture of the acetone extracts of the woods show the most effective antibacterial inhibitory activities (26.00mm zone of inhibition) against E-coli. Methanol extract mixture of the three woods gave best inhibitory activity (26.00mm zone of inhibition) against S-areus, and 25.00mm zones of inhibition against E-Aerogenes. The aqueous extracts mixture gave acceptable zones of inhibitions against the three bacteria organisms.
Preparation and Some Mechanical Properties of Composite Materials Made from Sawdust, Cassava Starch and Natural Rubber Latex

The composite materials were prepared by sawdust, cassava starch and natural rubber latex (NR). The mixtures of 15%w/v gelatinized cassava starch and 15%w/v PVOH were used as the binder of these composite materials. The concentrated rubber latex was added to the mixtures. They were mixed rigorously to the treated sawdust in the ratio of 70:30 until achive uniform dispersion. The batters were subjected to the hot compression moulding at the temperature of 160°C and 3,000 psi pressure for 5 min. The experimental results showed that the mechanical properties of composite materials, which contained the gelatinized cassava starch and PVOH in the ratio of 2:1, 20% NR latex by weight of the dry starch and treated sawdust with 5%NaOH or 1% BPO, were the best. It contributed the maximal compression strength (341.10 + 26.11 N), puncture resistance (8.79 + 0.98 N/mm2) and flexural strength (3.99 + 0.72N/mm2). It is also found that the physicochemical and mechanical properties of composites strongly depends on the interface quality of sawdust, cassava starch and NR latex.

Fabrication and Characterization of Sawdust Composite Biodegradable Film
This report shows the performance of composite biodegradable film from chitosan, starch and sawdust fiber. The main objectives of this research are to fabricate and characterize composite biodegradable film in terms of morphology and physical properties. The film was prepared by casting method. Sawdust fiber was used as reinforcing agent and starch as polymer matrix in the casting solution. The morphology of the film was characterized using atomic force microscope (AFM). The result showed that the film has smooth structure. Chemical composition of the film was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) where the result revealed present of starch in the film. The thermal properties were characterized using thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) where the results showed that the film has small difference in melting and degradation temperature.
Genetic-based Anomaly Detection in Logs of Process Aware Systems
Nowaday-s, many organizations use systems that support business process as a whole or partially. However, in some application domains, like software development and health care processes, a normative Process Aware System (PAS) is not suitable, because a flexible support is needed to respond rapidly to new process models. On the other hand, a flexible Process Aware System may be vulnerable to undesirable and fraudulent executions, which imposes a tradeoff between flexibility and security. In order to make this tradeoff available, a genetic-based anomaly detection model for logs of Process Aware Systems is presented in this paper. The detection of an anomalous trace is based on discovering an appropriate process model by using genetic process mining and detecting traces that do not fit the appropriate model as anomalous trace; therefore, when used in PAS, this model is an automated solution that can support coexistence of flexibility and security.
A SAW-less Dual-Band CDMA Diversity and Simultaneous-GPS Zero-IF Receiver
We present a dual-band (Cellular & PCS) dual-path zero-IF receiver for CDMA2000 diversity, monitoring and simultaneous-GPS. The secondary path is a SAW-less diversity CDMA receiver which can be also used for advanced features like monitoring when supported with an additional external VCO. A GPS receiver is integrated with its dedicated VCO allowing simultaneous positioning during a cellular call. The circuit is implemented in a 0.25μm 40GHz-fT BiCMOS process and uses a HVQFN 56-pin package. It consumes a maximum 300mW from a 2.8V supply in dual-modes. The chip area is 12.8mm2.
Analysis of Wave Propagation in Two-dimensional Phononic Crystals with Hollow Cylinders
Large full frequency band gaps of surface and bulk acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic band structures with hollow cylinders are addressed in this paper. It is well-known that absolute frequency band gaps are difficultly obtained in a band structure consisted of low-acoustic-impedance cylinders in high-acoustic-impedance host materials such as PMMA/Ni band structures. Phononic band structures with hollow cylinders are analyzed and discussed to obtain large full frequency band gaps not only for bulk modes but also for surface modes. The tendency of absolute frequency band gaps of surface and bulk acoustic waves is also addressed by changing the inner radius of hollow cylinders in this paper. The technique and this kind of band structure are useful for tuning the frequency band gaps and the design of acoustic waveguides.
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