Water Resources Crisis in Saudi Arabia, Challenges and Possible Management Options: An Analytic Review
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is heading towards a severe and rapidly expanding water crisis, which can have negative impacts on the country’s environment and economy. Of the total water consumption in KSA, the agricultural sector accounts for nearly 87% of the total water use and, therefore, any attempt that overlooks this sector will not help in improving the sustainability of the country’s water resources. KSA Vision 2030 gives priority of water use in the agriculture sector for the regions that have natural renewable water resources. It means that there is little concern for making reuse of municipal wastewater for irrigation purposes in any region in general and in water-scarce regions in particular. The use of treated wastewater is very limited in Saudi Arabia, but it has very considerable potential for future expansion due its numerous beneficial uses. This study reviews the current situation of water resources in Saudi Arabia, providing more highlights on agriculture and wastewater reuse. The reviewed study is proposing some corrective measures for development and better management of water resources in the Kingdom. Suggestions also include consideration of treated water as an alternative source for irrigation in some regions of the country. The study concluded that a sustainable solution for the water crisis in KSA requires implementation of multiple measures in an integrated manner. The integrated solution plan should focus on two main directions: first, improving the current management practices of the existing water resources; second, developing new water supplies from both conventional and non-conventional sources.
Students’ Perceptions of the Use of Social Media in Higher Education in Saudi Arabia
This paper examined the attitudes of using social media tools to support learning at a university in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, it investigated the students’ current usage of these tools and examined the barriers they could face during the use of social media tools in the education process. Participants in this study were 42 university students. A web-based survey was used to collect data for this study. The results indicate that all of the students were familiar with social media and had used at least one type of social media for learning. It was found out that all students had very positive attitudes towards the use of social media and welcomed using these tools as a supplementary to the curriculum. However, the results indicated that the major barriers to using these tools in learning were distraction, opposing Islamic religious teachings, privacy issues, and cyberbullying. The study recommended that this study could be replicated at other Saudi universities to investigate factors and barriers that might affect Saudi students’ attitudes toward using social media to support learning.
Development of a Roadmap for Assessment the Sustainability of Buildings in Saudi Arabia Using Building Information Modeling
Achieving environmental sustainability is one of the important issues considered in many countries’ vision. Green/Sustainable building is widely used terminology for describing a friendly environmental construction. Applying sustainable practices has a significant importance in various fields, including construction field that consumes an enormous amount of resource and causes a considerable amount of waste. The need for sustainability is increased in the regions that suffering from the limitation of natural resource and extreme weather conditions such as Saudi Arabia. Since buildings designs are getting sophisticated, the need for tools, which support decision-making for sustainability issues, is increasing, especially in the design and preconstruction stages. In this context, Building Information Modeling (BIM) can aid in performing complex building performance analyses to ensure an optimized sustainable building design. Accordingly, this paper introduces a roadmap towards developing a systematic approach for presenting the sustainability of buildings using BIM. The approach includes set of main processes including; identifying the sustainability parameters that can be used for sustainability assessment in Saudi Arabia, developing sustainability assessment method that fits the special circumstances in the Kingdom, identifying the sustainability requirements and BIM functions that can be used for satisfying these requirements, and integrating these requirements with identified functions. As a result, the sustainability-BIM approach can be developed which helps designers in assessing the sustainability and exploring different design alternatives at the early stage of the construction project.
Toward Sustainable Building Design in Hot and Arid Climate with Reference to Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia
One of the most common and traditional strategies in architecture is to design buildings passively. This is a way to ensure low building energy reliance with respect to specific micro-building locations. There are so many ways where buildings can be designed passively, some of which are applying thermal insulation, thermal mass, courtyard and glazing to wall ratio. This research investigates the impact of each of these aspects with respect to the hot and dry climate of the capital of Riyadh. Thermal Analysis Simulation (TAS) will be utilized which is powered by Environmental Design Simulation Limited company (EDSL). It is considered as one of the most powerful tools to predict energy performance in buildings. There are three primary building designs and methods which are using courtyard, thermal mass and thermal insulation. The same building size and fabrication properties have been applied to all designs. Riyadh city which is the capital of the country was taken as a case study of the research. The research has taken into account various zone directions within the building as it has a large contribution to indoor energy and thermal performance. It is revealed that it is possible to achieve nearly zero carbon building in the hot and dry region in winter with minimum reliance on energy loads for building zones facing south, west and east. Moreover, using courtyard is more beneficial than applying construction materials into building envelope. Glazing to wall ratio is recommended to be 10% and not exceeding 30% in all directions in hot and arid regions.
MGAUM—Towards a Mobile Government Adoption and Utilization Model: The Case of Saudi Arabia
This paper presents a proposal for a mobile government
adoption and utilization model (MGAUM), which is a framework
designed to increase the adoption rate of m-government services
in Saudi Arabia. Recent advances in mobile technologies such are
Mobile compatibilities, The development of wireless communication,
mobile applications and devices are enabling governments to
deliver services in new ways to citizens more efficiently and
economically. In the last decade, many governments around the
globe are utilizing these advances effectively to develop their next
generation of e-government services. However, a low adoption rate of
m-government services by citizens is a common problem in Arabian
countries, including Saudi Arabia. Yet, to our knowledge, very little
research has been conducted focused on understanding the factors
that influence citizen adoption of these m-government services in
this part of the world. A set of social, cultural and technological
factors have been identified in the literature, which has led to the
formulation of associated research questions and hypotheses. These
hypotheses will be tested on Saudi citizens using questionnaires and
interview methods based around the technology acceptance model.
A key objective of the MGAUM framework is to investigate and
understand Saudi citizens perception towards adoption and utilization
of m-government services.
Measuring Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points Implementation in Riyadh Hospitals
Daily provision of high quality food and hygiene to patients is a challenging goal of the healthcare. In Saudi Arabia, matters related to food safety and hygiene are regulated by the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Saudi Food and Drugs Authority (SFDA). The purpose of this research is to discuss the food safety management inconsistencies and flaws, in particular the ones related to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) in Riyadh’s MOH hospitals. As required by law, written HACCP regulations must be implemented, and food handlers need to receive the training accordingly. However, in Saudi hospitals, this is not a requirement, and the food handlers do not need to hold training certificates in food safety or HACCP. Nowadays, the matter of food safety and hygiene have become increasingly important since the decision makers want to align these regulations with the majority of the world and to implement HACCP fully and for this purpose, the SFDA was established.
Understanding Factors Influencing E-Government Implementation in Saudi Arabia from an Organizational Perspective
The purpose of this paper is to explore the organizational factors influencing the implementation of the e-government project within the public sector in Saudi Arabia. This project (also known as the Yesser programme) was established in Saudi Arabia in 2005 to control the e-government transformation process. The aims of the project are to provide a collaborative environment for government organizations to implement e-government and increase effectiveness and efficiency within the public sector. This paper sheds light on the organizational factors that have delayed implementation and achievement of the government’s vision and plans for Yesser. A qualitative approach was employed to understand those factors, by conducting a series of interviews with government officials for the data collection required. The analysis of the data uncovered seven organizational factors that are needed to advance implementation of the e-government project in Saudi Arabia and other similar states.
A Method to Enhance the Accuracy of Digital Forensic in the Absence of Sufficient Evidence in Saudi Arabia
Digital forensics seeks to achieve the successful investigation of digital crimes through obtaining acceptable evidence from digital devices that can be presented in a court of law. Thus, the digital forensics investigation is normally performed through a number of phases in order to achieve the required level of accuracy in the investigation processes. Since 1984 there have been a number of models and frameworks developed to support the digital investigation processes. In this paper, we review a number of the investigation processes that have been produced throughout the years and introduce a proposed digital forensic model which is based on the scope of the Saudi Arabia investigation process. The proposed model has been integrated with existing models for the investigation processes and produced a new phase to deal with a situation where there is initially insufficient evidence.
An Experimental Study to Mitigate Swelling Pressure of Expansive Tabuk Shale, Saudi Arabia
In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, there are several areas where expansive soil exists in the form of variable-thicknesses layers in the developed regions. Severe distress to infrastructures can be caused by the development of heave and swelling pressure in this kind of expansive shale. Among the various techniques for expansive soil mitigation, the removal and replacement technique is very popular for lightly loaded structures and shallow foundations. This paper presents the result of an experimental study conducted for evaluating the effect of type and thickness of the cushion soils on mitigation of swelling characteristics of expanded shale. Seven undisturbed shale samples collected from Al Qadsiyah district, which is located in the Tabuk town north Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, are treated with two types of cushion coarse-grained sediments (CCS); sand and gravel. Each type is represented with three thicknesses, 22%, 33% and 44% in relation to the depth of the active zone. The test results indicated that the replacement of expansive shale by CCS reduces the swelling potential and pressure. It is found that the reduction in swelling depends on the type and thickness of CCS. The treatment by removing the original expansive shale and replacing it by cushion sand with 44% thickness reduced the swelling potential and pressure of about 53.29% and 62.78 %, respectively.
Facilitating Familial Support of Saudi Arabians Living with HIV/AIDS
This paper provides an overview of the current situation of HIV/AIDS patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and a literature review of the concepts of stigma communication, communication of social support. These concepts provide the basis for the proposed methods, which will include conducting a textual analysis of materials that are currently distributed to family members of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHIV/A) in KSA and creating an educational brochure. The brochure will aim to help families of PLWHIV/A in KSA (1) understand how stigma shapes the experience of PLWHIV/A, (2) realize the role of positive communication as a helpful social support, and (3) develop the ability to provide positive social support for their loved ones.
The New Educators: The Reasons for Saudi Arabia to Invest More in Student Counseling Programs
Student counseling programs can provide many benefits to students in schools all around the world. In theory, the government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia) has committed itself to school counseling programs in educational institutions throughout the country. Student counselors face a number of burdens and obstacles that impact student counseling programs. It is also widely known that Saudi Arabia has extremely high prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, anxiety and depression, and diabetes in children. It has also been demonstrated that teachers and staff are inadequately prepared when dealing with health issues relating to diabetes in schools in Saudi Arabia. This study will clearly demonstrate how student counselors in Saudi Arabia could become 'New Educators' in Saudi schools in relation to these health issues. This would allow them to leverage their position as student counselor to improve the management of these health issues in Saudi schools, to improve the quality of care provided to school children, and to overcome burdens and obstacles that are currently negatively affecting student counseling in Saudi schools.
A Traditional Settlement in a Modernized City: Yanbu, Saudi Arabia
Transition in the urban configuration of Arab cities has never been as radical and visible as it has been since the turn of the last century. The emergence of new cities near historical settlements of Arabia has spawned a series of developments in and around the old city precincts. New developments are based on advanced technology and conform to globally prevalent standards of city planning, superseding the vernacular arrangements based on traditional norms that guided so-called ‘city planning’. Evidence to this fact are the extant Arab buildings present at the urban core of modern cities, which inform us about intricate spatial organization. Organization that subscribed to multiple norms such as, satisfying gender segregation and socialization, economic sustainability, and ensuring security and environmental coherence etc., within settlement compounds. Several participating factors achieved harmony in such an inclusive city—an organization that was challenged and apparently replaced by the new planning order in the face of growing needs of globalized, economy-centric and high-tech models of development. Communities found it difficult to acclimatize with the new western planning models that were implemented at a very large scale throughout the Kingdom, which later experienced spatial re-structuring to suit users’ needs. A closer look the ancient city of Yanbu, now flanked with such new developments, allows us to differentiate and track the beginnings of this unprecedented transition in settlement formations. This paper aims to elaborate the Arabian context offered to both the ‘traditional’ and ‘modern’ planning approaches, in order to understand challenges and solutions offered by both at different times. In the process it will also establish the inconsistencies and conflicts that arose with the shift in planning paradigm, from traditional-'cultural norms’, to modern-'physical planning', in the Arabian context. Thus, by distinguishing the two divergent planning philosophies, their impact of the Arabian morphology, relevance to lifestyle and suitability to the biophysical environment, it concludes with a perspective on sustainability particularly for in case of Yanbu.
The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility in the National Commercial Bank in Saudi Arabia
The aim of the paper is to investigate the effect of
corporate social responsibility (CSR) CSR on the National
Commercial Bank (NCB) in Saudi Arabia. In order to achieve this, a
case study was made of the CSR activities of this bank from the
perspective of its branch managers. The NCB was chosen as it was
one of the first Saudi banks to engage in CSR and currently has a
wide range of CSR initiatives. A qualitative research method was
used. Open-ended questionnaires were administered to eighty branch
managers of the NCB, with fifty-five usable questionnaires returned
and twenty managers were interviewed as part of the primary
research. Data from both questionnaires and interviews were
analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six themes emerged from
the questionnaire findings were used to develop the interview
questions. These themes are the following: Awareness of employees
about CSR in the NCB; CSR activities as a type of investment;
Government and media support; Increased employee loyalty in the
NCB; Prestige and profit to the NCB; and View of CSR in Islam.
This paper makes a theoretical contribution in that it investigates and
increases understanding of the effect of CSR on the NCB in Saudi
Arabia. In addition, it makes a practical contribution by making
recommendations which can support the development of CSR in the
NCB. A limitation of the paper is that it is a case study of only one
bank. It is therefore recommended that future research could be
conducted with other banks in Saudi Arabia, or indeed, with a range
of other types of firm within the financial services area in Saudi
Arabia. In this way, the same issues could be explored but with a
greater potential generalisability of findings of CSR within the Saudi
Arabian financial services industry. In addition, this paper takes a
qualitative approach and it is suggested that future research be carried
out using mixed methods, which could provide a greater depth of
Diabetes Mellitus and Food Balance in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
The present explanatory study concerns with the
relation between Diabetes Mellitus and Food Balance in the Kingdom
of Saudi Arabia during 2005-2010, using published data. Results illustrated that Saudi citizen daily protein consumption
(DPC) during 2005-2007 (g/capita/day) is higher than the average
global consumption level of protein with 15.27%, daily fat
consumption (DFC) with 24.56% and daily energy consumption
(DEC) with 16.93% and increases than recommended level by
International Nutrition Organizations (INO) with 56% for protein,
60.49% for fat and 27.37% for energy. On the other hand, DPC per
capita in Saudi Arabia decreased during the period 2008-2010 from
88.3 to 82.36 gram/ day. Moreover, DFC per capita in Saudi Arabia
decreased during the period 2008-2010 from 3247.90 to 3176.43
Cal/capita/ day, and daily energy consumption (DEC) of Saudi
citizen increases than world consumption with 16.93%, whereas
increases with 27.37% than INO. Despite this, DPC, DFC and DEC
per capita in Saudi Arabia still higher than world mean. On the other
side, results illustrated that the number of diabetic patients in Saudi
Arabia during the same period (2005-2010). The curve of diabetic
patient’s number in Saudi Arabia during 2005-2010 is regular
ascending with increasing level ranged between 7.10% in 2005 and
12.44% in 2010. It is essential to devise Saudi National programs to educate the
public about the relation of food balances and diabetes so it could be
avoided, and provide citizens with healthy dietary balances tables.
Assessing Basic Computer Applications’ Skills of College-Level Students in Saudi Arabia
This paper is a report on the findings of a study
conducted at the Institute of Public Administration (IPA) in Saudi
Arabia. The paper applied both qualitative and quantitative
approaches to assess the levels of basic computer applications’ skills
among students enrolled in the preparatory programs of the
institution. Qualitative data have been collected from semi-structured
interviews with the instructors who have previously been assigned to
teach Introduction to information technology courses. Quantitative
data were collected by executing a self-report questionnaire and a
written statistical test. Three hundred eighty enrolled students
responded to the questionnaire and one hundred forty two
accomplished the statistical test. The results indicate the lack of
necessary skills to deal with computer applications among most of
the students who are enrolled in the IPA’s preparatory programs.
The Effect of Culture on User Interface Design of Social Media - A Case Study on Preferences of Saudi Arabians on the Arabic User Interface of Facebook
Social media continues to grow, and user interfaces
may become more appealing if cultural characteristics are
incorporated into their design.
Facebook was designed in the west, and the original language was
English. Subsequently, the words in the user interface were translated
to other languages, including Arabic.
Arabic words are written from right to left, and English is written
from left to right. The translated version may misrepresent the
original design and users’ preferences may be influenced by their
culture, which should be considered in the user interface design.
Previous research indicates that users are more comfortable when
interacting with a user interface, which relates to their own culture.
Therefore, this paper, using a survey, investigates the preferences of
Saudi Arabians on the Arabic version of the user interface of
Disability Diversity Management: A Case Study of the Banking Sector in the KSA
This paper is drawn from a wider study of the
management of gender, age and disability diversity in the banking
sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which aims to develop
a framework for diversity management (DM) in this sector. The
paper focuses on the management of disability diversity. The purpose
of the paper is to assist in understanding disability DM in the banking
sector in KSA and to make suggestions for its enhancement. Hence, it
contributes to filling a research gap, as there is a dearth of literature
on disability DM, in KSA in general, and in the banking sector
Discrimination against people with disabilities is a social issue that
has not been entirely overcome in any society. However, in KSA,
Islam informs almost every aspect of daily life including work, and
Islam is against discrimination. Hence, in KSA, there are regulations
to accommodate people with disabilities; however, employers are still
free not to hire job applicants with disabilities specifically because of
their condition. Indeed, disabled people are almost entirely absent
from the labour market.
There are 12 Saudi-owned or part-Saudi-owned banks in KSA and
two managers from each of these were interviewed, making a total of
24. The interviews aimed to investigate empirically the understanding
of managers in the banking sector in KSA of diversity management,
including disability DM, in the banking sector. The interview data
were analysed using thematic analysis. Two interviewees stated that
banks used the employment of people with disabilities to enhance
their corporate image, while five expressed the opinion that disabled
employees could contribute to the bank provided they did not have to
deal with customers face-to-face. Nine of the interviewees perceived
that disabled employees could be of value to the bank for their own
sake, not only in ‘behind the scenes’ roles. Another two interviewees
mentioned that employing disabled people could be part of the bank’s
community service programme and one thought it would be part of
the bank’s Saudisation efforts. The remaining five interviewees did
not know how disabled people could contribute to the bank.
The findings show that disability DM in the banking sector in
KSA is a relatively new concept, and is not yet well understood. In
the light of the findings, in order to achieve the purpose of the paper,
the following suggestions were made for the enhancement of
disability DM in the banking sector in KSA. A change in attitudes
towards disabled people is necessary. Such a change in the workplace
can only be achieved if a top-down approach is taken to the
integration of disabled people. Hence, it is suggested that
management and employees follow a course in disability awareness.
Further, a diversity officer in the HR department could enhance the
integration of disabled people into the banking workforce. It is also
suggested that greater government support is required through closely
monitored and enforced anti-discrimination legislation. Moreover,
flexible working arrangements such as part-time work would
facilitate the employment of disabled people and benefit other groups
Diversity Management of Gender, Age and Disability in the Banking Sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
As a developing country, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) needs to make the best possible use of its workforce for social and economic reasons. The workforce is diverse, calling for appropriate diversity management (DM). The thesis focuses on the banking sector in KSA. To date, there have been no studies on DM in the banking sector in this country. Many organizations have introduced specific policies and programmes to improve the recruitment, inclusion, promotion, and retention of diverse employees, in addition to the legal requirements existing in many countries. However, Western-centric models of DM may not be applicable, at least not in their entirety, in other regions.
The aim of the study is to devise a framework for understanding gender, age and disability DM in the banking sector in KSA in order to enhance DM in this sector. A sample of 24 managers, 2 from each of the 12 banks, was interviewed to obtain their views on DM in the banking sector in KSA. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. These themes were used to develop the questionnaire, which was administered to 10 managers in each of the 12 banks. After analysis of these data, and completion of the study, the research will make a theoretical contribution to the knowledge on DM and a practical contribution to the management of diversity in Saudi banks. This paper concerns a work in progress.
Profile of Viral Hepatitis in Saudi Arabia
The study was conducted to investigate the profile of
hepatitis in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and to determine which age
group hepatitis viruses most commonly infect. The epidemiology of
viral hepatitis in Saudi Arabia has undergone major changes,
concurrent with major socioeconomic developments over the last two
to three decades. This disease represents a major public health
problem in Saudi Arabia resulting in the need for considerable
healthcare resources. A retrospective cross sectional analysis of the
reported cases of viral hepatitis was conducted based on the reports
of The Ministry of Health in Saudi Arabia about Hepatitis A, B and C
infections in all regions from the period of January 2006 to December
2010. The study demonstrated that incidence of viral Hepatitis is
decreasing, except for Hepatitis B that showed minimal increase. Of
hepatitis A, B, and C, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) was the most
predominant type, accounting for (53%) of the cases, followed by
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) (30%) and HAV (17%). HAV infection
predominates in children (5–14 years) with 60% of viral hepatitis
cases, HBV in young adults (15–44 years) with 69% of viral hepatitis
cases, and HCV in older adults (>45 years) with 59% of viral
hepatitis cases. Despite significant changes in the prevalence of viral
hepatitis A, B and C, it remains a major public health problem in
Saudi Arabia; however, it showed a significant decline in the last two
decades that could be attributed to the vaccination programs and the
improved health facilities. Further researches are needed to identify
the risk factors making a specific age group or a specific region in
Saudi Arabia targeted for a specific type of hepatitis viruses.
Steps towards the Development of National Health Data Standards in Developing Countries: An Exploratory Qualitative Study in Saudi Arabia
The proliferation of health data standards today is somewhat overlapping and conflicting, resulting in market confusion and leading to increasing proprietary interests. The government role and support in standardization for health data are thought to be crucial in order to establish credible standards for the next decade, to maximize interoperability across the health sector, and to decrease the risks associated with the implementation of non-standard systems. The normative literature missed out the exploration of the different steps required to be undertaken by the government towards the development of national health data standards. Based on the lessons learned from a qualitative study investigating the different issues to the adoption of health data standards in the major tertiary hospitals in Saudi Arabia and the opinions and feedback from different experts in the areas of data exchange and standards and medical informatics in Saudi Arabia and UK, a list of steps required towards the development of national health data standards was constructed. Main steps are the existence of: a national formal reference for health data standards, an agreed national strategic direction for medical data exchange, a national medical information management plan and a national accreditation body, and more important is the change management at the national and organizational level. The outcome of this study can be used by academics and practitioners to develop the planning of health data standards, and in particular those in developing countries.
What Are the Factors Underlying the Differences between Young Saudi Women in Traditional Families That Choose to Conform to the Society Norms, and Young Saudi Women Who Do Not Conform?
This research suggests that women in traditional families of Saudi Arabia are divided into two groups, the one who conforms to the society and the new type of women that has been emerged due to the changing and development of the culture, who do not want to conform to the rules. The factors underlying the differences were explored by using a test and an interview. And that concluded some of the main factors that were a real affect of why some women still want to follow the society and traditional rules, and other want to break free.
Analysis of Plasmids and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Hospitals- AL Jouf Region- KSA
Abstract–The objectives of the current study are to determine the
prevalence, etiological agents, drug susceptibility pattern and plasmid
profile of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Hospital-Acquired
Infections (HAI) at Community Hospital, Al Jouf Province, Saudi
Arabia. A total of 1890 patients had developed infection during
hospital admission and were included in the study. Among those who
developed nosocomial infections, 15(9.4), 10(2.7) and 118 (12.7) had
respiratory tract infection (RTI), blood stream infections (BSI) and
urinary tract (UTI) respectively. A total of 268 bacterial isolates were
isolated from nosocomial infection. S. aureus was reported in 23.5%
for of the total isolates followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.5%), E.
coli (17.2%), P. aeruginosa (11.9%), coagulase negative
staphylococcus (9%), A. baumannii (7.1%), Enterobacter spp.
(3.4%), Citrobacter freundii (3%), Proteus mirabilis (2.6%), and
Proteus vulgaris and Enterococcous faecalis (0.7%). Isolated
organisms are multi-drug resistant, predominantly Gram-positive
pathogens with a high incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus,
extended spectrum beta lactamase and vancomycin resistant
enterococci organisms. The RFLP (Fragment Length Polymorphisms)
patterns of plasmid preparations from isolated A. baumannii isolates
had altered RFLP patterns, possibly due to the presence of plasmid(s).
Five A. baumannii isolates harbored plasmids all of which were not
less than 2.71kbp in molecular weight. Hence, it showed that the gene
coding for the isolates were located on the plasmid DNA while the
remaining isolates which have no plasmid might showed gene coding
for antibiotic resistance being located on chromosomal DNA.
Nosocomial infections represent a current problem in Community
Hospital, Al Jouf Province, Saudi Arabia. Problems associated with
SSI include infection with multidrug resistant pathogens which are
difficult to treat and are associated with increased mortality.
Contractor Selection in Saudi Arabia
Contractor selection in Saudi Arabia is very important due to the large construction boom and the contractor role to get over construction risks. The need for investigating contractor selection is due to the following reasons; large number of defaulted or failed projects (18%), large number of disputes attributed to contractor during the project execution stage (almost twofold), the extension of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) into construction industry, and finally the few number of researches. The selection strategy is not perfect and considered as the reason behind irresponsible contractors. As a response, this research was conducted to review the contractor selection strategies as an integral part of a long advanced research to develop a good selection model. Many techniques can be used to form a selection strategy; multi criteria for optimizing decision, prequalification to discover contractor-s responsibility, bidding process for competition, third party guarantee to enhance the selection, and fuzzy techniques for ambiguities and incomplete information.
Mobile Learning Adoption in Saudi Arabia
This paper investigates the use of mobile phones and
tablets for learning purposes among university students in Saudi
Arabia. For this purpose, an extended Technology Acceptance Model
(TAM) is proposed to analyze the adoption of mobile devices and
smart phones by Saudi university students for accessing course
materials, searching the web for information related to their
discipline, sharing knowledge, conducting assignments etc.
Water Demand Prediction for Touristic Mecca City in Saudi Arabia using Neural Networks
Saudi Arabia is an arid country which depends on
costly desalination plants to satisfy the growing residential water
demand. Prediction of water demand is usually a challenging task
because the forecast model should consider variations in economic
progress, climate conditions and population growth. The task is
further complicated knowing that Mecca city is visited regularly by
large numbers during specific months in the year due to religious
occasions. In this paper, a neural networks model is proposed to
handle the prediction of the monthly and yearly water demand for
Mecca city, Saudi Arabia. The proposed model will be developed
based on historic records of water production and estimated visitors-
distribution. The driving variables for the model include annuallyvarying
variables such as household income, household density, and
city population, and monthly-varying variables such as expected
number of visitors each month and maximum monthly temperature.
Government Initiatives: The Missing Key for E-commerce Growth in KSA
This paper explores the issues that influence online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Retailers in Saudi Arabia have been reserved in their adoption of electronically delivered aspects of their business. Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growth of ICT marketplaces in the Arab region, e-commerce activities are not progressing at the same speed. Only very few Saudi companies, mostly medium and large companies from the manufacturing sector, are involved in e-commerce implementation. Based on qualitative data collected by conducting interviews with 16 retailers and 16 potential customers in Saudi Arabia, several factors influencing online retailing diffusion in Saudi Arabia are identified. However, government support comes the highest and most influencing factor for online retailing growth as identified by both parties; retailers and potential customers in Saudi Arabia.
Mobile Phone Services in Makkah, Saudi Arabia
This paper discusses telecominication market developments in Saudi Arabia. Empirical research was carried in the holy city of Makkah to study the customer's preference for mobile cellular service and the factor influencing their subscription of the mobile phone service. Results indicate that the financial factor sicnificantly influence the customer's selection of the service provider.
The National Energy Strategy for Saudi Arabia
In this paper, we present a technical and an economic
assessment of several sources of renewable energy in Saudi Arabia;
mainly solar, wind, hydro and biomass. We analyze the
environmental and climatic conditions in relation to these sources
and give an overview of some of the existing clean energy
technologies. Using standardized cost and efficiency data, we carry
out a cost benefit analysis to understand the economic factors
influencing the sustainability of energy production from renewable
sources in light of the energy cost and demand in the Saudi market.
Finally, we take a look at the Saudi petroleum industry and the
existing sources of conventional energy and assess the potential of
building a successful market for renewable energy under the
constraints imposed by the flow of subsidized cheap oil. We show
that while some renewable energy resources are well suited for
distributed or grid connected generation in the kingdom, their
viability is greatly undercut by the well developed and well
capitalized oil industry.
Small Businesses' Decision to have a Website Saudi Arabia Case Study
Recognizing the increasing importance of using the
Internet to conduct business, this paper looks at some related matters
associated with small businesses making a decision of whether or not
to have a Website and go online. Small businesses in Saudi Arabia
struggle to have this decision. For organizations, to fully go online,
conduct business and provide online information services, they need
to connect their database to the Web. Some issues related to doing
that might be beyond the capabilities of most small businesses in
Saudi Arabia, such as Website management, technical issues and
security concerns. Here we focus on a small business firm in Saudi
Arabia (Case Study), discussing the issues related to going online
decision and the firm's options of what to do and how to do it. The
paper suggested some valuable solutions of connecting databases to
the Web. It also discusses some of the important issues related to
online information services and e-commerce, mainly Web hosting
options and security issues.