Efficient Antenna Array Beamforming with Robustness against Random Steering Mismatch
This paper deals with the problem of using antenna sensors for adaptive beamforming in the presence of random steering mismatch. We present an efficient adaptive array beamformer with robustness to deal with the considered problem. The robustness of the proposed beamformer comes from the efficient designation of the steering vector. Using the received array data vector, we construct an appropriate correlation matrix associated with the received array data vector and a correlation matrix associated with signal sources. Then, the eigenvector associated with the largest eigenvalue of the constructed signal correlation matrix is designated as an appropriate estimate of the steering vector. Finally, the adaptive weight vector required for adaptive beamforming is obtained by using the estimated steering vector and the constructed correlation matrix of the array data vector. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Modeling and Dynamics Analysis for Intelligent Skid-Steering Vehicle Based on Trucksim-Simulink
Aiming at the verification of control algorithms for skid-steering vehicles, a vehicle simulation model of 6×6 electric skid-steering unmanned vehicle was established based on Trucksim and Simulink. The original transmission and steering mechanism of Trucksim are removed, and the electric skid-steering model and a closed-loop controller for the vehicle speed and yaw rate are built in Simulink. The simulation results are compared with the ones got by theoretical formulas. The results show that the predicted tire mechanics and vehicle kinematics of Trucksim-Simulink simulation model are closed to the theoretical results. Therefore, it can be used as an effective approach to study the dynamic performance and control algorithm of skid-steering vehicle. In this paper, a method of motion control based on feed forward control is also designed. The simulation results show that the feed forward control strategy can make the vehicle follow the target yaw rate more quickly and accurately, which makes the vehicle have more maneuverability.
Using Adaptive Pole Placement Control Strategy for Active Steering Safety System
This paper studies the design of an adaptive control strategy to tune an active steering system for better drivability and maneuverability. In the first step, adaptive control strategy is applied to estimate the uncertain parameters on-line (e.g. cornering stiffness), then the estimated parameters are fed into the pole placement controller to generate corrective feedback gain to improve the steering system dynamic’s characteristics. The simulations are evaluated for three types of road conditions (dry, wet, and icy), and the performance of the adaptive pole placement control (APPC) are compared with pole placement control (PPC) and a passive system. The results show that the APPC strategy significantly improves the yaw rate and side slip angle of a bicycle plant model.
Friction Calculation and Simulation of Column Electric Power Steering System
This study presents a procedure for friction calculation of column electric power steering (C-EPS) system which affects handling and comfort in driving. The friction losses estimation is obtained from experimental tests and mathematical calculation. Parts in C-EPS mainly involved in friction losses are bearings and worm gear. In the theoretical approach, the gear geometry and Hertz law were employed to measure the normal load and the sliding velocity and contact areas from the worm gears driving conditions. The viscous friction generated in the worm gear was obtained with a theoretical approach and the result was applied to model the friction in the steering system. Finally, by viscous friction coefficient and Coulomb friction coefficient, values of friction in worm gear were calculated. According to the Bearing Company and the characteristics of each bearing, the friction torques due to load and due to speed were calculated. A MATLAB Simulink model for calculating the friction in bearings and worm gear in C-EPS were done and the total friction value was estimated.
Steering Velocity Bounded Mobile Robots in Environments with Partially Known Obstacles
This paper presents a method for steering velocity bounded mobile robots in environments with partially known stationary obstacles. The exact location of obstacles is unknown and only a probability distribution associated with the location of the obstacles is known. Kinematic model of a 2-wheeled differential drive robot is used as the model of mobile robot. The presented control strategy uses the Artificial Potential Field (APF) method for devising a desired direction of movement for the robot at each instant of time while the Constrained Directions Control (CDC) uses the generated direction to produce the control signals required for steering the robot. The location of each obstacle is considered to be the mean value of the 2D probability distribution and similarly, the magnitude of the electric charge in the APF is set as the trace of covariance matrix of the location probability distribution. The method not only captures the challenges of planning the path (i.e. probabilistic nature of the location of unknown obstacles), but it also addresses the output saturation which is considered to be an important issue from the control perspective. Moreover, velocity of the robot can be controlled during the steering. For example, the velocity of robot can be reduced in close vicinity of obstacles and target to ensure safety. Finally, the control strategy is simulated for different scenarios to show how the method can be put into practice.
Numerical Studies on Thrust Vectoring Using Shock-Induced Self Impinging Secondary Jets
Numerical studies have been carried out using a
validated two-dimensional standard k-omega turbulence model for
the design optimization of a thrust vector control system using shock
induced self-impinging supersonic secondary double jet. Parametric
analytical studies have been carried out at different secondary
injection locations to identifying the highest unsymmetrical
distribution of the main gas flow due to shock waves, which produces
a desirable side force more lucratively for vectoring. The results from
the parametric studies of the case on hand reveal that the shock
induced self-impinging supersonic secondary double jet is more
efficient in certain locations at the divergent region of a CD nozzle
than a case with supersonic single jet with same mass flow rate. We
observed that the best axial location of the self-impinging supersonic
secondary double jet nozzle with a given jet interaction angle, built-in
to a CD nozzle having area ratio 1.797, is 0.991 times the primary
nozzle throat diameter from the throat location. We also observed
that the flexible steering is possible after invoking ON/OFF facility to
the secondary nozzles for meeting the onboard mission requirements.
Through our case studies we concluded that the supersonic self-impinging
secondary double jet at predesigned jet interaction angle
and location can provide more flexible steering options facilitating
with 8.81% higher thrust vectoring efficiency than the conventional
supersonic single secondary jet without compromising the payload
capability of any supersonic aerospace vehicle.
Friction Estimation and Compensation for Steering Angle Control for Highly Automated Driving
This contribution presents a friction estimator for
industrial purposes which identifies Coulomb friction in a steering
system. The estimator only needs a few, usually known, steering
system parameters. Friction occurs on almost every mechanical
system and has a negative influence on high-precision position
control. This is demonstrated on a steering angle controller for highly
automated driving. In this steering system the friction induces limit
cycles which cause oscillating vehicle movement when the vehicle
follows a given reference trajectory. When compensating the friction
with the introduced estimator, limit cycles can be suppressed. This
is demonstrated by measurements in a series vehicle.
Research on Control Strategy of Differential Drive Assisted Steering of Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle
According to the independence, accuracy and controllability of the driving/braking torque of the distributed drive electric vehicle, a control strategy of differential drive assisted steering was designed. Firstly, the assisted curve under different speed and steering wheel torque was developed and the differential torques were distributed to the right and left front wheels. Then the steering return ability assisted control algorithm was designed. At last, the joint simulation was conducted by CarSim/Simulink. The result indicated: the differential drive assisted steering algorithm could provide enough steering drive-assisted under low speed and improve the steering portability. Along with the increase of the speed, the provided steering drive-assisted decreased. With the control algorithm, the steering stiffness of the steering system increased along with the increase of the speed, which ensures the driver’s road feeling. The control algorithm of differential drive assisted steering could avoid the understeer under low speed effectively.
On the Design of Electronic Control Unitsfor the Safety-Critical Vehicle Applications
This paper suggests a design methodology for the hardware and software of the electronic control unit (ECU) of safety-critical vehicle applications such as braking and steering. The architecture of the hardware is a high integrity system such thatit incorporates a high performance 32-bit CPU and a separate peripheral controlprocessor (PCP) together with an external watchdog CPU. Communication between the main CPU and the PCP is executed via a common area of RAM and events on either processor which are invoked by interrupts. Safety-related software is also implemented to provide a reliable, self-testing computing environment for safety critical and high integrity applications. The validity of the design approach is shown by using the hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS)for electric power steering(EPS) systemswhich consists of the EPS mechanism, the designed ECU, and monitoring tools.
Analysis and Experimentation of Interleaved Boost Converter with Ripple Steering for Power Factor Correction
Through the fast growing technologies, design of power factor correction (PFC) circuit is facing several challenges. In this paper, a two-phase interleaved boost converter with ripple steering technique is proposed. Among the various topologies, Interleaved Boost converter (IBC) is considered as superior due to enriched performance, lower ripple content, compact weight and size. A thorough investigation is presented here for the proposed topology. Simulation study for the IBC has been carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Theoretical analysis and hardware prototype has been performed to validate the results.
Numerical Studies on Thrust Vectoring Using Shock Induced Supersonic Secondary Jet
Numerical studies have been carried out using a
validated two-dimensional RNG k-epsilon turbulence model for the
design optimization of a thrust vector control system using shock
induced supersonic secondary jet. Parametric analytical studies have
been carried out with various secondary jets at different divergent
locations, jet interaction angles, jet pressures. The results from the
parametric studies of the case on hand reveal that the primary nozzle
with a small divergence angle, downstream injections with a distance
of 2.5 times the primary nozzle throat diameter from the primary
nozzle throat location warrant higher efficiency over a certain range
of jet pressures and jet angles. We observed that the supersonic
secondary jet opposing the core flow with jets interaction angle of
40o to the axis far downstream of the nozzle throat facilitates better
thrust vectoring than the secondary jet with same direction as that of
core flow with various interaction angles. We concluded that fixing
of the supersonic secondary jet nozzle pointing towards the throat
direction with suitable angle at a distance 2 to 4 times of the primary
nozzle throat diameter, as the case may be, from the primary nozzle
throat location could facilitate better thrust vectoring for the
supersonic aerospace vehicles.
Kinematic Analysis of Roll Motion for a Strut/SLA Suspension System
The roll center is one of the key parameters for designing a suspension. Several driving characteristics are affected significantly by the migration of the roll center during the suspension-s motion. The strut/SLA (strut/short-long-arm) suspension, which is widely used in production cars, combines the space-saving characteristics of a MacPherson strut suspension with some of the preferred handling characteristics of an SLA suspension. In this study, a front strut/SLA suspension is modeled by ADAMS/Car software. Kinematic roll analysis is then employed to investigate how the rolling characteristics change under the wheel travel and steering input. The related parameters, including the roll center height, roll camber gain, toe change, scrub radius and wheel track width change, are analyzed and discussed. It is found that the strut/SLA suspension clearly has a higher roll center than strut and SLA suspensions do. The variations in the roll center height under roll analysis are very different as the wheel travel displacement and steering angle are added. The results of the roll camber gain, scrub radius and wheel track width change are considered satisfactory. However, the toe change is too large and needs fine-tuning through a sensitivity analysis.
A Study on the Modeling and Analysis of an Electro-Hydraulic Power Steering System
Electro-hydraulic power steering (EHPS) system for
the fuel rate reduction and steering feel improvement is comprised of
ECU including the logic which controls the steering system and BL
DC motor and produces the best suited cornering force, BLDC motor,
high pressure pump integrated module and basic oil-hydraulic circuit
of the commercial HPS system.
Electro-hydraulic system can be studied in two ways such as
experimental and computer simulation. To get accurate results in
experimental study of EHPS system, the real boundary management is
necessary which is difficult task. And the accuracy of the experimental
results depends on the preparation of the experimental setup and
accuracy of the data collection. The computer simulation gives
accurate and reliable results if the simulation is carried out considering
proper boundary conditions. So, in this paper, each component of
EHPS was modeled, and the model-based analysis and control logic
was designed by using AMESim
Nonlinear Controller Design for Active Front Steering System
Active Front Steering system (AFS) provides an electronically controlled superposition of an angle to the steering wheel angle. This additional degree of freedom enables a continuous and driving-situation dependent on adaptation of the steering characteristics. In an active steering system, there needs be no fixed relationship between the steering wheel and the angle of the road wheels. Not only can the effective steering ratio be varied with speed, for example, but also the road wheel angles can be controlled by a combination of driver and computer inputs. Features like steering comfort, effort and steering dynamics are optimized and stabilizing steering interventions can be performed. In contrast to the conventional stability control, the yaw rate was fed back to AFS controller and the stability performance was optimized with Sliding Mode control (SMC) method. In addition, tire uncertainties have been taken into account in SM controller to provide the control robustness. In this paper, 3-DOF nonlinear model is used to design the AFS controller and 8-DOF nonlinear model is used to model the controlled vehicle.
Structure of Linkages and Cam Gear for Integral Steering of Vehicles
This paper addresses issues of integral steering of
vehicles with two steering axles, where the rear wheels are pivoted in
the direction of the front wheels, but also in the opposite direction.
The steering box of the rear axle is presented with simple linkages
(single contour) that correlate the pivoting of the rear wheels
according to the direction of the front wheels, respectively to the
rotation angle of the steering wheel. The functionality of the system
is analyzed – the extent to which the requirements of the integral
steering are met by the considered/proposed mechanisms. The paper
highlights the quality of the single contour linkages, with two driving
elements for meeting these requirements, emphasizing diagrams of
mechanisms with 2 driving elements. Cam variants are analyzed and
proposed for the rear axle steering box. Cam profiles are determined
by various factors.
On Climbing Winding Stairs for a Robotic Wheelchair
In this paper motion analysis on a winding
stair-climbing is investigated using our proposed rotational arm type
of robotic wheelchair. For now, the robotic wheelchair is operated in
an open mode to climb winding stairs by a dynamic turning, therefore,
the dynamics model is required to ensure a passenger-s safety.
Equations of motion based on the skid-steering analysis are developed
for the trajectory planning and motion analysis on climbing winding
stairs. Since the robotic wheelchair must climb a winding staircase
stably, the winding trajectory becomes a constraint equation to be
followed, and the Baumgarte-s method is used to solve for the
constrained dynamics equations. Experimental results validate the
behavior of the prototype as it climbs a winding stair.
Performance Evaluation of 2×2 Switched Beam Antennas with Null Locating for Wireless Mesh Networks
A concept of switched beam antennas consisting of
2×2 rectangular array spaced by λ/4 accompanied with a null locating
has been proposed in the previous work. In this letter, the
performance evaluations of its prototype are presented. The benefits
of using proposed system have been clearly measured in term of
signal quality, throughput and delays. Also, the impact of position
shift which mesh router is not located on the expected beam direction
has also been investigated.
Variable Structure Model Reference Adaptive Control for Vehicle Steering System
A variable structure model reference adaptive control
(VS-MRAC) strategy for active steering assistance of a two wheel
steering car is proposed. An ideal steering system with fixed
properties and moving on an ideal road is used as the reference
model, and the active steering assistance system is forced to attain
the same behavior as the reference model. The proposed system can
treat the nonlinear relationships between the side slip angles and
lateral forces on tire, and the uncertainties on friction of the road
surface, whose compensation are very important under critical
situations. Simulation results show improvements on yaw rate and
Near-Field Robust Adaptive Beamforming Based on Worst-Case Performance Optimization
The performance of adaptive beamforming degrades
substantially in the presence of steering vector mismatches. This
degradation is especially severe in the near-field, for the
3-dimensional source location is more difficult to estimate than the
2-dimensional direction of arrival in far-field cases. As a solution, a
novel approach of near-field robust adaptive beamforming (RABF) is
proposed in this paper. It is a natural extension of the traditional
far-field RABF and belongs to the class of diagonal loading
approaches, with the loading level determined based on worst-case
performance optimization. However, different from the methods
solving the optimal loading by iteration, it suggests here a simple
closed-form solution after some approximations, and consequently,
the optimal weight vector can be expressed in a closed form. Besides
simplicity and low computational cost, the proposed approach reveals
how different factors affect the optimal loading as well as the weight
vector. Its excellent performance in the near-field is confirmed via a
number of numerical examples.
An Exploratory Environment for Concurrency Control Algorithms
Designing, implementing, and debugging concurrency
control algorithms in a real system is a complex, tedious, and errorprone
process. Further, understanding concurrency control
algorithms and distributed computations is itself a difficult task.
Visualization can help with both of these problems. Thus, we have
developed an exploratory environment in which people can prototype
and test various versions of concurrency control algorithms, study
and debug distributed computations, and view performance statistics
of distributed systems. In this paper, we describe the exploratory
environment and show how it can be used to explore concurrency
control algorithms for the interactive steering of distributed
Development of Automatic Guided Mobile Robot Using Magnetic Position Meter
In this paper, an automatic guided mobile robot using a new magnetic position meter is described. In order to measure the lateral position of a mobile robot, a new magnetic position meter is developed. The magnetic position meter can detect the position of a magnetic wire on the center of road. A mobile robot in designed with a sensing system, a steering system and a driving system. The designed mobile robot is tested to verify the performance of automatic guidance.