Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 13

13
10010561
Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Rotary-Swaged Wire of Commercial-Purity Titanium
Abstract:

Bars made of titanium grade 2 and grade 4 were subjected to rotary forging with up to 2.2 true strain reduction in the cross-section from 10 to 3.81 mm. During progressive deformation, grain refinement in the transverse direction took place. In the longitudinal direction, ultrafine microstructure has not developed. It has been demonstrated that titanium grade 2 strengthens more than grade 4. The ultimate tensile strength increased from 650 MPa to 1040 MPa in titanium grade 4. Hardness profiles on the cross section in both materials show an increase in the centre of the wire.

12
10010279
Fabrication and Characterization of Al2O3 Based Electrical Insulation Coatings Around SiC Fibers
Abstract:

In structural-health monitoring of fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs), every single inorganic fiber sensor that are integrated into the bulk material requires an electrical insulation around itself, when the surrounding reinforcing fibers are electrically conductive. This results in a more accurate data acquisition only from the sensor fiber without any electrical interventions. For this purpose, thin nano-films of aluminium oxide (Al2O3)-based electrical-insulation coatings have been fabricated around the Silicon Carbide (SiC) single fiber sensors through reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique. The sputtered coatings were amorphous in nature and the thickness of the coatings increased with an increase in the sputter time. Microstructural characterization of the coated fibers performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed a homogeneous circumferential coating with no detectable defects or cracks on the surface. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of the as-sputtered and 2 hours annealed coatings (825 & 1125 ˚C) revealed the amorphous and crystalline phases of Al2O3 respectively. Raman spectroscopic analyses produced no characteristic bands of Al2O3, as the thickness of the films was in the nanometer (nm) range, which is too small to overcome the actual penetration depth of the laser used. In addition, the influence of the insulation coatings on the mechanical properties of the SiC sensor fibers has been analyzed.

11
10008374
Analysis of Mechanical Properties for AP/HTPB Solid Propellant under Different Loading Conditions
Abstract:

To investigate the characterization of the mechanical properties of composite solid propellant (CSP) based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) at different temperatures and strain rates, uniaxial tensile tests were conducted over a range of temperatures -60 °C to +76 °C and strain rates 0.000164 to 0.328084 s-1 using a conventional universal testing machine. From the experimental data, it can be noted that the mechanical properties of AP/HTPB propellant are mainly dependent on the applied strain rate and the temperature condition. The stress-strain responses exhibited an initial yielding followed by the viscoelastic phase, which was strongly affected by the strain rate and temperature. It was found that the mechanical properties increased with both increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. Based on the experimental tests, the master curves of the tensile properties are drawn using predetermined shift factor and the results were discussed. This work is a first step in preliminary investigation the nonlinear viscoelasticity behavior of CSP.

10
10006352
Polyvinyl Alcohol Processed Templated Polyaniline Films: Preparation, Characterization and Assessment of Tensile Strength
Abstract:
Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the most extensively studied material among the conducting polymers due to its simple synthesis by chemical and electrochemical routes. PANIs have advantages of chemical stability and high conductivity making their commercial applications quite attractive. However, to our knowledge, very little work has been reported on the tensile strength properties of templated PANIs processed with polyvinyl alcohol and also, detailed study has not been carried out. We have investigated the effect of small molecule and polymers as templates on PANI. Stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of trisodium citrate (TSC), poly(ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT-PSS), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) templated PANIs were prepared through chemical synthesis, processed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and were fabricated into films by solution casting. Absorption and infra-red spectra were studied to gain insight into the possible molecular interactions. Surface morphology was studied through scanning electron microscope and optical microscope. Interestingly, tensile testing studies revealed least strain for pure PVA when compared to the blends of templated PANI. Furthermore, among the blends, TSC templated PANI possessed maximum elasticity. The ultimate tensile strength for PVA processed, PEG-templated PANI was found to be five times more than other blends considered in this study. We establish structure–property correlation with morphology, spectral characterization and tensile testing studies.
9
10007077
A Structural Constitutive Model for Viscoelastic Rheological Behavior of Human Saphenous Vein Using Experimental Assays
Abstract:

Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most common causes of mortality in developed countries. Coronary artery abnormalities and carotid artery stenosis, also known as silent death, are among these diseases. One of the treatment methods for these diseases is to create a deviatory pathway to conduct blood into the heart through a bypass surgery. The saphenous vein is usually used in this surgery to create the deviatory pathway. Unfortunately, a re-surgery will be necessary after some years due to ignoring the disagreement of mechanical properties of graft tissue and/or applied prostheses with those of host tissue. The objective of the present study is to clarify the viscoelastic behavior of human saphenous tissue. The stress relaxation tests in circumferential and longitudinal direction were done in this vein by exerting 20% and 50% strains. Considering the stress relaxation curves obtained from stress relaxation tests and the coefficients of the standard solid model, it was demonstrated that the saphenous vein has a non-linear viscoelastic behavior. Thereafter, the fitting with Fung’s quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) model was performed based on stress relaxation time curves. Finally, the coefficients of Fung’s QLV model, which models the behavior of saphenous tissue very well, were presented.

8
10004166
Experimental Characterization of Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of Textile Woven Fabric
Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental characterization of the anisotropic mechanical behavior of 4 textile woven fabrics with different weaves (Twill 3, Plain, Twill4 and Satin 4) by off-axis tensile testing. These tests are applied according seven directions oriented by 15° increment with respect to the warp direction. Fixed and articulated jaws are used. Analysis of experimental results is done through global (Effort/Elongation curves) and local scales. Global anisotropy was studied from the Effort/Elongation curves: shape, breaking load (Frup), tensile elongation (EMT), tensile energy (WT) and linearity index (LT). Local anisotropy was studied from the measurement of strain tensor components in the central area of the specimen as a function of testing orientation and effort: longitudinal strain ɛL, transverse strain ɛT and shearing ɛLT. The effect of used jaws is also analyzed.

7
10003571
Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Flexural Behavior of Macro-Synthetic FRC
Abstract:

Promotion of the Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) as a construction material for civil engineering projects has invoked numerous researchers to investigate their mechanical behavior. Even though there is satisfactory information about the effects of fiber type and length, concrete mixture, casting type and other variables on the strength and deformability parameters of FRC, the numerical modeling of such materials still needs research attention. The focus of this study is to investigate the feasibility of Concrete Damaged Plasticity (CDP) model in prediction of Macro-synthetic FRC structures behavior. CDP model requires the tensile behavior of concrete to be well characterized. For this purpose, a series of uniaxial direct tension and four point bending tests were conducted on the notched specimens to define bilinear tension softening (post-peak tension stress-strain) behavior. With these parameters obtained, the flexural behavior of macro-synthetic FRC beams were modeled and the results showed a good agreement with the experimental measurements.

6
10003376
Effect of Aging Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Non-Flammable AZ91D Mg Alloy
Abstract:
Microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91D Mg alloys for nonflammable use, containing Ca and Y, were investigated in this study. Solid solution treatment of AZ91D Mg alloy with Ca and Y was successfully conducted at 420oC and supersaturated microstructure with almost all beta phases resolved into matrix was obtained. After solid solution treatment, the alloy was annealed at temperatures of 180 and 200oC for time intervals from 1 min to 48 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak aging conditions were deduced from the results as at the temperature of 200oC for 10 hrs. Hot rolling was also carried out at 400oC by the reduction ratio of 0.6 through 5 passes followed by recrystallization treatment. Tensile and compressive properties were measured at room temperature on the specimens of each process, i.e. as-cast, solution treatment, hot rolling, and recrystallization.
5
9997318
Cladding of Al and Cu by Differential Speed Rolling
Abstract:

Al/Cu clad sheet has been fabricated by using differential speed rolling (DSR) process, which caused severe shear deformation between Al and Cu plate to easily bond to each other. Rolling was carried out at 100 and 150oC with speed ratios from 1.4 to 2.2, in which the total thickness reduction was in the range between 14 and 46%. Interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of Al/Cu clad were investigated by scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector, and tension tests. The DSR process was very effective to provide a good interface for atoms diffusion during subsequent annealing. The strength of bonding was higher with the increasing speed ratio. Post heat treatment enhanced the mechanical properties of clad sheet by forming intermetallic compounds in the interface area. 

4
9997303
Friction Stir Welded Joint Aluminum Alloy H20-H20 with Different Type of Tools Mechanical Properties
Abstract:

In this project three type of tools, straight cylindrical, taper cylindrical and triangular tool all made of High speed steel (Wc-Co) used for the friction stir welding (FSW) aluminum alloy H20–H20 and the mechanical properties of the welded joint tested by tensile test and vicker hardness test. Besides, mentioned mechanical properties compared with each other to make conclusion. The result helped design of welding parameter optimization for different types of friction stir process like rotational speed, depth of welding, travel speed, type of material, type of joint, work piece dimension, joint dimension, tool material and tool geometry. Previous investigations in different types of materials work pieces; joint type, machining parameter and preheating temperature take placed. In this investigation 3 mentioned tool types that are popular in FSW tested and the results completed other aspects of the process. Hope this paper can open a new horizon in experimental investigation of mechanical properties for friction stir welded joint with other different type of tools like oval shape probe, paddle shape probe, three flat sided probe, and three sided re-entrant probe and other materials and alloys like titanium or steel in near future.

3
14261
Fabrication of Al/Cu Clad Sheet by Shear Extrusion
Abstract:
Aluminum/Copper clad sheet has been fabricated using asymmetric extrusion method, which caused severe shear deformation between Al and Cu plate to easily bond to each other. Interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of Al/Cu clad were studied by scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector, micro-hardness, and tension tests. The asymmetric extrusion bonding was very effective to provide a good interface for atoms diffusion during subsequent annealing. The strength of bonding was higher with the increasing extrusion ratio.
2
14488
Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Materials: An Overview
Abstract:
Friction Stir Welding is a solid state welding technique which can be used to produce sound welds between similar and dissimilar materials. Dissimilar welds which include welds between the different series of aluminium alloys, aluminium to magnesium, steel and titanium has been successfully produced by many researchers. This review covers the work conducted in the above mentioned materials and further concludes by showing the need to fully understand the FSW process in order to expand the latter industrially.
1
14769
Determination of Stress-Strain Characteristics of Railhead Steel using Image Analysis
Abstract:
True stress-strain curve of railhead steel is required to investigate the behaviour of railhead under wheel loading through elasto-plastic Finite Element (FE) analysis. To reduce the rate of wear, the railhead material is hardened through annealing and quenching. The Australian standard rail sections are not fully hardened and hence suffer from non-uniform distribution of the material property; usage of average properties in the FE modelling can potentially induce error in the predicted plastic strains. Coupons obtained at varying depths of the railhead were, therefore, tested under axial tension and the strains were measured using strain gauges as well as an image analysis technique, known as the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The head hardened steel exhibit existence of three distinct zones of yield strength; the yield strength as the ratio of the average yield strength provided in the standard (σyr=780MPa) and the corresponding depth as the ratio of the head hardened zone along the axis of symmetry are as follows: (1.17 σyr, 20%), (1.06 σyr, 20%-80%) and (0.71 σyr, > 80%). The stress-strain curves exhibit limited plastic zone with fracture occurring at strain less than 0.1.

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