Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 32

TiO2 Nanowires as Efficient Heterogeneous Photocatalysts for Waste-Water Treatment

One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures like nanowires, nanotubes, and nanorods find variety of practical application owing to their unique physico-chemical properties. In this work, TiO2 nanowires were synthesized by direct oxidation of titanium particles in a unique microwave plasma jet reactor. The prepared TiO2 nanowires manifested the flexible features, and were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, UV-Visible and FTIR spectrophotometers, Scanning electron microscope, and Transmission electron microscope. Further, the photodegradation efficiency of these nanowires were tested against toxic organic dye like methylene blue (MB) and the results were compared with the commercial TiO2. It was found that TiO2 nanowires exhibited superior photocatalytic performance (89%) as compared to commercial TiO2 (75%) after 60 min of reaction. This is attributed to the lower recombination rate and increased interfacial charge transfer in TiO2 nanowire. Pseudo-first order kinetic modelling performed with the experimental results revealed that the rate constant of photodegradation in case of TiO2 nanowire was 1.3 times higher than that of commercial TiO2. Superoxide radical (O2˙−) was found to be the major contributor in the photodegradation mechanism. Based on the trapping experiments, a plausible mechanism of the photocatalytic reaction is discussed.

Analysis of Structural and Photocatalytical Properties of Anatase, Rutile and Mixed Phase TiO2 Films Deposited by Pulsed-Direct Current and Radio Frequency Magnetron Co-Sputtering

Amongst many water purification techniques, TiO2 photocatalysis is recognized as one of the most promising sustainable methods. It is known that for photocatalytical applications anatase is the most suitable TiO2 phase, however heterojunction of anatase/rutile phases could improve the photocatalytical activity of TiO2 even further. Despite the relative simplicity of TiO2 different synthesis methods lead to the highly dispersed crystal phases and photocatalytic activity of the corresponding samples. Accordingly, suggestions and investigations of various innovative methods of TiO2 synthesis are still needed. In this work structural and photocatalytical properties of TiO2 films deposited by the unconventional method of simultaneous co-sputtering from two magnetrons powered by pulsed-Direct Current (pDC) and Radio Frequency (RF) power sources with negative bias voltage have been studied. More specifically, TiO2 film thickness, microstructure, surface roughness, crystal structure, optical transmittance and photocatalytical properties were investigated by profilometer, scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, X-ray diffractometer and UV-Vis spectrophotometer respectively. The proposed unconventional two magnetron co-sputtering based TiO2 film formation method showed very promising results for crystalline TiO2 film formation while keeping process temperatures below 100 °C. XRD analysis revealed that by using proper combination of power source type and bias voltage various TiO2 phases (amorphous, anatase, rutile or their mixture) can be synthesized selectively. Moreover, strong dependency between power source type and surface roughness, as well as between the bias voltage and band gap value of TiO2 films was observed. Interestingly, TiO2 films deposited by two magnetron co-sputtering without bias voltage had one of the highest band gap values between the investigated films but its photocatalytic activity was superior compared to all other samples. It is suggested that this is due to the dominating nanocrystalline anatase phase with various exposed surfaces including photocatalytically the most active {001}.

GGE-Biplot Analysis of Nano-Titanium Dioxide and Nano-Silica Effects on Sunflower

Present investigation is performed to evaluate the effects of foliar application of salicylic acid, glycine betaine, ascorbic acid, nano-silica, and nano-titanium dioxide on sunflower. Results showed that the first two principal components were sufficient to create a two-dimensional treatment by trait biplot, and such biplot accounted percentages of 49% and 19%, respectively of the interaction between traits and treatments. The vertex treatments of polygon were ascorbic acid, glycine betaine, nano-TiO2, and control indicated that high performance in some important traits consists of number of days to seed maturity, number of seeds per head, number heads per single plant, hundred seed weight, seed length, seed yield performance, and oil content. Treatments suitable for obtaining the high seed yield were identified in the vector-view function of biplot and displayed nano-silica and nano titanium dioxide as the best treatments suitable for obtaining of high seed yield.

High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells Fabricated under Ambient Conditions with Mesoporous TiO2/In2O3 Scaffold

Mesoscopic perovskite solar cells (mp-PSCs) with mesoporous bilayer were fabricated under ambient conditions. The bilayer was formed by capping the mesoporous TiO2 layer with a layer of In2O3. CH3NH3I3-xClx mixed halide perovskite was prepared through the one-step method and was used as the light absorber. The mp-PSCs with the composite TiO2/In2O3 mesoporous layer exhibited optimized electrical parameters, compared with the PSCs that employed only a TiO2 mesoporous layer, with a current density of 23.86 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage of 0.863 V, fill factor of 0.6 and a power conversion efficiency of 11.2%. These results indicate that the formation of a proper semiconductor capping layer over the basic TiO2 mesoporous layer can facilitate the electron transfer, suppress the recombination and subsequently lead to higher charge collection efficiency.

Preparation and Characterization of CuFe2O4/TiO2 Photocatalyst for the Conversion of CO2 into Methanol under Visible Light

A systematic study was conducted to explore the photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) into methanol on TiO2 loaded copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) photocatalyst under visible light irradiation. The phases and crystallite size of the photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and it indicates CuFe2O4 as tetragonal phase incorporation with anatase TiO2 in CuFe2O4/TiO2 hetero-structure. The XRD results confirmed the formation of spinel type tetragonal CuFe2O4 phases along with predominantly anatase phase of TiO2 in the CuFe2O4/TiO2 hetero-structure. UV-Vis absorption spectrum suggested the formation of the hetero-junction with relatively lower band gap than that of TiO2. Photoluminescence (PL) technique was used to study the electron–hole (e−/h+) recombination process. PL spectra analysis confirmed the slow-down of the recombination of electron–hole (e−/h+) pairs in the CuFe2O4/TiO2 hetero-structure. The photocatalytic performance of CuFe2O4/TiO2 was evaluated based on the methanol yield with varying amount of TiO2 over CuFe2O4 (0.5:1, 1:1, and 2:1) and changing light intensity. The mechanism of the photocatalysis was proposed based on the fact that the predominant species of CO2 in aqueous phase were dissolved CO2 and HCO3- at pH ~5.9. It was evident that the CuFe2O4 could harvest the electrons under visible light irradiation, which could further be injected to the conduction band of TiO2 to increase the life time of the electron and facilitating the reactions of CO2 to methanol. The developed catalyst showed good recycle ability up to four cycles where the loss of activity was ~25%. Methanol was observed as the main product over CuFe2O4, but loading with TiO2 remarkably increased the methanol yield. Methanol yield over CuFe2O4/TiO2 was found to be about three times higher (651 μmol/gcat L) than that of CuFe2O4 photocatalyst. This occurs because the energy of the band excited electrons lies above the redox potentials of the reaction products CO2/CH3OH.

A Simple Chemical Precipitation Method of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone as a Capping Agent and Their Characterization

In this paper, a simple chemical precipitation route for the preparation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, synthesized by using titanium tetra isopropoxide as a precursor and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent, is reported. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) of the samples were recorded and the phase transformation temperature of titanium hydroxide, Ti(OH)4 to titanium oxide, TiO2 was investigated. The as-prepared Ti(OH)4 precipitate was annealed at 800°C to obtain TiO2 nanoparticles. The thermal, structural, morphological and textural characterizations of the TiO2 nanoparticle samples were carried out by different techniques such as DSC-TGA, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), Micro Raman spectroscopy, UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) and Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) techniques. The as-prepared precipitate was characterized using DSC-TGA and confirmed the mass loss of around 30%. XRD results exhibited no diffraction peaks attributable to anatase phase, for the reaction products, after the solvent removal. The results indicate that the product is purely rutile. The vibrational frequencies of two main absorption bands of prepared samples are discussed from the results of the FTIR analysis. The formation of nanosphere of diameter of the order of 10 nm, has been confirmed by FESEM. The optical band gap was found by using UV-Visible spectrum. From photoluminescence spectra, a strong emission was observed. The obtained results suggest that this method provides a simple, efficient and versatile technique for preparing TiO2 nanoparticles and it has the potential to be applied to other systems for photocatalytic activity.

Biosynthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles and Their Antibacterial Property

This paper presents a low-cost, eco-friendly and reproducible microbe mediated biosynthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized using the bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, from titanium as a precursor, were confirmed by TEM analysis. The morphological characteristics state spherical shape, with the size of individual or aggregate nanoparticles, around 30-40 nm. Microbial resistance represents a challenge for the scientific community to develop new bioactive compounds. Here, the antibacterial effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on Escherichia coli was investigated, which was confirmed by CFU (Colony-forming unit). Further, growth curve study of E. coli Hb101 in the presence and absence of TiO2 nanoparticles was done. Optical density decrease was observed with the increase in the concentration of TiO2. It could be attributed to the inactivation of cellular enzymes and DNA by binding to electron-donating groups such as carboxylates, amides, indoles, hydroxyls, thiols, etc. which cause little pores in bacterial cell walls, leading to increased permeability and cell death. This justifies that TiO2 nanoparticles have efficient antibacterial effect and have potential to be used as an antibacterial agent for different purposes.

Synthesis of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel and Sonochemical Combination

Nanocrystalline TiO2 particles were successfully synthesized via sol-gel and sonochemical combination using titanium tetraisopropoxide as a precursor at lower temperature for a short time. The effect of the reaction parameters (hydrolysis media, acid media, and reaction temperatures) on the synthesis of TiO2 particles were investigated in the present study. Characterizations of synthesized samples were prepared by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. It was shown that the reaction parameters played a significant role in the synthesis of TiO2 particles.

The TiO2 Refraction Film for CsI Scintillator

Cesium iodide (CsI) melt was injected into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and was solidified to CsI column. The controllable AAO channel size (10~500 nm) can makes CsI column size from 10 to 500 nm in diameter. In order to have a shorter light irradiate from each singe CsI column top to bottom the AAO template was coated a TiO2 nano-film. The TiO2 film acts a refraction film and makes X-ray has a shorter irradiation path in the CsI crystal making a stronger the photo-electron signal. When the incidence light irradiate from air (R=1.0) to CsI’s first surface (R=1.84) the first refraction happen, the first refraction continue into TiO2 film (R=2.88) and produces the low angle of the second refraction. Then the second refraction continue into AAO wall (R=1.78) and produces the third refraction after refractions between CsI and AAO wall (R=1.78) produce the fourth refraction. The incidence light through TiO2 filmand the first surface of CsI then arrive to the second surface of CsI. Therefore, the TiO2 film can has shorter refraction path of incidence light and increase the photo-electron conversion efficiency.

Carbon Supported Cu and TiO2 Catalysts Applied for Ozone Decomposition

In this article a comparison was made between Cu and TiO2 supported catalysts on activated carbon for ozone decomposition reaction. The activated carbon support in the case of TiO2/AC sample was prepared by physicochemical pyrolysis and for Cu/AC samples the supports are chemically modified carbons. The prepared catalysts were synthesized by impregnation method. The samples were annealed in two different regimes- in air and under vacuum. To examine adsorption efficiency of the samples BET method was used. All investigated catalysts supported on chemically modified carbons have higher specific surface area compared to the specific surface area of TiO2 supported catalysts, varying in the range 590÷620 m2/g. The method of synthesis of the precursors had influenced catalytic activity.

Study of TiO2 Nanoparticles as Lubricant Additive in Two-Axial Groove Journal Bearing

Load carrying capacity of an oil lubricated two-axial groove journal bearing is simulated by taking into account the viscosity variations in lubricant due to the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles as lubricant additive. Shear viscosities of TiO2 nanoparticle dispersions in oil are measured for various nanoparticle additive concentrations. The viscosity model derived from the experimental viscosities is employed in a modified Reynolds equation to obtain the pressure profiles and load carrying capacity of two-axial groove journal bearing. Results reveal an increase in load carrying capacity of bearings operating on nanoparticle dispersions as compared to plain oil.

New Effect of Duct Cross Sectional Shape on the Nanofluid Flow Heat Transfer
In the present article, we investigate experimental laminar forced convective heat transfer specifications of TiO2/water nanofluids through conduits with different cross sections. we check the effects of different parameters such as cross sectional shape, Reynolds number and concentration of nanoparticles in stable suspension on increasing convective heat transfer by designing and assembling of an experimental apparatus. The results demonstrate adding a little amount of nanoparticles to the base fluid, improves heat transfer behavior in conduits. Moreover, conduit with circular cross-section has better performance compared to the square and triangular cross sections. However, conduits with square and triangular cross sections have more relative heat transfer enchantment than conduit with circular cross section.
Photocatalytic Oxidation of Gaseous Formaldehyde Using the TiO2 Coated SF Filter

The research work covered in this study includes the morphological structure and optical properties of TiO2-coated silk fibroin (SF) filters at 2.5% wt. TiO2/vol. PVA solution. SEM micrographs revealed the fibrous morphology of the TiO2-coated SF filters. An average diameter of the SF fiber was estimated to be approximately 10µm. Also, it was confirmed that TiO2 can be adhered more on SF filter surface at higher TiO2 dosages. The activity of semiconductor materials was studied by UV-VIS spectrophotometer method. The spectral data recorded shows the strong cut off at 390 nm. The calculated band-gap energy was about 3.19 eV. The photocatalytic activity of the filter was tested for gaseous formaldehyde removal in a modeling room with the total volume of 2.66 m3. The highest removal efficiency (54.72 ± 1.75%) was obtained at the initial formaldehyde concentration of about 5.00 ± 0.50ppm.

Light Harvesting Titanium Nanocatalyst for Remediation of Methyl Orange

An ecofriendly Citrus paradisipeel extract mediated synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles is reported under sonication. U.V.-vis, Transmission electron microscopy, Dynamic light scattering, and X-ray analyses are performed to characterize the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles. It is almost spherical in shape, having a size of 60–140 nm and the XRD peaks at 2θ = 25.363° confirm the characteristic facets for anatase form. The synthesized nanocatalyst is highly active in the decomposition of methyl orange (64 mg/L) in sunlight (~73%) for 2.5h.

TiO2-Zeolite Y Catalyst Prepared Using Impregnation and Ion-Exchange Method for Sonocatalytic Degradation of Amaranth Dye in Aqueous Solution
Characteristics and sonocatalytic activity of zeolite Y catalysts loaded with TiO2 using impregnation and ion exchange methods for the degradation of amaranth dye were investigated. The Ion-exchange method was used to encapsulate the TiO2 into the internal pores of the zeolite while the incorporation of TiO2 mostly on the external surface of zeolite was carried out using the impregnation method. Different characterization techniques were used to elucidate the physicochemical properties of the produced catalysts. The framework of zeolite Y remained virtually unchanged after the encapsulation of TiO2 while the crystallinity of zeolite decreased significantly after the incorporation of 15 wt% of TiO2. The sonocatalytic activity was enhanced by TiO2 incorporation with maximum degradation efficiencies of 50% and 68% for the encapsulated titanium and titanium loaded onto the zeolite, respectively after 120min of reaction. Catalysts characteristics and sonocatalytic behaviors were significantly affected by the preparation method and the location of TiO2 introduced with zeolite structure. Behaviors in the sonocatalytic process were successfully correlated with the characteristics of the catalysts used.
Titania and Cu-Titania Composite Layer on Graphite Substrate as Negative Electrode for Li-Ion Battery
This research study the application of the immobilized TiO2 layer and Cu-TiO2 layer on graphite substrate as a negative electrode or anode for Li-ion battery. The titania layer was produced through chemical bath deposition method, meanwhile Cu particles were deposited electrochemically. A material can be used as an electrode as it has capability to intercalates Li ions into its crystal structure. The Li intercalation into TiO2/Graphite and Cu- TiO2/Graphite were analyzed from the changes of its XRD pattern after it was used as electrode during discharging process. The XRD patterns were refined by Le Bail method in order to determine the crystal structure of the prepared materials. A specific capacity and the cycle ability measurement were carried out to study the performance of the prepared materials as negative electrode of the Li-ion battery. The specific capacity was measured during discharging process from fully charged until the cut off voltage. A 300 was used as a load. The result shows that the specific capacity of Li-ion battery with TiO2/Graphite as negative electrode is 230.87 ± 1.70mAh.g-1 which is higher than the specific capacity of Li-ion battery with pure graphite as negative electrode, i.e 140.75 ±0.46mAh.g-1. Meanwhile deposition of Cu onto TiO2 layer does not increase the specific capacity, and the value even lower than the battery with TiO2/Graphite as electrode. The cycle ability of the prepared battery is only two cycles, due to the Li ribbon which was used as cathode became fragile and easily broken.
Photo Catalytic Oxidation Degradation of Volatile Organic Compound with Nano-TiO2/LDPE Composite Film

The photocatalytic activity efficiency of TiO2 for the degradation of Toluene in photoreactor can be enhanced by nano- TiO2/LDPE composite film. Since the amount of TiO2 affected the efficiency of the photocatalytic activity, this work was mainly concentrated on the effort to embed the high amount of TiO2 in the Polyethylene matrix. The developed photocatalyst was characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and SEM. The SEM images revealed the high homogeneity of the deposition of TiO2 on the polyethylene matrix. The XRD patterns interpreted that TiO2 embedded in the PE matrix exhibited mainly in anatase form. In addition, the photocatalytic results show that the toluene removal efficiencies of 30±5%, 49±4%, 68±5%, 42±6% and 33±5% were obtained when using the catalyst loading at 0%, 10%, 15%, 25% and 50% (wt. cat./wt. film), respectively.

Size Controlled Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Anatase TiO2 Hollow Microspheres

Titanium oxide hollow microspheres were synthesized from organic precursor titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) using continuous spray pyrolysis reactor. Effects of precursor concentration, applied voltage and annealing have been investigated. It was observed that the annealing of the as-synthesized TiO2 hollow microspheres at 2500C, which had an average external diameter of 200 nm, leads to an increase in the size and also more spherical shape. The precursor concentration was found to have a direct impact on the size of the microspheres, which is also evident in the absorption spectrum. The as-prepared TiO2 hollow microspheres exhibited good photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MO.

Performance Enhancement of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by MgO Coating on TiO2 Electrodes
TiO2/MgO composite films were prepared by coating the magnesium acetate solution in the pores of mesoporous TiO2 films using a dip coating method. Concentrations of magnesium acetate solution were varied in a range of 1x10-4 – 1x10-1 M. The TiO2/MgO composite films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscropy (TEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS) , transient voltage decay and I-V test. The TiO2 films and TiO2/MgO composite films were immersed in a 0.3 mM N719 dye solution. The Dye-sensitized solar cells with the TiO2/MgO/N719 structure showed an optimal concentration of magnesium acetate solution of 1x10-3 M resulting in the MgO film estimated thickness of 0.0963 nm and giving the maximum efficiency of 4.85%. The improved efficiency of dyesensitized solar cell was due to the magnesium oxide film as the wide band gap coating decays the electron back transfer to the triiodide electrolyte and reduce charge recombination.
Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell by Plasma Spray
This paper aims to scale up Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) production using a commonly available industrial material – stainless steel - and industrial plasma equipment. A working DSSC electrode formed by (1) coating titania nanotube (TiO2 NT) film on 304 stainless steel substrate using a plasma spray technique; then, (2) filling the nano-pores of the TiO2 NT film using a TiF4 sol-gel method. A DSSC device consists of an anode absorbed photosensitive dye (N3), a transparent conductive cathode with platinum (Pt) nano-catalytic particles adhered to its surface, and an electrolytic solution sealed between the anode and the transparent conductive cathode. The photo-current conversion efficiency of the DSSC sample was tested under an AM 1.5 Solar Simulator. The sample has a short current (Isc) of 0.83 mA cm-2, open voltage (Voc) of 0.81V, filling factor (FF) of 0.52, and conversion efficiency (η) of 2.18% on a 0.16 cm2 DSSC work-piece.
Effect of Biomass Feedstocks on the Production of Hydrogenated Biodiesel
Hydrogenated biodiesel is one of the most promising renewable fuels. It has many advantages over conventional biodiesel, including higher cetane number, higher heating value, lower viscosity, and lower corrosiveness due to its absence of oxygen. From previous work, Pd/TiO2 gave high conversion and selectivity in hydrogenated biodiesel. In this work, the effect of biomass feedstocks (i.e. beef fat, chicken fat, pork fat, and jatropha oil) on the production of hydrogenated biodiesel over Pd/TiO2 has been studied. Biomass feedstocks were analyzed by ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) to identify the content of impurities (i.e. P, K, Ca, Na, and Mg). The deoxygenation catalyst, Pd/TiO2, was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation (IWI) and tested in a continuous flow packed-bed reactor at 500 psig, 325°C, H2/feed molar ratio of 30, and LHSV of 4 h-1 for its catalytic activity and selectivity in hydrodeoxygenation. All feedstocks gave high selectivity in diesel specification range hydrocarbons and the main hydrocarbons were n-pentadecane (n-C15) and n-heptadecane (n- C17), resulting from the decarbonylation/decarboxylation reaction. Intermediates such as oleic acid, stearic acid, palmitic acid, and esters were also detected in minor amount. The conversion of triglycerides in jatropha oil is higher than those of chicken fat, pork fat, and beef fat, respectively. The higher concentration of metal impurities in feedstock, the lower conversion of feedstock.
Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil over TiO2 Supported nano-ZnO
TiO2 supported nano-ZnO catalyst was prepared by deposition-precipitation and tested for the trans-esterification reaction of soybean oil to biodiesel. The TiO2 support stabilized the nano-ZnO in a dispersed form with limited crystallite size compared to the unsupported ZnO. The final ZnO dispersion and crystallite size and the material transfer resistance in the catalyst significantly influenced the supported nano-ZnO catalyst performance.
Deoxygenation of Beef Fat over Pd Supported Mesoporous TiO2 Catalyst Prepared by Single-Step Sol-Gel Process with Surfactant Template

Deoxygenation of beef fat for the production of hydrogenated biodiesel is investigated in a high pressure continuous flow fixed bed reactor over palladium-supported mesoporous titania catalyst synthesized via a combined single-step sol-gel process with surfactant-assisted templating method (SATM). The catalyst possessed a mesoporous charactheristic with high surface area and narrow pore size distribution. The main products of all Pd/TiO2 catalysts are n-heptadecane (n-C17) and n-pentadecane (n-C15) resulting from decarbonylation reaction. Pd/TiO2 catalyst synthesized via a combined single-step sol-gel process with SATM (SSSG) gave higher activity and selectivity to the desired products when compared to IWI/SG-TiO2 and IWI/P25-TiO2, respectively. SSSG catalyst gave the average conversion up to 80-90 % and 80 % for the selectivity in diesel range hydrocarbons. This result may cause by the higher surface area and the ability in dispersion of palladium ion in mesoporous of TiO2 during sol-gel process.

Effect of Calcination Temperature and MgO Crystallite Size on MgO/TiO2 Catalyst System for Soybean Transesterification

The effect of calcination temperature and MgO crystallite sizes on the structure and catalytic performance of TiO2 supported nano-MgO catalyst for the trans-esterification of soybean oil has been studied. The catalyst has been prepared by deposition precipitation method, characterised by XRD and FTIR and tested in an autoclave at 225oC. The soybean oil conversion after 15 minutes of the trans-esterification reaction increased when the calcination temperature was increased from 500 to 600oC and decreased with further increase in calcination temperature. Some glycerolysis activity was also detected on catalysts calcined at 600 and 700oC after 45 minutes of reaction. The trans-esterification reaction rate increased with the decrease in MgO crystallite size for the first 30 min.

Biodiesel Production over nano-MgO Supported on Titania

Nano-MgO was successfully deposited on titania using deposition-precipitation method. The catalyst produced was characterised using FTIR, XRD, BET and XRF and its activity was tested on the transesterification reaction of soybean oil to biodiesel. The catalyst activity improved when the reaction temperature was increasedfrom 150 and 225 OC. It was also observed that increasing the reaction time above 1h had no significant benefit on conversion. The stability fixed MgO on TiO2 was investigated using XRF and ICP-OES. It was observed that MgO loss during the reaction was between 0.5-2.3 percent and that there was no correlation between the reaction temperature and the MgO loss.

Structure and Magnetic Properties of Nanocomposite Fe2O3/TiO2 Catalysts Fabricated by Heterogeneous Precipitation
The aim of our work is to study phase composition, particle size and magnetic response of Fe2O3/TiO2 nanocomposites with respect to the final annealing temperature. Those nanomaterials are considered as smart catalysts, separable from a liquid/gaseous phase by applied magnetic field. The starting product was obtained by an ecologically acceptable route, based on heterogeneous precipitation of the TiO2 on modified g-Fe2O3 nanocrystals dispersed in water. The precursor was subsequently annealed on air at temperatures ranging from 200 oC to 900 oC. The samples were investigated by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (S-PXRD), magnetic measurements and Mössbauer spectroscopy. As evidenced by S-PXRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy, increasing the annealing temperature causes evolution of the phase composition from anatase/maghemite to rutile/hematite, finally above 700 oC the pseudobrookite (Fe2TiO5) also forms. The apparent particle size of the various Fe2O3/TiO2 phases has been determined from the highquality S-PXRD data by using two different approaches: the Rietveld refinement and the Debye method. Magnetic response of the samples is discussed in considering the phase composition and the particle size.
The Photo-Absorption and Surface Feature of Nano-Structured TIO2 Coatings
Titanium dioxide coatings were deposited by utilizing atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) system. The agglomerated nanopowder and different spraying parameters were used to determine their influences on the microstructure surface feature and photoabsorption of the coatings. The microstructure of as-sprayed TiO2 coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Surface characteristics were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR). The photo absorption was determined by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. It is found that the spray parameters have an influence on the microstructure, surface feature and photo-absorption of the TiO2 coatings.
Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Size Prepared by Photoreduction Method on Optical Absorption Spectra of TiO2/Ag/N719 Dye Composite Films
TiO2/Ag composite films were prepared by incorporating Ag in the pores of mesoporous TiO2 films using a photoreduction method. The Ag nanoparticle sizes were in a range of 3.66-38.56 nm. The TiO2/Ag composite films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscropy (TEM). The TiO2 films and TiO2/Ag composite films were immersed in a 0.3 mM N719 dye solution and characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The TiO2/Ag/N719 composite film showed that an optimal size of Ag nanoparticles was 19.12 nm and, hence, gave the maximum optical absorption spectra. The improved absorption was due to surface plasmon resonance induced by the Ag nanoparticles to enhance the absorption coefficient of the dye.
Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Polypropylene and High Density Polyethylene Matrix Composites Reinforced with Surface Modified Nano Sized TiO2 Particles
Plastics occupy wide place in the applications of automotive, electronics and house goods. Especially reinforced plastics become popular because of their high strength besides their advantages of low weight and easy manufacturability. In this study, mechanical and morphological properties of polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix composites reinforced with surface modified nano titan dioxide (TiO2) particles were investigated. Surface modification was made by coating the nano powders with maleic anhydride grafted styrene ethylene butylene styrene (SEBS-g-MA) and silane, respectively. After surface modification, PP/TiO2 and HDPE/TiO2 composites were obtained by using twin screw extruder at titan dioxide loading of 1 wt.%, 3 wt.% and 5 wt.%. Effects of surface modification were determined by thermal and morphological analysis. SEBS-g-MA provided bridging effect between TiO2 particles and polymer matrix while silane was effective as a dispersant. Depending on that, homogenous structures without agglomeration were obtained. Mechanical tests were performed on the injection moldings of the composites for obtaining the impact strength, tensile strength, stress at break, elongation and elastic modulus. Reinforced HDPE and PP moldings gave higher tensile strength and elastic modulus due to the rigid structure of TiO2. Slight increment was seen in stress at break. Elongation and impact strength decreased due to the stiffness of the nano titan dioxide.
Anodic Growth of Highly Ordered Titanium Oxide Nanotube Arrays: Effects of Critical Anodization Factors on their Photocatalytic Activity

Highly ordered arrays of TiO2 nanotubes (TiNTs) were grown vertically on Ti foil by electrochemical anodization. We controlled the lengths of these TiNTs from 2.4 to 26.8 ¶üÇóμm while varying the water contents (1, 3, and 6 wt%) of the electrolyte in ethylene glycol in the presence of 0.5 wt% NH4F with anodization for various applied voltages (20–80 V), periods (10–240 min) and temperatures (10–30 oC). For vertically aligned TiNT arrays, not only the increase in their tube lengths, but also their geometric (wall thickness and surface roughness) and crystalline structure lead to a significant influence on photocatalytic activity. The length optimization for methylene blue (MB) photodegradation was 18 μm. Further extending the TiNT length yielded lower photocatalytic activity presumably related to the limited MB diffusion and light-penetration depth into the TiNT arrays. The results indicated that a maximum MB photodegradation rate was obtained for the discrete anatase TiO2 nanotubes with thick and rough walls.

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