An Improved Adaptive Dot-Shape Beamforming Algorithm Research on Frequency Diverse Array
Frequency diverse array (FDA) beamforming is a technology developed in recent years, and its antenna pattern has a unique angle-distance-dependent characteristic. However, the beam is always required to have strong concentration, high resolution and low sidelobe level to form the point-to-point interference in the concentrated set. In order to eliminate the angle-distance coupling of the traditional FDA and to make the beam energy more concentrated, this paper adopts a multi-carrier FDA structure based on proposed power exponential frequency offset to improve the array structure and frequency offset of the traditional FDA. The simulation results show that the beam pattern of the array can form a dot-shape beam with more concentrated energy, and its resolution and sidelobe level performance are improved. However, the covariance matrix of the signal in the traditional adaptive beamforming algorithm is estimated by the finite-time snapshot data. When the number of snapshots is limited, the algorithm has an underestimation problem, which leads to the estimation error of the covariance matrix to cause beam distortion, so that the output pattern cannot form a dot-shape beam. And it also has main lobe deviation and high sidelobe level problems in the case of limited snapshot. Aiming at these problems, an adaptive beamforming technique based on exponential correction for multi-carrier FDA is proposed to improve beamforming robustness. The steps are as follows: first, the beamforming of the multi-carrier FDA is formed under linear constrained minimum variance (LCMV) criteria. Then the eigenvalue decomposition of the covariance matrix is performed to obtain the diagonal matrix composed of the interference subspace, the noise subspace and the corresponding eigenvalues. Finally, the correction index is introduced to exponentially correct the small eigenvalues of the noise subspace, improve the divergence of small eigenvalues in the noise subspace, and improve the performance of beamforming. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can make the multi-carrier FDA form a dot-shape beam at limited snapshots, reduce the sidelobe level, improve the robustness of beamforming, and have better performance.
Performance Assessment of Carrier Aggregation-Based Indoor Mobile Networks
The intelligent management and optimisation of radio resource technologies will lead to a considerable improvement in the overall performance in Next Generation Networks (NGNs). Carrier Aggregation (CA) technology, also known as Spectrum Aggregation, enables more efficient use of the available spectrum by combining multiple Component Carriers (CCs) in a virtual wideband channel. LTE-A (Long Term Evolution–Advanced) CA technology can combine multiple adjacent or separate CCs in the same band or in different bands. In this way, increased data rates and dynamic load balancing can be achieved, resulting in a more reliable and efficient operation of mobile networks and the enabling of high bandwidth mobile services. In this paper, several distinct CA deployment strategies for the utilisation of spectrum bands are compared in indoor-outdoor scenarios, simulated via the recently-developed Realistic Indoor Environment Generator (RIEG). We analyse the performance of the User Equipment (UE) by integrating the average throughput, the level of fairness of radio resource allocation, and other parameters, into one summative assessment termed a Comparative Factor (CF). In addition, comparison of non-CA and CA indoor mobile networks is carried out under different load conditions: varying numbers and positions of UEs. The experimental results demonstrate that the CA technology can improve network performance, especially in the case of indoor scenarios. Additionally, we show that an increase of carrier frequency does not necessarily lead to improved CF values, due to high wall-penetration losses. The performance of users under bad-channel conditions, often located in the periphery of the cells, can be improved by intelligent CA location. Furthermore, a combination of such a deployment and effective radio resource allocation management with respect to user-fairness plays a crucial role in improving the performance of LTE-A networks.
Sensitivity Analysis of External-Rotor Permanent Magnet Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Motor
In this paper, a proper approach is taken to assess a set of the most effective rotor design parameters for an external-rotor permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor (PMaSynRM) and therefore to tackle the design complexity of the rotor structure. There are different advantages for introducing permanent magnets into the rotor flux barriers, some of which are to saturate the rotor iron ribs, to increase the motor torque density and to improve the power factor. Moreover, the d-axis and q-axis inductances are of great importance to simultaneously achieve maximum developed torque and low torque ripple. Therefore, sensitivity analysis of the rotor geometry of an 8-pole external-rotor permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor is performed. Several magnetically accurate finite element analyses (FEA) are conducted to characterize the electromagnetic performance of the motor. The analyses validate torque and power factor equations for the proposed external-rotor motor. Based upon the obtained results and due to an additional term, permanent magnet torque, added to the reluctance torque, the electromagnetic torque of the PMaSynRM increases.
Synthesis and Characterization of Nickel and Sulphur Sensitized Zinc Oxide Structures
The use of nanostructured semiconducting material to catalyze degradation of environmental pollutants still receives much attention to date. One of the desired characteristics for pollutant degradation under ultra-violet visible light is the materials with extended carrier charge separation that allows for electronic transfer between the catalyst and the pollutants. In this work, zinc oxide n-type semiconductor vertically aligned structures were fabricated on silicon (100) substrates using the chemical bath deposition method. The as-synthesized structures were treated with nickel and sulphur. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the phase purity, structural dimensions and elemental composition of the obtained structures respectively. Photoluminescence emission measurements showed a decrease in both the near band edge emission as well as the defect band emission upon addition of nickel and sulphur with different concentrations. This was attributed to increased charger-carrier-separation due to the presence of Ni-S material on ZnO surface, which is linked to improved charge transfer during photocatalytic reactions.
Assessment of Drug Delivery Systems from Molecular Dynamic Perspective
In this study, we developed and simulated nano-drug delivery systems efficacy in compare to free drug prescription. Computational models can be utilized to accelerate experimental steps and control the experiments high cost. Molecular dynamics simulation (MDS), in particular NAMD was utilized to better understand the anti-cancer drug interaction with cell membrane model. Paclitaxel (PTX) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were selected for the drug molecule and as a natural phospholipid nanocarrier, respectively. This work focused on two important interaction parameters between molecules in terms of center of mass (COM) and van der Waals interaction energy. Furthermore, we compared the simulation results of the PTX interaction with the cell membrane and the interaction of DPPC as a nanocarrier loaded by the drug with the cell membrane. The molecular dynamic analysis resulted in low energy between the nanocarrier and the cell membrane as well as significant decrease of COM amount in the nanocarrier and the cell membrane system during the interaction. Thus, the drug vehicle showed notably better interaction with the cell membrane in compared to free drug interaction with the cell membrane.
Photoimpedance Spectroscopy Analysis of Planar and Nano-Textured Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells
In impedance spectroscopy (IS) the response of a photo-active device is analysed as a function of ac bias. It is widely applied in a broad class of material systems and devices. It gives access to fundamental mechanisms of operation of solar cells. We have implemented a method of IS where we modulate the light instead of the bias. This scheme allows us to analyze not only carrier dynamics but also impedance of device locally. Here, using this scheme, we have measured the frequency-dependent photocurrent response of the thin-film planar and nano-textured Si solar cells using this method. Photocurrent response is measured in range of 50 Hz to 50 kHz. Bode and Nyquist plots are used to determine characteristic lifetime of both the cells. Interestingly, the carrier lifetime of both planar and nano-textured solar cells depend on back and front contact positions. This is due to either heterogeneity of device or contacts are not optimized. The estimated average lifetime is found to be shorter for the nano-textured cell, which could be due to the influence of the textured interface on the carrier relaxation dynamics.
Interference Management in Long Term Evolution-Advanced System
Incorporating Home eNodeB (HeNB) in cellular networks, e.g. Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A), is beneficial for extending coverage and enhancing capacity at low price especially within the non-line-of sight (NLOS) environments such as homes. HeNB or femtocell is a small low powered base station which provides radio coverage to the mobile users in an indoor environment. This deployment results in a heterogeneous network where the available spectrum becomes shared between two layers. Therefore, a problem of Inter Cell Interference (ICI) appears. This issue is the main challenge in LTE-A. To deal with this challenge, various techniques based on frequency, time and power control are proposed. This paper deals with the impact of carrier aggregation and higher order MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) schemes on the LTE-Advanced performance. Simulation results show the advantages of these schemes on the system capacity (4.109 b/s/Hz when bandwidth B=100 MHz and when applying MIMO 8x8 for SINR=30 dB), maximum theoretical peak data rate (more than 4 Gbps for B=100 MHz and when MIMO 8x8 is used) and spectral efficiency (15 b/s/Hz and 30b/s/Hz when MIMO 4x4 and MIMO 8x8 are applying respectively for SINR=30 dB).
Optimizing Logistics for Courier Organizations with Considerations of Congestions and Pickups: A Courier Delivery System in Amman as Case Study
Traveling salesman problem (TSP) is a combinatorial integer optimization problem that asks "What is the optimal route for a vehicle to traverse in order to deliver requests to a given set of customers?”. It is widely used by the package carrier companies’ distribution centers. The main goal of applying the TSP in courier organizations is to minimize the time that it takes for the courier in each trip to deliver or pick up the shipments during a day. In this article, an optimization model is constructed to create a new TSP variant to optimize the routing in a courier organization with a consideration of congestion in Amman, the capital of Jordan. Real data were collected by different methods and analyzed. Then, concert technology - CPLEX was used to solve the proposed model for some random generated data instances and for the real collected data. At the end, results have shown a great improvement in time compared with the current trip times, and an economic study was conducted afterwards to figure out the impact of using such models.
Sidelobe Reduction in Cognitive Radio Systems Using Hybrid Technique
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the best candidates for dynamic spectrum access due to its flexibility of spectrum shaping. However, the high sidelobes of the OFDM signal that result in high out-of-band radiation, introduce significant interference to the users operating in its vicinity. This problem becomes more critical in cognitive radio (CR) system that enables the secondary users (SUs) users to access the spectrum holes not used by the primary users (PUs) at that time. In this paper, we present a generalized OFDM framework that has a capability of describing any sidelobe suppression techniques, despite of whether one or a number of techniques are used. Based on that framework, we propose cancellation carrier (CC) technique in conjunction with the generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) to reduce the out-of-band radiation in the region where the licensed users are operating. Simulation results show that the proposed technique can reduce the out-of-band radiation better when compared with the existing techniques found in the literature.
Application of Liquid Emulsion Membrane Technique for the Removal of Cadmium(II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Aliquat 336 as a Carrier
In the present work, emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) technique was applied for the extraction of cadmium(II) present in aqueous samples. Aliquat 336 (Chloride tri-N-octylmethylammonium) was used as carrier to extract cadmium(II). The main objective of this work is to investigate the influence of various parameters affected the ELM formation and its stability and testing the performance of the prepared ELM on removal of cadmium by using synthetic solution with different concentrations. Experiments were conducted to optimize pH of the feed solution and it was found that cadmium(II) can be extracted at pH 6.5. The influence of the carrier concentration and treat ratio on the extraction process was investigated. The obtained results showed that the optimal values are respectively 3% (Aliquat 336) and a ratio (feed: emulsion) equal to 1:1.
Morphology Study of Inverted Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells in Sequential Deposition
In this study, a sequential deposition process is used for the fabrication of PEDOT: PSS based inverted planar perovskite solar cell. A small amount of additive deionized water (DI-H2O) was added into PbI2 + Dimethyl formamide (DMF) precursor solution in order to increase the solubility of PbI2 in DMF, and finally to manipulate the surface morphology of the perovskite films. A morphology transition from needle like structure to hexagonal plates, and then needle-like again has been observed as the DI-H2O was added continuously (0.0 wt% to 3.0wt%). The latter one leads to full surface coverage of the perovskite, which is essential for high performance solar cell.
An Electrically Modulatable Silicon Waveguide Grating Using an Implantation Technology
The first pn-type carrier-induced silicon Bragg-grating filter is demonstrated. The extinction-ratio modulations are 11.5 dB and 10 dB with reverse and forward biases, respectively. 8-Gpbs data rate is achieved with a reverse bias.
A Comparative Analysis of Multicarrier SPWM Strategies for Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter
Carrier-based methods have been used widely for switching of multilevel inverters due to their simplicity, flexibility and reduced computational requirements compared to space vector modulation (SVM). This paper focuses on Multicarrier Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (MCSPWM) strategy for the three phase Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter (5LFCI). The inverter is simulated for Induction Motor (IM) load and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) for output waveforms is observed for different controlling schemes.
Cost Valuation Method for Development Concurrent Phase Appropriate Requirement Valuation Using the Example of Load Carrier Development in the Lithium-Ion-Battery Production
In the past years electric mobility became part of a
public discussion. The trend to fully electrified vehicles instead of
vehicles fueled with fossil energy has notably gained momentum.
Today nearly every big car manufacturer produces and sells fully
electrified vehicles, but electrified vehicles are still not as competitive
as conventional powered vehicles. As the traction battery states the
largest cost driver, lowering its price is a crucial objective. In
addition to improvements in product and production processes a nonnegligible,
but widely underestimated cost driver of production can
be found in logistics, since the production technology is not
continuous yet and neither are the logistics systems. This paper presents an approach to evaluate cost factors on
different designs of load carrier systems. Due to numerous
interdependencies, the combination of costs factors for a particular
scenario is not transparent. This is effecting actions for cost reduction
negatively, but still cost reduction is one of the major goals for
simultaneous engineering processes. Therefore a concurrent and
phase appropriate cost valuation method is necessary to serve cost
transparency. In this paper the four phases of this cost valuation
method are defined and explained, which based upon a new approach
integrating the logistics development process in to the integrated
product and process development.
Gold-Mediated Modification of Apoferritin Surface with Targeting Antibodies
To ensure targeting of apoferritin nanocarrier with
encapsulated doxorubicin drug, we used a peptide linker based on a
protein G with N-terminus affinity towards Fc region of antibodies.
To connect the peptide to the surface of apoferritin, the C-terminus of
peptide was made of cysteine with affinity to gold. The surface of
apoferritin with encapsulated doxorubicin (APODOX) was coated
either with gold nanoparticles (APODOX-Nano) or gold(III) chloride
hydrate reduced with sodium borohydride (APODOX-HAu). The
reduction with sodium borohydride caused a loss of doxorubicin
fluorescent properties and probably accompanied with the loss of its
biological activity. Fluorescent properties of APODOX-Nano were
similar to the unmodified APODOX; therefore it was more suited for
the intended use. To evaluate the specificity of apoferritin modified
with antibodies, ELISA-like method was used with the surface of
microtitration plate wells coated by the antigen (goat anti-human IgG
antibodies). To these wells, the nanocarrier was applied. APODOX
without the modification showed 5× lower affinity to the antigen than
APODOX-Nano modified gold and targeting antibodies (human IgG
Phage Capsid for Efficient Delivery of Cytotoxic Drugs
Various nanomaterials can be used as a drug delivery
vehicles in nanomedicine, called nanocarriers. They can either be
organic or inorganic, synthetic or natural-based. Although synthetic
nanocarriers are easier to produce, they can often be toxic for the
organism and thus not suitable for use in treatment. From naturalbased
nanocarriers, the most commonly used are protein cages or
viral capsids. In this work, virus bacteriophage λ was used for
delivery of different cytotoxic drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin,
oxaliplatin and doxorubicin). Large quantities of phage λ were
obtained from phage λ-producing strain of E. coli cultivated in
medium with 0.2% maltose. After killing of E. coli with chloroform
and its removal by centrifugation, the phage was concentrated by
ultracentrifugation at 130 000×g and 4°C for 3 h. The encapsulation
of the drugs was performed by infusion method and four different
concentrations of the drugs were encapsulated (200; 100; 50; 25
μg·mL-1). Free drug molecules were removed by filtration. The
encapsulation was verified using the absorbance for doxorubicin and
atomic absorption spectrometry for platinum cytostatics. The amount
of encapsulated drug linearly increased with the increasing
concentration of applied drug with the determination coefficient
R2=0.989 for doxorubicin; R2=0.967 for cisplatin; R2=0.989 for
carboplatin and R2=0.996 for oxaliplatin. The overall encapsulation
efficiency was calculated as 50% for doxorubicin; 8% for cisplatin;
6% for carboplatin and 10% for oxaliplatin.
Comparative Review of Modulation Techniques for Harmonic Minimization in Multilevel Inverter
This paper proposed the comparison made between
Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation, Sinusoidal Pulse Width
Modulation and Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width
Modulation technique for minimization of Total Harmonic Distortion
in Cascaded H-Bridge Multi-Level Inverter. In Multicarrier Pulse
Width Modulation method by using Alternate Position of Disposition
scheme for switching pulse generation to Multi-Level Inverter.
Another carrier based approach; Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation
method is also implemented to define the switching pulse generation
system in the multi-level inverter. In Selective Harmonic Elimination
method using Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization
algorithm for define the required switching angles to eliminate low
order harmonics from the inverter output voltage waveform and
reduce the total harmonic distortion value. So, the results validate that
the Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation method
does capably eliminate a great number of precise harmonics and
minimize the Total Harmonic Distortion value in output voltage
waveform in compared with Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation
method, Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation method. In this paper,
comparison of simulation results shows that the Selective Harmonic
Elimination method can attain optimal harmonic minimization
solution better than Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation method,
Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation method.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Lysozyme-Silver Nanoparticles Complex
Identifying the nature of protein-nanoparticle
interactions and favored binding sites is an important issue in
functional characterization of biomolecules and their physiological
responses. Herein, interaction of silver nanoparticles with lysozyme
as a model protein has been monitored via fluorescence spectroscopy.
Formation of complex between the biomolecule and silver
nanoparticles (AgNPs) induced a steady state reduction in the
fluorescence intensity of protein at different concentrations of
nanoparticles. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching spectra suggested
that silver nanoparticles act as a foreign quencher, approaching the
protein via this residue. Analysis of the Stern-Volmer plot showed
quenching constant of 3.73 μM−1. Moreover, a single binding site in
lysozyme is suggested to play role during interaction with AgNPs,
having low affinity of binding compared to gold nanoparticles.
Unfolding studies of lysozyme showed that complex of lysozyme-
AgNPs has not undergone structural perturbations compared to the
bare protein. Results of this effort will pave the way for utilization of
sensitive spectroscopic techniques for rational design of
nanobiomaterials in biomedical applications.
Unambiguous Signal Acquisition Based On Recombination of Sub-Correlations of BOC Signals
Due to side-peaks of autocorrelation function, the binary offset carrier (BOC) signal acquisition suffers from an ambiguity when one of the side-peaks is acquired. In this paper, we first analyze that the BOC autocorrelation is made up of the sum of subcorrelations, and then, remove the side-peaks causing the ambiguity by recombining the sub-correlations. The proposed scheme is shown to remove the side-peaks completely. From numerical results, it is confirmed that the proposed scheme outperforms the conventional schemes in terms of the receiver operating characteristic and mean acquisition time.
A Comparative Analysis of Modulation Control Strategies for Cascade H-Bridge 11-Level Inverter
The range of the output power is a very important and evident limitation of two-level inverters. In order to overcome this disadvantage, multilevel inverters are introduced. Recently, Cascade H-Bridge inverters have emerged as one of the popular converter topologies used in numerous industrial applications. The modulation switching strategies such as phase shifted carrier based Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique and Stair case modulation with Selective Harmonic Elimination (SHE) PWM technique are generally used. NR method is used to solve highly non linear transcendental equations which are formed by SHEPWM method. Generally NR method has a drawback of requiring good initial guess but in this paper a new approach is implemented for NR method with any random initial guess. A three phase CHB 11-level inverter is chosen for analysis. MATLAB/SIMULINK programming environment and harmonic profiles are compared. Finally this paper presents a method at fundamental switching frequency with least % THDV.
A Novel Pilot Scheme for Frequency Offset and Channel Estimation in 2x2 MIMO-OFDM
The Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) due to timevarying
fading channel is the main cause of the loss of orthogonality
among OFDM subcarriers which is linked to inter-carrier interference
(ICI). Hence, it is necessary to precisely estimate and compensate the
CFO. Especially for mobile broadband communications, CFO and
channel gain also have to be estimated and tracked to maintain the
system performance. Thus, synchronization pilots are embedded in
every OFDM symbol to track the variations. In this paper, we present
the pilot scheme for both channel and CFO estimation where channel
estimation process can be carried out with only one OFDM symbol.
Additional, the proposed pilot scheme also provides better
performance in CFO estimation comparing with the conventional
orthogonal pilot scheme due to the increasing of signal-tointerference
Improvement of Photoluminescence Uniformity of Porous Silicon by using Stirring Anodization Process
The electrolyte stirring method of anodization etching
process for manufacturing porous silicon (PS) is reported in this work.
Two experimental setups of nature air stirring (PS-ASM) and
electrolyte stirring (PS-ESM) are employed to clarify the influence of
stirring mechanisms on electrochemical etching process. Compared to
traditional fabrication without any stirring apparatus (PS-TM), a large
plateau region of PS surface structure is obtained from samples with
both stirring methods by the 3D-profiler measurement. Moreover, the
light emission response is also improved by both proposed electrolyte
stirring methods due to the cycling force in electrolyte could
effectively enhance etch-carrier distribution while the electrochemical
etching process is made. According to the analysis of statistical
calculation of photoluminescence (PL) intensity, lower standard
deviations are obtained from PS-samples with studied stirring methods,
i.e. the uniformity of PL-intensity is effectively improved. The
calculated deviations of PL-intensity are 93.2, 74.5 and 64,
respectively, for PS-TM, PS-ASM and PS-ESM.
Exact Evaluation Method for Error Performance Analysis of Arbitrary 2-D Modulation OFDM Systems with CFO
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)
has developed into a popular scheme for wideband digital
communications used in consumer applications such as digital broadcasting, wireless networking and broadband internet access. In
the OFDM system, carrier frequency offset (CFO) causes intercarrier
interference (ICI) which significantly degrades the system error performance. In this paper we provide an exact evaluation method for error performance analysis of arbitrary 2-D modulation OFDM systems with CFO, and analyze the effect of CFO on error performance.
Power Line Carrier for Power Telemetering
This paper presents an application of power line
carrier (PLC) for electrical power telemetering. This system has a
special capability of transmitting the measured values to a centralized
computer via power lines. The PLC modem as a passive high-pass
filter is designed for transmitting and receiving information. Its
function is to send the information carrier together with transmitted
data by superimposing it on the 50 Hz power frequency signal. A
microcontroller is employed to function as the main processing of the
modem. It is programmed for PLC control and interfacing with other
devices. Each power meter, connected via a PLC modem, is assigned
with a unique identification number (address) for distinguishing each
device from one another.
Performance Analysis of Selective Adaptive Multiple Access Interference Cancellation for Multicarrier DS-CDMA Systems
In this paper, Selective Adaptive Parallel Interference Cancellation (SA-PIC) technique is presented for Multicarrier Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (MC DS-CDMA) scheme. The motivation of using SA-PIC is that it gives high performance and at the same time, reduces the computational complexity required to perform interference cancellation. An upper bound expression of the bit error rate (BER) for the SA-PIC under Rayleigh fading channel condition is derived. Moreover, the implementation complexities for SA-PIC and Adaptive Parallel Interference Cancellation (APIC) are discussed and compared. The performance of SA-PIC is investigated analytically and validated via computer simulations.
Evaluation of Cigarette Filters Rods as a Biofilm Carrier in Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge Process
The purpose of the experiments described in this article was the comparison of integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) and activated sludge (AS) system. The IFAS applied system consists of the cigarette filter rods (wasted filter in tobacco factories) as a biofilm carrier. The comparison with activated sludge was performed by two parallel treatment lines. Organic substance, ammonia and TP removal was investigated over four month period. Synthetic wastewater was prepared with ordinary tap water and glucose as the main sources of carbon and energy, plus balanced macro and micro nutrients. COD removal percentages of 94.55%, and 81.62% were achieved for IFAS and activated sludge system, respectively. Also, ammonia concentration significantly decreased by increasing the HRT in both systems. The average ammonia removal of 97.40 % and 96.34% were achieved for IFAS and activated sludge system, respectively. The removal efficiency of total phosphorus (TP-P) was 60.64%, higher than AS process by 56.63% respectively.
Effects of Double Delta Doping on Millimeter and Sub-millimeter Wave Response of Two-Dimensional Hot Electrons in GaAs Nanostructures
Carrier mobility has become the most important
characteristic of high speed low dimensional devices. Due to
development of very fast switching semiconductor devices, speed of
computer and communication equipment has been increasing day by
day and will continue to do so in future. As the response of any
device depends on the carrier motion within the devices, extensive
studies of carrier mobility in the devices has been established
essential for the growth in the field of low dimensional devices.
Small-signal ac transport of degenerate two-dimensional hot
electrons in GaAs quantum wells is studied here incorporating
deformation potential acoustic, polar optic and ionized impurity
scattering in the framework of heated drifted Fermi-Dirac carrier
distribution. Delta doping is considered in the calculations to
investigate the effects of double delta doping on millimeter and submillimeter
wave response of two dimensional hot electrons in GaAs
nanostructures. The inclusion of delta doping is found to enhance
considerably the two dimensional electron density which in turn
improves the carrier mobility (both ac and dc) values in the GaAs
quantum wells thereby providing scope of getting higher speed
devices in future.
Uniform Overlapped Multi-Carrier PWM for a Six-Level Diode Clamped Inverter
Multi-level voltage source inverters offer several
advantages such as; derivation of a refined output voltage with
reduced total harmonic distortion (THD), reduction of voltage ratings
of the power semiconductor switching devices and also the reduced
electro-magnetic-interference problems etc. In this paper, new
carrier-overlapped phase-disposition or sub-harmonic sinusoidal
pulse width modulation (CO-PD-SPWM) and also the carrieroverlapped
phase-disposition space vector modulation (CO-PDSVPWM)
schemes for a six-level diode-clamped inverter topology
are proposed. The principle of the proposed PWM schemes is similar
to the conventional PD-PWM with a little deviation from it in the
sense that the triangular carriers are all overlapped. The overlapping
of the triangular carriers on one hand results in an increased number
of switchings, on the other hand this facilitates an improved spectral
performance of the output voltage. It is demonstrated through
simulation studies that the six-level diode-clamped inverter with the
use of CO-PD-SPWM and CO-PD-SVPWM proposed in this paper is
capable of generating multiple levels in its output voltage. The
advantages of the proposed PWM schemes can be derived to benefit,
especially at lower modulation indices of the inverter and hence this
aspect of the proposed PWM schemes can be well exploited in high
power applications requiring low speeds of operation of the drive.
An Image Encryption Method with Magnitude and Phase Manipulation using Carrier Images
We describe an effective method for image encryption
which employs magnitude and phase manipulation using carrier
images. Although it involves traditional methods like magnitude and
phase encryptions, the novelty of this work lies in deploying the
concept of carrier images for encryption purpose. To this end, a
carrier image is randomly chosen from a set of stored images. One
dimensional (1-D) discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is then carried
out on the original image to be encrypted along with the carrier
image. Row wise spectral addition and scaling is performed between
the magnitude spectra of the original and carrier images by randomly
selecting the rows. Similarly, row wise phase addition and scaling is
performed between the original and carrier images phase spectra by
randomly selecting the rows. The encrypted image obtained by these
two operations is further subjected to one more level of magnitude
and phase manipulation using another randomly chosen carrier image
by 1-D DFT along the columns. The resulting encrypted image is
found to be fully distorted, resulting in increasing the robustness
of the proposed work. Further, applying the reverse process at the
receiver, the decrypted image is found to be distortionless.
PAPR Reduction Method for OFDM Signalby Using Dummy Sub-carriers
One of the disadvantages of using OFDM is the larger
peak to averaged power ratio (PAPR) in its time domain signal. The
larger PAPR signal would course the fatal degradation of bit error
rate performance (BER) due to the inter-modulation noise in the nonlinear
channel. This paper proposes an improved DSI (Dummy
Sequence Insertion) method, which can achieve the better PAPR and
BER performances. The feature of proposed method is to optimize
the phase of each dummy sub-carrier so as to reduce the PAPR
performance by changing all predetermined phase coefficients in the
time domain signal, which is calculated for data sub-carriers and
dummy sub-carriers separately. To achieve the better PAPR
performance, this paper also proposes to employ the time-frequency
domain swapping algorithm for fine adjustment of phase coefficient
of the dummy subcarriers, which can achieve the less complexity of
processing and achieves the better PAPR and BER performances
than those for the conventional DSI method. This paper presents
various computer simulation results to verify the effectiveness of
proposed method as comparing with the conventional methods in the