|Commenced in January 2007||Frequency: Monthly||Edition: International||Paper Count: 56|
This paper presents a real time video surveillance system which is capable of tracking multiple real time objects using Polar Vector Median (PVM) and Block Coding Modes (BCM) with Global Motion Compensation (GMC). This strategy works in the packed area and furthermore utilizes the movement vectors and BCM from the compressed bit stream to perform real time object tracking. We propose to do this in view of the neighboring Motion Vectors (MVs) using a method called PVM. Since GM adds to the object’s native motion, for accurate tracking, it is important to remove GM from the MV field prior to further processing. The proposed method is tested on a number of standard sequences and the results show its advantages over some of the current modern methods.
One of the defects of stepped frequency radar systems is their sensitivity to target motion. In such systems, target motion causes range cell shift, false peaks, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) reduction and range profile spreading because of power spectrum interference of each range cell in adjacent range cells which induces distortion in High Resolution Range Profile (HRRP) and disrupt target recognition process. Thus Target Motion Parameters (TMPs) effects compensation should be employed. In this paper, such a method for estimating TMPs (velocity and acceleration) and consequently eliminating or suppressing the unwanted effects on HRRP based on entropy minimization has been proposed. This method is carried out in two major steps: in the first step, a discrete search method has been utilized over the whole acceleration-velocity lattice network, in a specific interval seeking to find a less-accurate minimum point of the entropy function. Then in the second step, a 1-D search over velocity is done in locus of the minimum for several constant acceleration lines, in order to enhance the accuracy of the minimum point found in the first step. The provided simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
In this paper, firstly, we present the mathematical modeling of finite impulse response (FIR) filter and Cascaded Integrator Comb (CIC) filter for sampling rate reduction and then an extension of Canonical signed digit (CSD) based efficient structure is presented in framework using hybrid signed digit (HSD) arithmetic. CSD representation imposed a restriction that two non-zero CSD coefficient bits cannot acquire adjacent bit positions and therefore, represented structure is not economical in terms of speed, area and power consumption. The HSD based structure gives optimum performance in terms of area and speed with 37.02% passband droop compensation.
In this paper, triangular lattice index-guiding photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are synthesized to compensate the chromatic dispersion of a single mode fiber (SMF-28) for an 80 km optical link operating at 1.55 µm, by using the directed tabu search algorithm. Hole-to-hole distance, circular air-hole diameter, solid-core diameter, ring number and PCF length parameters are optimized for this purpose. Three Synthesized PCFs with different physical parameters are compared in terms of their objective functions values, residual dispersions and compensation ratios.
In Singapore, talent retention is one of the most persistent and real issue companies have to grapple with due to the tight labour market. Being resource-scarce, Singapore depends solely on its talented pool of high quality human resource to sustain its competitive advantage in the global economy. But the complex and multifaceted nature of turnover phenomenon makes the prescription of effective talent retention strategies in such a competitive labour market very challenging, especially when it comes to monetary incentives, companies struggle to answer the question of “How much is enough?” By examining the interactive effects of perceived alternative employment opportunities, annual salary and satisfaction with compensation on the turnover intention of 102 Singapore Professionals, Managers, Executives and Technicians (PMET) through correlation analyses and multiple regressions, important insights into the psyche of the Singapore talent pool can be drawn. It is found that annual salary influence turnover intention indirectly through mediation and moderation effects on PMET’s satisfaction on compensation. PMET are also found to be heavily swayed by better external opportunities. This implies that talent retention strategies should not adopt a purely monetary based blanket approach but rather a comprehensive and holistic one that considers the dynamics of prevailing market conditions.
The phase compensation method was proposed based on the concept of the damping torque analysis (DTA). It is a method for the design of a PSS (power system stabilizer) to suppress local-mode power oscillations in a single-machine infinite-bus power system. This paper presents the application of the phase compensation method for the design of a PSS in a multi-machine power system. The application is achieved by examining the direct damping contribution of the stabilizer to the power oscillations. By using linearized equal area criterion, a theoretical proof to the application for the PSS design is presented. Hence PSS design in the paper is an example of stable tending control by localized method.
The 3D body movement signals captured during human-human conversation include clues not only to the content of people’s communication but also to their culture and personality. This paper is concerned with automatic extraction of this information from body movement signals. For the purpose of this research, we collected a novel corpus from 27 subjects, arranged them into groups according to their culture. We arranged each group into pairs and each pair communicated with each other about different topics. A state-of-art recognition system is applied to the problems of person, culture, and topic recognition. We borrowed modeling, classification, and normalization techniques from speech recognition. We used Gaussian Mixture Modeling (GMM) as the main technique for building our three systems, obtaining 77.78%, 55.47%, and 39.06% from the person, culture, and topic recognition systems respectively. In addition, we combined the above GMM systems with Support Vector Machines (SVM) to obtain 85.42%, 62.50%, and 40.63% accuracy for person, culture, and topic recognition respectively. Although direct comparison among these three recognition systems is difficult, it seems that our person recognition system performs best for both GMM and GMM-SVM, suggesting that intersubject differences (i.e. subject’s personality traits) are a major source of variation. When removing these traits from culture and topic recognition systems using the Nuisance Attribute Projection (NAP) and the Intersession Variability Compensation (ISVC) techniques, we obtained 73.44% and 46.09% accuracy from culture and topic recognition systems respectively.
This paper presents a study on Proportional Resonant (PR) current control with additional PR harmonic compensators for Grid Connected Photovoltaic (PV) Inverters. Both simulation and experimental results will be presented. Testing was carried out on a 3kW Grid-Connected PV Inverter which was designed and constructed for this research.
Nowadays, Photovoltaic-PV Farms/ Parks and large PV-Smart Grid Interface Schemes are emerging and commonly utilized in Renewable Energy distributed generation. However, PVhybrid- Dc-Ac Schemes using interface power electronic converters usually has negative impact on power quality and stabilization of modern electrical network under load excursions and network fault conditions in smart grid. Consequently, robust FACTS based interface schemes are required to ensure efficient energy utilization and stabilization of bus voltages as well as limiting switching/fault onrush current condition. FACTS devices are also used in smart grid- Battery Interface and Storage Schemes with PV-Battery Storage hybrid systems as an elegant alternative to renewable energy utilization with backup battery storage for electric utility energy and demand side management to provide needed energy and power capacity under heavy load conditions. The paper presents a robust interface PV-Li-Ion Battery Storage Interface Scheme for Distribution/Utilization Low Voltage Interface using FACTS stabilization enhancement and dynamic maximum PV power tracking controllers. Digital simulation and validation of the proposed scheme is done using MATLAB/Simulink software environment for Low Voltage- Distribution/Utilization system feeding a hybrid Linear-Motorized inrush and nonlinear type loads from a DC-AC Interface VSC-6- pulse Inverter Fed from the PV Park/Farm with a back-up Li-Ion Storage Battery.
Anultra-low power capacitor less low-dropout voltage regulator with improved transient response using gain enhanced feed forward path compensation is presented in this paper. It is based on a cascade of a voltage amplifier and a transconductor stage in the feed forward path with regular error amplifier to form a composite gainenhanced feed forward stage. It broadens the gain bandwidth and thus improves the transient response without substantial increase in power consumption. The proposed LDO, designed for a maximum output current of 100 mA in UMC 180 nm, requires a quiescent current of 69 )A. An undershot of 153.79mV for a load current changes from 0mA to 100mA and an overshoot of 196.24mV for current change of 100mA to 0mA. The settling time is approximately 1.1 )s for the output voltage undershooting case. The load regulation is of 2.77 )V/mA at load current of 100mA. Reference voltage is generated by using an accurate band gap reference circuit of 0.8V.The costly features of SOC such as total chip area and power consumption is drastically reduced by the use of only a total compensation capacitance of 6pF while consuming power consumption of 0.096 mW.
Compensating physiological motion in the context of minimally invasive cardiac surgery has become an attractive issue since it outperforms traditional cardiac procedures offering remarkable benefits. Owing to space restrictions, computer vision techniques have proven to be the most practical and suitable solution. However, the lack of robustness and efficiency of existing methods make physiological motion compensation an open and challenging problem. This work focusses on increasing robustness and efficiency via exploration of the classes of 1−and 2−regularized optimization, emphasizing the use of explicit regularization. Both approaches are based on natural features of the heart using intensity information. Results pointed out the 1−regularized optimization class as the best since it offered the shortest computational cost, the smallest average error and it proved to work even under complex deformations.
In many communication and signal processing systems, it is highly desirable to implement an efficient narrow-band filter that decimate or interpolate the incoming signals. This paper presents hardware efficient compensated CIC filter over a narrow band frequency that increases the speed of down sampling by using multiplierless decimation filters with polyphase FIR filter structure. The proposed work analyzed the performance of compensated CIC filter on the bases of the improvement of frequency response with reduced hardware complexity in terms of no. of adders and multipliers and produces the filtered results without any alterations. CIC compensator filter demonstrated that by using compensation with CIC filter improve the frequency response in passed of interest 26.57% with the reduction in hardware complexity 12.25% multiplications per input sample (MPIS) and 23.4% additions per input sample (APIS) w.r.t. FIR filter respectively.
In the last few years, harmonics have been occurred with the increasing use of nonlinear loads, and these harmonics have been an ever increasing problem for the line systems. This situation importantly affects the quality of power and gives large losses to the network. An efficient way to solve these problems is providing harmonic compensation through parallel active power filters. Many methods can be used in the control systems of the parallel active power filters which provide the compensation. These methods efficiently affect the performance of the active power filters. For this reason, the chosen control method is significant. In this study, Fourier analysis (FA) control method and synchronous reference frame (SRF) control method are discussed. These control methods are designed for both eliminate harmonics and perform reactive power compensation in MATLAB/Simulink pack program and are tested. The results have been compared for each two methods.
Static VAR System (SVS) is a kind of FACTS device which is used in power system primarily for the purpose of voltage and reactive power control. In this paper presents a systematic approach for designing SVS supplementary controller, which is used to improve the damping of power system oscillation. The combined bus voltage and line current (CBVLC) supplementary controller has been developed and incorporated in the SVS control system located at the middle of the series compensated long transmission line. Damping of torsional stresses due to subsynchronous resonance resulting from series capacitive compensation using CBVLC is investigated in this paper. Simulation results are carried out with MATLAB/Simulink on the IEEE first benchmark model (FBM). The simulation results show that the oscillations are satisfactorily damped out by the SVS supplementary controller. Time domain simulation is performed on power system and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.
Five-axis computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools (three linear and two rotary axes) are ideally suited to the fabrication of complex work pieces, such as dies, turbo blades, and cams. The locations of the axis average line and centerline of the rotary axes strongly influence the performance of these machines; however, techniques to compensate for eccentric error in the rotary axes remain weak. This paper proposes optical (Non-Bar) techniques capable of calibrating five-axis CNC machine tools and compensating for eccentric error in the rotary axes. This approach employs the measurement path in ISO/CD 10791-6 to determine the eccentric error in two rotary axes, for which compensatory measures can be implemented. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed techniques can improve the performance of various five-axis CNC machine tools by more than 90%. Finally, a result of the cutting test using a B-type five-axis CNC machine tool confirmed to the usefulness of this proposed compensation technique.
Unwanted side effects because of spectral aliasing and spectral imaging during signal processing would be the major concern over the sampling rate alteration. Multirate-multistage implementation of digital filter could come about a large computational saving than single rate filter suitable for sample rate conversion. This implementation can further improve through high-level architectural transformation in circuit level. Reallocating registers and relocating flip-flops across logic gates through retiming certainly a prominent sequential transformation technology, that optimize hardware circuits to achieve faster clocking speed without affecting the functionality. In this paper, we proposed an efficient compensated cascade Integrator comb (CIC) decimation filter structure that analyze the consequence of filter order variation which has a retimed FIR filter being compensator while using the cutset retiming technique and achieved an improvement in the passband droop by 14% to 39%, in computation time by 38.04%, 25.78%, 12.21%, 6.69% and 4.44% and reduction in path delay by 62.27%, 72%, 86.63%, 91.56% and 94.42% of 3, 6, 8, 12 and 24 order filter respectively than the non-retimed CIC compensation filter.
Reversible watermarking that not only protects the copyright but also preserve the original quality of the digital content have been intensively studied. In particular, the demand for reversible watermarking has increased. In this paper, we propose a reversible watermarking scheme based on interpolation-error shifting and error pre-compensation. The intensity of a pixel is interpolated from the intensities of neighboring pixels, and the difference histogram between the interpolated and the original intensities is obtained and modified to embed the watermark message. By restoring the difference histogram, the embedded watermark is extracted and the original image is recovered by compensating for the interpolation error. The overflow and underflow are prevented by error pre-compensation. To show the performance of the method, the proposed algorithm is compared with other methods using various test images.
Any digital processing performed on a signal with larger nyquist interval requires more computation than signal processing performed on smaller nyquist interval. The sampling rate alteration generates the unwanted effects in the system such as spectral aliasing and spectral imaging during signal processing. Multirate-multistage implementation of digital filter can result a significant computational saving than single rate filter designed for sample rate conversion. In this paper, we presented an efficient cascaded integrator comb (CIC) decimation filter that perform fast down sampling using signed digit adder algorithm with compensated frequency droop that arises due to aliasing effect during the decimation process. This proposed compensated CIC decimation filter structure with a hybrid signed digit (HSD) fast adder provide an improved performance in terms of down sampling speed by 65.15% than ripple carry adder (RCA) and reduced area and power by 57.5% and 0.01 % than signed digit (SD) adder algorithms respectively.
Urban planning is the need of the hour in a rapidly developing county like India. In essence, urban planning enhances the quality of land at a reasonable cost. Naya (New) Raipur is the new planned capital of the Indian state of Chhattisgarh, and is one of India’s few planned cities. Over the next decade it will drastically change the landscape of the state of Chhattisgarh. This new planned development is quintessential in growing this backward region and providing for future infrastructure. Key questions that arise are: How are people living in the surrounding region of New Raipur affected by its development? Are the affected people satisfied with compensation and rehabilitation that has been provided by the New Raipur Development Authority? To answer these questions, field research study in the form of questionnaires, interviews and site visits was conducted. To summarize the findings, while a majority of the surveyed population was dissatisfied with the rehabilitation and compensation provided by the New Raipur Development Authority, they were very positive about the success of the new development. Most thought that the new city would help their careers, improve job opportunities, improve prospects for their future generations, and benefit society as a whole.
To improve rehabilitation schemes for the future, the reasons for the negative sentiment brewing amongst the villagers regarding the monetary compensation was investigated. Most villagers deemed the monetary compensation to be lacking as they had squandered their financial windfall already. With numerous interviews and site visits, it was discovered that the lump sum form of monetary compensation was to blame. With a huge sum of money received at once and a lack of financial education, many villagers squandered this newly gained money on unnecessary purchases such as alcohol and expensive vehicles without investing for the long run in farmland and education for their children. One recommendation proposed to the New Raipur Development Authority (NRDA) for future monetary compensation design in times of rehabilitating people was to provide payments in installments rather than lump sums and educate the people about investing the compensation money wisely. This would save them from wasting money they receive and the ensuing dissatisfaction of squandering that money.
An exploration in the competency of the optical multilevel Mapping Multiplexing Technique (MMT) system in tolerating to the impact of nonlinearities as Self Phase Modulation (SPM) during the presence of dispersion compensation methods. The existence of high energy pulses stimulates deterioration in the chirp compression process attained by SPM which introduces an upper power boundary limit. An evaluation of the post and asymmetric prepost fiber compensation methods have been deployed on the MMT system compared with others of the same bit rate modulation formats. The MMT 40 Gb/s post compensation system has 1.4 dB enhancements to the 40 Gb/s 4-Arysystem and less than 3.9 dB penalty compared to the 40 Gb/s OOK-RZsystem. However, the optimized Pre-Post asymmetric compensation has an enhancement of 4.6 dB compared to the Post compensation MMT configuration for a 30% pre compensation dispersion.
Distant-talking voice-based HCI system suffers from performance degradation due to mismatch between the acoustic speech (runtime) and the acoustic model (training). Mismatch is caused by the change in the power of the speech signal as observed at the microphones. This change is greatly influenced by the change in distance, affecting speech dynamics inside the room before reaching the microphones. Moreover, as the speech signal is reflected, its acoustical characteristic is also altered by the room properties. In general, power mismatch due to distance is a complex problem. This paper presents a novel approach in dealing with distance-induced mismatch by intelligently sensing instantaneous voice power variation and compensating model parameters. First, the distant-talking speech signal is processed through microphone array processing, and the corresponding distance information is extracted. Distance-sensitive Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs), pre-trained to capture both speech power and room property are used to predict the optimal distance of the speech source. Consequently, pre-computed statistic priors corresponding to the optimal distance is selected to correct the statistics of the generic model which was frozen during training. Thus, model combinatorics are post-conditioned to match the power of instantaneous speech acoustics at runtime. This results to an improved likelihood in predicting the correct speech command at farther distances. We experiment using real data recorded inside two rooms. Experimental evaluation shows voice recognition performance using our method is more robust to the change in distance compared to the conventional approach. In our experiment, under the most acoustically challenging environment (i.e., Room 2: 2.5 meters), our method achieved 24.2% improvement in recognition performance against the best-performing conventional method.
Medical negligence disputes in Malaysia are mainly resolved through litigation by using the tort system. The tort system, being adversarial in nature has subjected parties to litigation hazards such as delay, excessive costs and uncertainty of outcome. The dissatisfaction of the tort system in compensating medically injured victims has created various alternatives to litigation. Amongst them is the implementation of a no-fault compensation system which would allow compensation to be given without the need of proving fault on the medical personnel. Instead, the community now bears the burden of compensating and at the end, promotes collective responsibility. For Malaysia, introducing a no-fault system would provide a tempting solution and may ultimately, achieve justice for the medical injured victims. Nevertheless, such drastic change requires a great deal of consideration to determine the suitability of the system and whether or not it will eventually cater for the needs of the Malaysian population
The present paper describes the development of a low cost, highly accurate low capacitance measurement system that can be used over a range of 0 – 400 pF with a resolution of 1 pF. The range of capacitance may be easily altered by a simple resistance or capacitance variation of the measurement circuit. This capacitance measurement system uses quad two-input NAND Schmitt trigger circuit CD4093B with hysteresis for the measurement and this system is integrated with PIC 18F2550 microcontroller for data acquisition purpose. The microcontroller interacts with software developed in the PC end through USB architecture and an attractive graphical user interface (GUI) based system is developed in the PC end to provide the user with real time, online display of capacitance under measurement. The system uses a differential mode of capacitance measurement, with reference to a trimmer capacitance, that effectively compensates lead capacitances, a notorious error encountered in usual low capacitance measurements. The hysteresis provided in the Schmitt-trigger circuits enable reliable operation of the system by greatly minimizing the possibility of false triggering because of stray interferences, usually regarded as another source of significant error. The real life testing of the proposed system showed that our measurements could produce highly accurate capacitance measurements, when compared to cutting edge, high end digital capacitance meters.