Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 11

11
10010243
Waste Management in a Hot Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency – 2: Condensation and Solidification Experiments on Liquid Waste
Abstract:

As a part of STRAD project conducted by JAEA, condensation of radioactive liquid waste containing various chemical compounds using reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filter was examined for efficient and safety treatment of the liquid wastes accumulated inside hot laboratories. NH4+ ion in the feed solution was successfully concentrated, and NH4+ ion involved in the effluents became lower than target value; 100 ppm. Solidification of simulated aqueous and organic liquid wastes was also tested. Those liquids were successfully solidified by adding cement or coagulants. Nevertheless, optimization in materials for confinement of chemicals is required for long time storage of the final solidified wastes.

10
10009530
Segmentation of Gray Scale Images of Dropwise Condensation on Textured Surfaces
Abstract:
In the present work we developed an image processing algorithm to measure water droplets characteristics during dropwise condensation on pillared surfaces. The main problem in this process is the similarity between shape and size of water droplets and the pillars. The developed method divides droplets into four main groups based on their size and applies the corresponding algorithm to segment each group. These algorithms generate binary images of droplets based on both their geometrical and intensity properties. The information related to droplets evolution during time including mean radius and drops number per unit area are then extracted from the binary images. The developed image processing algorithm is verified using manual detection and applied to two different sets of images corresponding to two kinds of pillared surfaces.
9
10007634
An Improved Heat Transfer Prediction Model for Film Condensation inside a Tube with Interphacial Shear Effect
Abstract:

The analysis of heat transfer design methods in condensing inside plain tubes under existing influence of shear stress is presented in this paper. The existing discrepancy in more than 30-50% between rating heat transfer coefficients and experimental data has been noted. The analysis of existing theoretical and semi-empirical methods of heat transfer prediction is given. The influence of a precise definition concerning boundaries of phase flow (it is especially important in condensing inside horizontal tubes), shear stress (friction coefficient) and heat flux on design of heat transfer is shown. The substantiation of boundary conditions of the values of parameters, influencing accuracy of rated relationships, is given. More correct relationships for heat transfer prediction, which showed good convergence with experiments made by different authors, are substantiated in this work.

8
10003501
A Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Performance of a Combined Solar Unit for Air Conditioning and Water Desalination
Abstract:
In this paper, a desiccant solar unit for air conditioning and desalination is presented first. Secondly, a dynamic modelling study of the desiccant wheel is developed. After that, a simulation study and an experimental investigation of the behaviour of desiccant wheel are developed. The experimental investigation is done in the chamber of commerce in Freiburg-Germany. Indeed, the variations of calculated and measured temperatures and specific humidity of dehumidified and rejected air are presented where a good agreement is found when comparing the model predictions with experimental data under the considered range of operating conditions. Finally, the study of the compartments of desalination and water condensation shows that the unit can produce an acceptable quantity of water at the same time of the air conditioning operation.
7
10002558
Structural Damage Detection via Incomplete Modal Data Using Output Data Only
Abstract:
Structural failure is caused mainly by damage that often occurs on structures. Many researchers focus on to obtain very efficient tools to detect the damage in structures in the early state. In the past decades, a subject that has received considerable attention in literature is the damage detection as determined by variations in the dynamic characteristics or response of structures. The study presents a new damage identification technique. The technique detects the damage location for the incomplete structure system using output data only. The method indicates the damage based on the free vibration test data by using ‘Two Points Condensation (TPC) technique’. This method creates a set of matrices by reducing the structural system to two degrees of freedom systems. The current stiffness matrices obtain from optimization the equation of motion using the measured test data. The current stiffness matrices compare with original (undamaged) stiffness matrices. The large percentage changes in matrices’ coefficients lead to the location of the damage. TPC technique is applied to the experimental data of a simply supported steel beam model structure after inducing thickness change in one element, where two cases consider. The method detects the damage and determines its location accurately in both cases. In addition, the results illustrate these changes in stiffness matrix can be a useful tool for continuous monitoring of structural safety using ambient vibration data. Furthermore, its efficiency proves that this technique can be used also for big structures.
6
10001309
Numerical Analysis of Laminar Reflux Condensation from Gas-Vapour Mixtures in Vertical Parallel Plate Channels
Abstract:

Reflux condensation occurs in vertical channels and tubes when there is an upward core flow of vapour (or gas-vapour mixture) and a downward flow of the liquid film. The understanding of this condensation configuration is crucial in the design of reflux condensers, distillation columns, and in loss-of-coolant safety analyses in nuclear power plant steam generators. The unique feature of this flow is the upward flow of the vapour-gas mixture (or pure vapour) that retards the liquid flow via shear at the liquid-mixture interface. The present model solves the full, elliptic governing equations in both the film and the gas-vapour core flow. The computational mesh is non-orthogonal and adapts dynamically the phase interface, thus produces a sharp and accurate interface. Shear forces and heat and mass transfer at the interface are accounted for fundamentally. This modeling is a big step ahead of current capabilities by removing the limitations of previous reflux condensation models which inherently cannot account for the detailed local balances of shear, mass, and heat transfer at the interface. Discretisation has been done based on finite volume method and co-located variable storage scheme. An in-house computer code was developed to implement the numerical solution scheme. Detailed results are presented for laminar reflux condensation from steam-air mixtures flowing in vertical parallel plate channels. The results include velocity and gas mass fraction profiles, as well as axial variations of film thickness.

5
9997809
Production of Size-Selected Tin Nanoclusters for Device Applications
Abstract:

This work reports on the fabrication of tin nanoclusters by sputtering and inert-gas condensation inside an ultra-high vacuum compatible system. This technique allows to fine tune the size and yield of nanoclusters by controlling the nanocluster source parameters. The produced nanoclusters are deposited on SiO2/Si substrate with pre-formed electrical electrodes to produce a nanocluster device. Those devices can be potentially used for gas sensor applications.

4
9997253
Condensation of Moist Air in Heat Exchanger Using CFD
Abstract:

This work presents results of moist air condensation in heat exchanger. It describes theoretical knowledge and definition of moist air. Model with geometry of square canal was created for better understanding and postprocessing of condensation phenomena. Different approaches were examined on this model to find suitable software and model. Obtained knowledge was applied to geometry of real heat exchanger and results from experiment were compared with numerical results. One of the goals is to solve this issue without creating any user defined function in the applied code. It also contains summary of knowledge and outlook for future work.

3
5928
On Speeding Up Support Vector Machines: Proximity Graphs Versus Random Sampling for Pre-Selection Condensation
Abstract:
Support vector machines (SVMs) are considered to be the best machine learning algorithms for minimizing the predictive probability of misclassification. However, their drawback is that for large data sets the computation of the optimal decision boundary is a time consuming function of the size of the training set. Hence several methods have been proposed to speed up the SVM algorithm. Here three methods used to speed up the computation of the SVM classifiers are compared experimentally using a musical genre classification problem. The simplest method pre-selects a random sample of the data before the application of the SVM algorithm. Two additional methods use proximity graphs to pre-select data that are near the decision boundary. One uses k-Nearest Neighbor graphs and the other Relative Neighborhood Graphs to accomplish the task.
2
9459
Pressure Induced Isenthalpic Oscillations with Condensation and Evaporation in Saturated Two-Phase Fluids
Abstract:
Saturated two-phase fluid flows are often subject to pressure induced oscillations. Due to compressibility the vapor bubbles act as a spring with an asymmetric non-linear characteristic. The volume of the vapor bubbles increases or decreases differently if the pressure fluctuations are compressing or expanding; consequently, compressing pressure fluctuations in a two-phase pipe flow cause less displacement in the direction of the pipe flow than expanding pressure fluctuations. The displacement depends on the ratio of liquid to vapor, the ratio of pressure fluctuations over average pressure and on the exciting frequency of the pressure fluctuations. In addition, pressure fluctuations in saturated vapor bubbles cause condensation and evaporation within the bubbles and change periodically the ratio between liquid to vapor, and influence the dynamical parameters for the oscillation. The oscillations are conforming to an isenthalpic process at constant enthalpy with no heat transfer and no exchange of work. The paper describes the governing non-linear equation for twophase fluid oscillations with condensation and evaporation, and presents steady state approximate solutions for free and for pressure induced oscillations. Resonance criteria and stability are discussed.
1
1307
CFD Simulation of Condensing Vapor Bubble using VOF Model
Abstract:

In this study, direct numerical simulation for the bubble condensation in the subcooled boiling flow was performed. The main goal was to develop the CFD modeling for the bubble condensation and to evaluate the accuracy of the VOF model with the developed CFD modeling. CFD modeling for the bubble condensation was developed by modeling the source terms in the governing equations of VOF model using UDF. In the modeling, the amount of condensation was determined using the interfacial heat transfer coefficient obtained from the bubble velocity, liquid temperature and bubble diameter every time step. To evaluate the VOF model using the CFD modeling for the bubble condensation, CFD simulation results were compared with SNU experimental results such as bubble volume and shape, interfacial area, bubble diameter and bubble velocity. Simulation results predicted well the behavior of the actual condensing bubble. Therefore, it can be concluded that the VOF model using the CFD modeling for the bubble condensation will be a useful computational fluid dynamics tool for analyzing the behavior of the condensing bubble in a wide range of the subcooled boiling flow.

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